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Encyclopedia > Black July

Sri Lankan Conflict Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri...

Background
Sri Lanka • History of Sri Lanka
Origins of the Civil War
Origins of the Civil War
Black JulyRiots and pogroms
Human rightsState terrorism
Tamil militant groups
LTTE
LTTENotable attacksTerrorist attacksAttributed assassinationsChild soldiers
Expulsion of Muslims from Jaffna
Major figures
Mahinda Rajapakse
Velupillai Prabhakaran
Karuna Amman
Sarath Fonseka
Indian Involvement
Operation Poomalai
Indo-Sri Lanka Accord
Indian Peace Keeping Force
Rajiv GandhiRAW
See also
Military of Sri Lanka
TMVPEPDP
Notable assassinations
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Location of Sri Lanka
Location of Sri Lanka

Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. It is estimated that nearly 1,000[1]Tamils were killed, tens of thousands of houses were destroyed, and a wave of Sri Lankan Tamils sought refuge in other countries. Black July is generally seen as the start of full-scale armed struggle between Tamil militants and the Sinhalese-dominated government of Sri Lanka.[2][3][4] Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... The recorded History of Sri Lanka is usually taken to begin in the 6th century BCE, when the Indo-Aryan people migrated into the island from India. ... The origins of the Sri Lankan civil war lie in sharp disagreements over language, access to universities, and riots between Sri Lankas majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil community. ... Following is a List of riots and pogroms in Sri Lanka. ... The situation of human rights in Sri Lanka is generally considered to be very poor[1]. Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have repeatedly expressed concern about the states of human rights in Sri Lanka. ... Several groups have alleged that there have been instances of state terrorism by Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... LTTE is a rebel group active in Sri Lanka that is banned as a terrorist group by 29 countries. ... The following is a list of terrorist attacks attributed to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (commonly known as the Tamil Tigers or simply the LTTE). ... Assassinations, murders and wholesale massacres of civilians in Sri Lanka have become an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war since 1983. ... Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mahinda Rajapaksa Mahinda Rajapaksa (born November 18, 1945), Sri Lankan politician, became Prime Minister of Sri Lanka on April 6, 2004, following the victory of the United Peoples Freedom Alliance in the April 2, 2004 Sri Lankan legislative elections. ... Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi,[] was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ... Karuna Amman was the second highest commanding officer of the LTTE who broke away due to Tigers attacks on civilians in Batticaloa, corruption within LTTE and the recruitment of child soldiers. ... Category: ... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... Rājiv Ratna Gāndhī (Devanāgarī: राजीव रत्न गान्धी, IPA: ) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 9th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December... Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW)[1] is Indias external intelligence agency. ... The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force. ... தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal or in English Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers, a political party and Para-military group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Assassinations, murders and massacres of civilians in Sri Lanka have become an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war since 1983. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are an ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups began appearing in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ...

Contents

Events of July 1983

The events dubbed Black July began after the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) ambushed and killed thirteen government soldiers on the 23rd of July, 1983, in the town of Jaffna in the North of Sri Lanka. On the 25th of July, the day the bodies of 13 soldiers brought to Colombo, some Sinhalese civilians who had gathered at the cemetery formed mobs and started killing Tamils and looting and burning their properties in retribution for what happened. However, the majority of Sinhalese tried to save the lives/properties of Tamils despite the activities of the gangs. So many tamils were hiding in Sinhalese houses. [5][6] Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jaffna District. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... A throng of people returning from a show of fireworks spill in to the street stopping traffic at the intersection of Fulton Street and Gold Street in Lower Manhattan. ...


It took the Sri Lankan government 24 hours to enforce a curfew in Colombo, despite which the violence continued, albeit at lower levels, for the next three days. At the same time, the violence began to spread all across the country engulfing areas with sizeable Tamil populations, including Kandy (where curfew was eventually declared at 6 p.m), Matale, Nawalapitiya, Badulla and Nuwara Eliya. Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are an ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... The Temple of the Tooth Relic in Kandy Kandy (මහනුවර/ සෙංකඩගල in Sinhala, கண்டி in Tamil) is the name used by British invaders for the city of Senkadagala (Mahanuwara) in the centre of Sri Lanka. ... Clock-tower Hindu temple in Matale Memorial over the 1848 rebellion Matale town Matale is a town in the hill country of Sri Lanka, 142 kilometres (90 miles) from Colombo. ... Nawalapitiya is a town in the hill country of Sri Lanka. ... Badulla (?? in Sinhala; பதுளை in Tamil) is the capital of Uva Province, Sri Lanka. ... View of Nuwara Eliya from Unique View Road A temple to Hanuman near Nuwara Eliya A tea plantation near Nuwara Eliya A waterfall located in the surroundings of Nuwara Eliya Nuwara Eliya (pronounced approximately ), the City of Light, is a town in Sri Lanka. ...


Finally, following the move by Indira Gandhi, the then Indian Prime Minister of India to send her External Minister, Narasimha Rao on a fact finding mission to Sri Lanka on 28th of July, the violence was brought to an end by the Sri Lankan Government.[7] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (June 28, 1921 - December 23, 2004) was the ninth Prime Minister of the Republic of India. ...


Government's role

Although it started as a spontaneous reaction by Sinhalese mobs gathered at the Colombo Cemetery where the bodies of the soldiers were to be buried, elements associated with the ruling United National Party (UNP) may have been involved in the organization of the riots.[8] The situation of human rights in Sri Lanka is generally considered to be very poor[1]. Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have repeatedly expressed concern about the states of human rights in Sri Lanka. ... Several groups have alleged that there have been instances of state terrorism by Sri Lanka. ... Castle Ashby Graveyard Northamptonshire A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... The United National Party, often referred to as the UNP Sinhalese: එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය (pronounced Eksath Jathika Pakshaya), Tamil: ஐக்கிய தேசியக் கட்சி), is a leading political party in Sri Lanka. ...


Also, during the early stages of riots, the local police officers and military stood by doing nothing.[9]


By July 26, however, police and the army were out in the streets taking actions against the mobs and most of the violence died out. The government extended the curfew to prevent violence from spreading to other parts of the country. A brief span of rioting broke out on July 29 when police shot dead 15 Sinhalese looters.


Even though some Tamil politicians accused the ruling UNP for not taking appropriate actions to prevent the riots, Government in fact took vital counter measures from the very early stages to combat rioters and safeguard the Tamil community.Curfew was enforced immediately after the riots broke out. The attacks, according the government, were carefully organized and government properties such as trains, buildings and buses were the initial targets.


Then, Prime Minister Ranasingha Premadasa formed a committee to organize shelter and feeding for an estimated 20,000 homeless Tamils in Colombo. These temporary shelters were situated at five school buildings and an aircraft hanger. These shelters, better known as welfare centres to the public, were protected by the army soldiers and not a single act of violence nor any discrimination towards Tamils were reported inside them. It should be also noted that the number of refugees increased to around 50,000 and the Government even took measures to send Tamils to north by ships.[10]


Eye witness accounts

The rioters initially targeted Government properties. As it had happened many times before and after, most of the people who gathered at the Borella Kanatta, where the Dead army soldiers were supposed to be buried, directed their anger towards the Government. Later it developed into a full scale violence, targeting Tamil citizens and their properties.[citation needed]


The murder, looting and general destruction of property was well organized. Mobs armed with petrol were seen stopping passing motorists at critical street junctions and, after ascertaining the ethnic identity of the driver and passengers, setting alight the vehicle with the driver and passengers trapped within it.[citation needed] An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...


Mobs were also seen stopping buses to identify Tamil passengers and subsequently these passengers were knifed, clubbed to death or burned alive. One Norwegian tourist saw a mob set fire to a minibus with 20 people inside, killing them all.[8][11]


Tamil civilians in other cities, including Galle, Matara, Gampola, Nawalapitiya, Pusselawa, Ginigathena, Hatton, Kandy, Nuwara-Eliya, Badulla, and Anuradapura, were also attacked by Sinhalese mobs.[8] Galle (ගාල්ල in Sinhala; காலி in Tamil) (pronounced as one syllable, rhyming with Gaul in English, in Sinhalese, IPA /gaːlːə/) is a town situated on the southwestern tip of Sri Lanka, 119 km from Colombo. ... Matara (or Metera), is an archeological site in Eritrea (a few kilometers south of Senafe), it was a major Aksumite & Pre-Aksumite City. ... The Temple of the Tooth Relic in Kandy Kandy (මහනුවර/ සෙංකඩගල in Sinhala, கண்டி in Tamil) is the name used by British invaders for the city of Senkadagala (Mahanuwara) in the centre of Sri Lanka. ... Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala), is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, world famous for its well preserved ruins of the Great Sri Lankan Civilization. ...


Casualty estimation

The estimates of casualties vary. While the government initially stated just 250 Tamils were killed, various NGOs and international agencies estimate that between 400[12] and 3000[12] people suspected of being Sri Lankan Tamils or Hill Country Tamils were killed in the riots. 53 political prisoners alone were killed in the Welikade prison massacre. Eventually the Sri Lankan government put the death toll at about 1000 dead[1] NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... The Indian Tamils, Hill-country Tamils, Up-country Tamils or Indian origin Tamils are descended from indentured labourers sent from South India to Sri Lanka in the 19th and 20th centuries to work in coffee plantations there (and, after the collapse of coffee planting in Sri Lanka, in tea and... A political prisoner is anyone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image either challenge or pose a real or potential threat to the state. ... The Welikada prison massacre happened during the 1983 Black July pogrom against the Sri Lankan Tamil minority in Colombo, Sri Lanka. ...


More than 18,000 houses and numerous commercial establishments were destroyed and hundreds of thousands of Tamils fled the country to India, Europe, Australia and Canada.[1] Many Tamil youths also joined the various Tamil militant groups including the LTTE World map showing the location of Europe. ... This is a list that documents the numerous groups of Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups that were formed to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... Tamil Tigers emblem The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), also known as the Tamil Tigers, is a military and political organization that has waged a violent secessionist campaign against the Sri Lankan Government since the 1970s in order to secure independence for the Tamil portions of Sri Lanka. ...


Prosecutions and compensations

There was a presidential commission appointed during the subsequent People's Alliance government that estimated that nearly 1000 people killed and 18,000 establishments including houses were destroyed and recommended that restitution be paid. Thus far no restitution has been paid or any criminal proceedings against anyone involved begun.[1] The Peoples Alliance (PA) is a front of political parties in Sri Lanka, formed in 1994. ...


Context of the violence

Sri Lanka has suffered anti-minority riots and pogroms since 1915. The impetus for violent conflict between the Tamil minority and the Sinhalese majority began when the British Colonialists favored the Tamils for administrative, educational, and economic control of Sri Lanka due to their policy of divide and conquer. With the 1956 Sinhala Only Act which initially restricted the fair use of Tamil and English languages. The extremely violent protests against this policy by the Tamils was met with mob violence that eventually snowballed into the 1958 riots. The origins of the Sri Lankan civil war lie in sharp disagreements over language, access to universities, and riots between Sri Lankas majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil community. ... Following is a List of anti-minority pogroms in Sri Lanka. ... Colonialism is a system in which a state claims sovereignty over territory and people outside its own boundaries, often to facilitate economic domination over their resources, labor, and often markets. ... Divide and conquer (derived from the Latin saying Divide et impera) can mean either: In politics and sociology, a strategy to gain or maintain power: see divide and rule In computer science, an algorithm design paradigm based on recursion: see divide and conquer (computer science). ... The Sinhala Only Act was a law passed in the Sri Lankan parliament in 1956. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are an ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... In May 1958, Sri Lanka was hit by riots between the Sinhalese and Tamil communities on the island state. ...


Throughout the 1960s protests and state repression against protests created further animosity. In 1971 the Standardisation policy and other restrictive measures towards Tamil students regarding affirmative action for Muslim and Sinhalese students motivated many Tamil students into Tamil terrorist groups. Police action against these nascent terror groups in the Jaffna and Batticalo regions created further distrust between Tamil civilians and the state. The policy of standardization law was passed by the Sri Lankan parliament in 1971 in order to rectify disparities created in university enrolment under Colonial rule. ... Affirmative action refers to concrete steps that are taken both to increase the representation of underrepresented and arguably underprivileged minorities and to redress the effects of past discrimination. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Batticaloa(මඩකලපුව In Sinhala, மட்டக்களப்பு In Tamil) is the provincial capital of the eastern province of Sri Lanka but now both northern and eastern provinces merged and Trincomalee has been declared as the provincial capital of north -East province. ...


There was also a series of notable ethnic riots known as the 1977 riots following the United National Party coming to power in 1977.[13] In 1981 the renowned public library in Jaffna was burnt down by a violent mob. Until 1983 there were similar incidents of low level violence between the government and the mushrooming Tamil terrorist groups with a significant number of murders, disappearances and cases of torture attributed to both sides. The Sri Lankan riots of August 1977 were a series of attacks on Tamils by Sinhalese mobs in revenge for an alleged assault on policemen. ... The United National Party, often referred to as the UNP Sinhalese: එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය (pronounced Eksath Jathika Pakshaya), Tamil: ஐக்கிய தேசியக் கட்சி), is a leading political party in Sri Lanka. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Burning of Jaffna library was a watershed event in the ongoing Sri Lankan civil war. ...


As a remembrance day

July 24, or Black July Day, has become a day of mourning and remembrance amongst the Sri Lankan Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora around the world. The Canadian Tamil Congress sponsored an event in downtown Toronto on July 24, 2006, for Tamil-Canadians to gather and thank Canada for granting them asylum. Similar events were held in Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Germany, France, Great Britain, and Australia.[14] The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora also known as Jaffnese diaspora and Ceylonese diaspora refers to the global diaspora of the people of Sri Lankan Tamil origin. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her...


References

  1. ^ a b c d President Kumaratunga's speech on the 21st Anniversary of 'Black July'. South Asia Terrorism Portal (2004-07-23).
  2. ^ Senewiratne, Brian (2006-07-28). Sri Lanka's Week of Shame: The July 1983 massacre of Tamils – Long-term consequences. Retrieved on 2006-08-01.
  3. ^ Wilson, A. Jeyaratnam (1989). The Break up of Sri Lanka: the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1211-5. 
  4. ^ Tambiah, Stanley (1984). Sri Lanka: Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-78952-7. 
  5. ^ Piyadasa, L. (1986). Sri Lanka: The Holocaust and After. Zed Books. ISBN 0-906334-03-9. 
  6. ^ (1984) "Anti-Tamil Riots and the Political Crisis in Sri Lanka". Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars Vol. 16: 27. Retrieved on 2006-08-01. 
  7. ^ Ana, Pararajasingham. State Terror: Black July of 1983 Revisited. Retrieved on 2006-08-01.
  8. ^ a b c (April 1990) The Broken Palmyra - The Tamil Crisis in Sri Lanka: An Inside Account. Claremont, CA: The Sri Lanka Studies Institute (online: University Teachers for Human Rights). Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 90 - 61314. 
  9. ^ Swamy, M.R. Narayan (2003). Inside an Elusive Mind: Prabhakaran. Literate World. ISBN 1-59121-003-8. 
  10. ^ The Cyanide War by Edgar O'Ballance. ISBN 0-08-036695-3
  11. ^ History of Tamil struggle for freedom in Sri Lanka: A photo album. Quoted from the London Daily Express, 1983-08-29. Ilankai Tamil Sangam: Association of Tamils of Sri Lanka in the USA.
  12. ^ a b http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3090111.stm
  13. ^ Rajasingham-Senanayake, Darini (May 2001). "Dysfunctional democracy and dirty war in Sri Lanka" (PDF). AsiaPacific Issues, No. 52. East-West Center. Retrieved on 2006-08-01.
  14. ^ Canadian Tamil Congress (2006-07-19). Thousands Of Tamil Canadians Say Thank You To Canada As They Remember "Black July". Press release.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... Stanley Jeyaraja Tambiah is a leading social anthropologist and Harvard University professor. ... The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ...

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