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Encyclopedia > Black Hills
The Black Hills

The Black Hills are a small, isolated mountain range rising from the Great Plains of North America in western South Dakota and extending into Wyoming, USA. Set off from the main body of the Rocky Mountains, the region is something of a geological anomaly—accurately described as an "island of trees in a sea of grass." The Black Hills encompass the Black Hills National Forest and are home to the tallest peaks of continental North America east of the Rockies. The Black Hills are a small range of hills in Thurston and Grays Harbor counties of Washington. ... Black Hills of South Dakota Photo taken by Doug Swisher in the summer of 2001. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Black Hills National Forest is located in the western sections of the U.S. state of South Dakota. ...


The name "Black Hills" is a translation of the Lakota Paha Sapa. The hills were so-called because of their appearance from a distance, covered in trees [1]. Lakota (also Lakhota, Teton, Teton Sioux) is the largest of the three languages of the Sioux, of the Siouan family. ...


Native Americans have a long human history in the Black Hills. When gold was discovered in 1874, a gold rush swept the area prompting the US government to re-assign the local Native Americans to other reservations in western South Dakota. Unlike the rest of the Dakotas, the Black Hills were settled primarily from population centers to the west and south of the region, as miners flocked there from earlier gold boom locations in Colorado and Montana.


Today, the nearby reservations and Ellsworth Air Force Base make for a unique diversity in population different from that of the rest of Wyoming or South Dakota. As the economy of the Black Hills has shifted from natural resources (mining and timber), the hospitality and tourism industry has grown to take its place. The major tourist spots include Mount Rushmore, Custer State Park, Crazy Horse Memorial, and the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally Ellsworth Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base near Rapid City, South Dakota and is home to the B-1B Lancer. ... For the 1960s rock band, see Mount Rushmore (band). ... Custer State Park is a state park in South Dakota. ... Foreground: 1:34 scale model of Crazy Horse Memorial. ... Motorcycles lined up on Main Street during Bike Week, Sturgis, South Dakota. ...

Contents

History

Native Americans have inhabited the area since at least 7000 B.C. The Arikara arrived by 1500 A. D., followed by the Cheyenne, Crow, Kiowa and Pawnee. The Lakota arrived from Minnesota in the eighteenth century and drove out the other tribes, claiming the land, which they called Paha Sapa, for themselves. It has been suggested that Arikara language be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Crow indians (Karl Bodmer) The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone river valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana, USA. The tribal headquarters are located at Crow Agency, Montana. ... The Kiowa are a nation of Native Americans who lived mostly in the plains of west Texas, Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico at the time of the arrival of Europeans. ... The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and Republican Rivers in present-day Nebraska. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ...


After the public discovery of gold in the 1870s, the conflict over control of the region sparked the last major Indian War on the Great Plains, the Black Hills War. The 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie had previously confirmed the Lakota (Teton Sioux) ownership of the mountain range. But with that treaty being contested, they additionally claimed rights to the land saying that in their culture it was considered the axis mundi, or sacred center of the world. Some consider this ad hoc claim of spiritual status a dubious pretension to keep the gold-rich territory since the Sioux tribe had only discovered the Black Hills about 100 years earlier (1765) and that they themselves took the land by force from its previous residents (the Cheyenne tribe) in 1776. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Combatants Native Americans Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial and federal government and the indigenous peoples. ... The Black Hills War was a United States civil war between the Lakota Native American tribe and the United States government from 1876 until 1877. ... Treaty signing by William T. Sherman and the Sioux at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Axis mundi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Although rumors of gold in the Black Hills had circulated in North America for decades (See Thoen Stone and Pierre-Jean De Smet), Brevet Major General George Armstrong Custer of the 7th US Cavalry led an expedition into the Black Hills in 1874 and discovered gold in French Creek in the Southern Black Hills. An official announcement of the presence of gold was made through newspaper reporters who accompanied the expedition. The following year, the first detailed survey of the Black Hills was conducted by the Newton-Jenney Party. The surveyor for the party, Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy, was the first white person to ascend to the top of Harney Peak, the highest point in the Black Hills, reaching 7242 feet above sea level. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Pierre-Jean De Smet Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet, (30 January 1801 at Dendermonde, Belgium – 23 May 1873 at St. ... “Custer” redirects here. ... 7th Cavalry Regiment Coat of Arms 7th Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... French Creek is an intermittent stream located in the Black Hills region of western South Dakota. ... Newton-Jenney Party The Newton-Jenney Party of 1875, led by Henry Newton and Walter P. Jenney, and escorted by a military detachment led by Lieutenant Colonel Richard I Dodge. ... A photograph of Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy (1849 -1939) Valentine Trant McGillycuddy was a Western legend, and a controversial pioneer of the effort to build a sustainable relationship between the United States and the Native American Indian people. ... Harney Peak is the highest mountain in South Dakota, located in Black Hills National Forest. ...


During the 1875–1878 gold rush, thousands of miners went to the Black Hills; in 1880, the area was the most densely populated part of Dakota Territory. There were three large towns in the Northern Hills: Deadwood, Central City, and Lead. Around these lay groups of smaller gold camps, towns, and villages. Hill City and Custer City sprang up in the Southern Hills, and railroads were already reaching the previously remote area. From 1880 on, the gold mines yielded about $4,000,000 annually, and the silver mines about $3,000,000 annually. For other meanings, see Gold rush (disambiguation) A California Gold Rush handbill A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... Dakota Territory was the name of the northernmost part of the Louisiana Purchase of the United States. ... A photograph of Deadwood in 1876. ... Central City is a city located in Lawrence County, South Dakota. ... Lead is a city located in Lawrence County, South Dakota. ... Hill City is a city located in Pennington County, South Dakota. ... Custer is a city located in Custer County, South Dakota. ...

Inyan Kara is a sacred mountain to Lakota.

Following the defeat of the Lakota and their Cheyenne and Arapaho allies in 1876, the United States took control of the region from the Lakota in violation of the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The Lakota never accepted the validity of this purchase, and the area remains under dispute to this day. Image File history File links Inyan-Kara. ... Image File history File links Inyan-Kara. ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ...


On July 23, 1980, in the case of United States v. Sioux Nations of Indians, 448 U.S. 371, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Black Hills were illegally taken and that remuneration of the initial offering price plus interest — nearly $106 million — be paid. The Lakota refused the settlement, as they wanted the return of the Black Hills instead. The money remains in an interest-bearing account which now amounts to over $757 million, and in spite of their poverty the Lakota still refuse to take the money.[1] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...


Geology

The Black Hills are marked by beautiful settings of adjacent prairie and mountains.
The Black Hills are marked by beautiful settings of adjacent prairie and mountains.

The geology of the Black Hills is complex. A Tertiary mountain-building episode is responsible for the uplift and current topography of the Black Hills region. This uplift was marked by volcanic activity in the northern Black Hills. The southern Black Hills are characterized by Precambrian granite, pegmatite, and metamorphic rocks that comprise the core of the entire Black Hills uplift. This core is rimmed by Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The stratigraphy of the Black Hills is laid out very much like a target as it is an oval dome, with rings of different rock types dipping away from the center. Image File history File links Black-Hills-Road. ... Image File history File links Black-Hills-Road. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Cenozoic Era (IPA pronunciation: ); sometimes Caenozoic Era or Cainozoic Era (in the United Kingdom), meaning new life (Greek (kainos), new, and (zoe), life), is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In geology, a dome is a deformational feature consisting of symmetrically-dipping anticlines; their general outline on a geologic map is circular or oval. ... Strike and dip refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature. ...


Precambrian

The granite core of the Black Hills rises 7,424 feet at Harney peak
The granite core of the Black Hills rises 7,424 feet at Harney peak

The 'bulls eye' of this target is called the granite core. The granite of the Black Hills was emplaced by magma generated during the Trans-Hudsonian orogeny and contains abundant pegmatite. The core of the Black Hills has been dated to 1.8 billion years. There are other localized deposits that have been dated to around 2.2 to 2.8 billion years. One of these is located in the northern hills and is called Elk Creek Granite though it has been metamorphosed into gneiss. The other is called the Bear Mountain complex and is located in the west central part of the hills. Image File history File links Harneygranite. ... Image File history File links Harneygranite. ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... The Trans-Hudsonian orogeny was a major orogenic event in North America during the Proterozoic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Radiometric dating (often called radioactive dating) is a technique used to date materials, based on a comparison between the observed abundance of particular naturally occurring radioactive isotopes and their known decay rates. ... Gneiss Gneiss (IPA: ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ...

Angular unconformity near Rapid City
Angular unconformity near Rapid City

Making a concentric ring around the core is the metamorphic zone. The rocks in this ring are all very old, as much as 2.0 billion years and older. This zone is very complex, filled with many diverse rock types. The rocks were originally sedimentary rocks until there was a collision between the North American continent and a terrane. This collision, called the Trans-Hudsonian Orogeny, caused the original rocks to fold and twist into a vast mountain range. Over the millions of years these tilted rocks, which in many areas are tilted to 90 degrees or more, eroded. Today we see the evidence of this erosion in the Black Hills, where the metamorphic rocks end in an angular unconformity below the younger sedimentary layers. Image File history File links Pcdeadwoodcontact. ... Image File history File links Pcdeadwoodcontact. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... There is a billion year gap in the geologic record where this 500 million year old dolomite unconformably overlays 1. ...


Paleozoic

The final layers of the Black Hills consist of sedimentary rocks. The oldest of which lies on top of the metamorphic layers at a much shallower angle. This rock called the Deadwood Formation is mostly sandstone and was the original source of gold found in the Deadwood area. Above the Deadwood Formation lies the Englewood Formation and Paha Sapa limestone which is the souce of the more than 200 caves found in the Black Hills, including Jewel Cave and Wind cave. The Minilusa Formation is next and is composed of highly variable sandstones and limestones followed by the Opeche shale and the Minnikata limestone. Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A photograph of Deadwood in 1876. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Alternate meanings: Cave (disambiguation) The outside world viewed from a cave A cave is a natural underground void. ... Jewel Cave National Monument contains Jewel Cave, the third longest cave in the world, with 130 miles of mapped cave. ... Wind Cave National Park is a United States national park 10 miles (18 km) north of the town of Hot Springs in western South Dakota. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ...


Mesozoic

The next rock layer, the Spearfish Formation forms a valley around the hills called the red valley. It is mostly a red shale with beds of gypsum. These shale and gypsum beds as well as the nearby limestone beds of the Minnikata are used in the manufacture of cement at a cement plant in Rapid City. Next is the shale and sandstone Sundance Formation which is topped by the Morrison Formation and the Unkpapa sandstone. It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... Rapid City is a city located in the western part of South Dakota and is second largest city in the state of South Dakota after Sioux Falls. ... The Morrison Formation is a distinctive body of rock in the western United States and Canada that has been the most fertile source of fossils in North America. ...


The outermost feature of the dome stands out as a hogback ridge. This ridge is made out of the Lakota Formation and the Fallriver sandstone which are collectively called the Inyan Kara Group. Above this the layers of rocks are less distinct and are all mainly grey shale with three exceptions, the Newcastle sandstone, the Greenhorn limestone which contains many shark teeth fossils, and the Niobrara Formation which is composed mainly of chalk. These outer ridges are called cuestas. A collection of fossilized shark teeth Shark teeth are relics of shark evolution and biology. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Needles, situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Cenozoic

Fallingrock cliff on Dark Canyon. Paleozoic in age but it is capped with a Cenozoic gravel terrace.
Fallingrock cliff on Dark Canyon. Paleozoic in age but it is capped with a Cenozoic gravel terrace.

The preceding layers were deposted in a horizontal manner. All of them can be seen in core samples and well logs from the flatest parts of the great plains. It took a period of uplift to bring them to their present topographical levels in the Black Hills. This uplift called the Laramide orogeny began around the beginning of the Cenozoic and left a line of igneous rocks through the northern hills superimposed on the rocks already disscused. This line extends from Bear Butte in the east to Devils Tower in the west. Evidence of Cenozoic volcanic eruptions, if this happened, has long since been eroded away. Image File history File linksMetadata Fallingrock. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fallingrock. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ... The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ... The Laramide orogeny was a period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 to 80 million years ago, and ended 35 to 55 million years ago. ... The Cenozoic Era (IPA pronunciation: ); sometimes Caenozoic Era or Cainozoic Era (in the United Kingdom), meaning new life (Greek (kainos), new, and (zoe), life), is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Bear Butte is a geological feature located in western South Dakota that was established as a State Park in 1961. ... Devils Tower National Monument Devils Tower is a geological feature located in eastern Wyoming that was established as the first United States National Monument in 1906. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ...


The Black Hills also has a 'skirt' of gravel covering it in areas called erosional terraces. Formed as the waterways cut down into the uplifting hills, they represent the former locations of today's rivers. These beds are generally around 10,000 years old or younger judging by the artifacts and fossils found. There are a few places mainly in the high elevations were older, as old as 20MY according to camel and rodent fossils found, gravels have been found but for the most part these older beds have been eroded away. Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ...


Biosystems

As with the geology, the biology of the Black Hills is complex. Most of the Hills are a fire-climax Ponderosa Pine forest, with Black Hills Spruce (Picea glauca var. densata) occurring in cool moist valleys of the Northern Hills. Oddly, this endemic variety of spruce does not occur in the moist Bear Lodge Mountains, which make up most of the Wyoming portion of the Black Hills. Large open parks (mountain meadows) with lush grassland rather than forest are scattered through the Hills (especially the western portion), and the southern edge of the Hills, due to the rainshadow of the higher elevations, are covered by a dry pine savannah, with stands of Mountain Mahogany and Rocky Mountain Juniper. Wildlife is both diverse and plentiful. Black Hills creeks are known for their trout, while the forests and grasslands offer good habitat for American Bison, White-tailed and Mule Deer, Pronghorn, Bighorn Sheep, mountain lions, and a variety of smaller animals, like prairie dogs, Yellow-bellied Marmots, and Red Squirrels. Biologically, the Black Hills is a meeting and mixing place, with species common to regions to the east, west, north, and south. The Hills do however, support some endemic taxa, the most famous of which is probably White-winged Junco (Junco hyemalis aikeni). The furthest point from the ocean in the North America is located in the Black Hills. Binomial name Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a widespread and very variable pine native to western North America. ... Binomial name (Moench) Voss The White Spruce (Picea glauca) is a medium-sized evergreen tree growing to 15-30 m tall, rarely to 40 m tall, and with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Savannah may refer to: Four cities in the United States: Savannah, Georgia, a city known for its historic district Savannah River, which flows past the Georgia city Savannah River Site, a nuclear facility near Augusta, Georgia, upriver from Savannah Savannah, Missouri Savannah, New York Savannah, Tennessee sav is so awesome... Species - Birchleaf Mountain-mahogany - Hairy Mountain-mahogany - Littleleaf Mountain-mahogany - Curlleaf Mountain-mahogany - Alderleaf Mountain-mahogany - Catalina Island Mountain-mahogany Mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus) is a small genus of five or six species of deciduous shrubs or small trees in the Rosaceae, native to the western United States and northern Mexico... Binomial name Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 Subspecies The Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest mammal in North America running at speeds of 58 mph (90 km/h). ... Binomial name Shaw, 1804 Synonyms Desmarest Cuvier[1] Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)[2] is one of three species of mountain sheep in North America and Siberia; the other two species being Ovis dalli, that includes Dall Sheep and Stones Sheep, and the Siberian Snow sheep Ovis nivicola. ... Binomial name Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) The puma (Puma concolor) is a type of large cat found in North, Central and South America. ... Species Cynomys gunnisoni Cynomys leucurus Cynomys ludovicianus Cynomys mexicanus Cynomys parvidens Prairie dogs are small stout-bodied burrowing rodents with shallow cheek pouches native to both North and Central America. ... Binomial name Sciurus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 For the North American Red Squirrel, see American Red Squirrel. ... Trinomial name Junco hyemalis aikeni The White-winged Junco (Junco hyemalis aikeni) is a subspecies of Dark-eyed Junco. ...


Tourism and economy

The Black Hills opposite Mount Rushmore

The region is home to Mount Rushmore National Memorial, Wind Cave National Park, Jewel Cave National Monument, Harney Peak (the highest point east of the Rockies), Custer State Park (the largest state park in South Dakota, and one of the largest in the US), Bear Butte State Park, Devils Tower National Monument, and the Crazy Horse Memorial (the largest sculpture in the world). The Black Hills also hosts the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally each August. Started in 1940, the 65th Rally in 2005 saw more than 550,000 bikers visit the Black Hills; the rally is a key part of the regional economy. Image File history File links IM000704_(2). ... Image File history File links IM000704_(2). ... For the 1960s rock band, see Mount Rushmore (band). ... The faces of (left to right) George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln Mount Rushmore National Memorial, located in Keystone, South Dakota, memorializes the birth, growth, preservation and development of the United States of America. ... Wind Cave National Park is a United States national park 10 miles (18 km) north of the town of Hot Springs in western South Dakota. ... Jewel Cave National Monument contains Jewel Cave, currently the second longest cave in the world, with about 135 miles (217 km) of mapped passageways. ... Harney Peak is the highest mountain in South Dakota, located in Black Hills National Forest. ... Custer State Park is a state park in South Dakota. ... Bear Butte is a geological feature located in western South Dakota that was established as a State Park in 1961. ... Devils Tower is a monolith (more technically, an igneous intrusion) or volcanic neck located near Hulett and Sundance in Crook County, northeastern Wyoming, above the Belle Fourche River. ... Foreground: 1:34 scale model of Crazy Horse Memorial. ... Motorcycles lined up on Main Street during Bike Week, Sturgis, South Dakota. ...


The George S. Mickelson Trail is a recently opened multi-use path through the Black Hills. It follows the abandoned track of the historic railroad route from Edgemont to Deadwood. The train used to be the only way to bring supplies to the miners in the Hills. The trail is about 110 miles in length, and can be used by hikers, cross-country skiers, and bikers. The cost is two dollars per day, or ten dollars annually. The George S. Mickelson Trail is a rail trail in the Black Hills region of South Dakota, in the United States. ... Edgemont is a city located in Fall River County, South Dakota. ... A photograph of Deadwood in 1876. ...


Today, the major city in the Black Hills is Rapid City, with an incorporated population of over 70,000 and a metropolitan population of 125,000. It serves a market area covering much of five states: North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana. In addition to tourism and mining (including coal, specialty minerals, and the now declining gold mining), the Black Hills economy includes ranching (sheep and cattle, primarily, with buffalo and ratites becoming more common), timber (lumber), Ellsworth Air Force Base, and some manufacturing, including jewelry (Black Hills Gold Jewelry), cement, electronics, cabinetry, guns and ammunition. In many ways, the Black Hills functions as a very spread-out urban area with a population (not counting tourists) of 250,000. Other important Black Hills cities include Belle Fourche, a ranching town; Spearfish, home of Black Hills State University; Deadwood, a historic and well-preserved gambling mecca; its twin city of Lead, home of the now-closed Homestake Mine (gold); Keystone, outside Mount Rushmore; Hill City, a timber and tourism town in the center of the Hills; Custer, a mining and tourism town and headquarters for Black Hills National Forest; Hot Springs, an old resort town in the southern Hills; Sturgis, originally a military town (Fort Meade, now a VA center, is located just to the east); and Newcastle, center of the Black Hills petroleum production and refining. Rapid City is a city located in the western part of South Dakota and is second largest city in the state of South Dakota after Sioux Falls. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ... Ellsworth Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base near Rapid City, South Dakota and is home to the B-1B Lancer. ... Belle Fourche is a city located in Butte County, South Dakota. ... Spearfish is a city in Lawrence County, South Dakota, USA. The population was 8,606 at the 2000 census. ... Black Hills State University was founded in 1883 as Dakota Territorial Normal School for teacher training. ... A photograph of Deadwood in 1876. ... Lead is a city located in Lawrence County, South Dakota. ... The Homestake Mine is a deep underground gold mine located near Lead, South Dakota. ... Keystone is a town located in the Black Hills of Pennington County, South Dakota. ... Hill City is a city located in Pennington County, South Dakota. ... Custer is a city located in Custer County, South Dakota. ... Black Hills National Forest is located in the western sections of the U.S. state of South Dakota. ... Hot Springs is a city located in Fall River County, South Dakota. ... Sturgis is a city in Meade County, South Dakota, USA. The population was 6,442 at the 2000 census. ... Newcastle is a city located in Weston County, Wyoming. ...


Black Hills in popular culture

Several major motion pictures have been filmed in the Black Hills including North by Northwest, How the West Was Won, A Man Called Horse, Lakota Woman and Dances with Wolves, as well as National Treasure: Book of Secrets. The Black Hills has been the setting of still more movies or portions thereof, including Walt Disney's "The One and Only Genuine Original Family Band" and several movies based on Louis L'Amour novels. Steven Spielberg's "Into the West" includes a story line involving the discovery of gold in the Black Hills. The Black Hills is also the setting for the popular HBO series Deadwood, although the show is actually filmed in California. However, the City Fathers of Deadwood have created a wooden "false front" street similar to the television set and the original town — a series of fires in the late 1800s destroyed all the original log and frame buildings, which were replaced with the brick and stone structures which grace the city today. North by Northwest (1959) is a comic thriller by Alfred Hitchcock produced at MGM. It was premiered in the San Sebastian International Film Festival. ... How the West Was Won is an epic 1962 western film which follows four generations of a family (starting as the Prescotts) as they move ever westward, from western New York state to the Pacific Ocean. ... A Man Called Horse was originally published in 1968 as a short story in a book called Indian Country by Dorothy M. Johnson. ... Mary Crow Dog on the cover of her book Lakota Woman (ISBN 3-423-36104-2) Lakota Woman is an auto-biographical book by Mary Crow Dog, depciting among other things the stand off at Wounded Knee between members of the AIM organization and the Federal government of the United... Dances with Wolves is a 1990 epic film which tells the story of a United States cavalry officer from the Civil War who travels into the Dakota Territory, near a Sioux tribe. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Cover Louis LAmour book, Showdown at Yellow Butte. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Deadwood is an American television drama series that premiered in March 2004 on HBO. The series is a Western set in the 1870s in Deadwood, Dakota Territory. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


The film Calamity Jane included the song "The Black Hills of Dakota," a salute to the mountains that the characters were traveling through. The 1953 film, Calamity Jane is a Wild West-themed film It is loosely based on the life of Wild West heroine Calamity Jane and explores a romance between Calamity Jane and Wild Bill Hickok in the American Old West. ... The Black Hills of Dakota is a song, written for the musical film Calamity Jane, about the singers love for, and desire to return to, the Black Hills of South Dakota. ...


The song "Rocky Raccoon" by The Beatles, makes a reference to "the black mining hills of Dakota", where the song's protagonist allegedly lives. Rocky Raccoon is a Beatles song from the double-disc album The Beatles (also known as The White Album). ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ...


Pain of Salvation recorded a song referring to the disposition of the Lakota, titled "Black Hills", on their One Hour by the Concrete Lake album. Pain of Salvation is a Swedish progressive metal band featuring Daniel Gildenlöw, who is the lyricist, chief composer, guitarist, and lead vocalist. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... One Hour by the Concrete Lake is Pain of Salvations second studio album. ...


The Black Hills also made an attempt at secession from the United States in the book World War Z. World War Z (abbreviated WWZ) is a novel by Max Brooks which chronicles the fictional titular Zombie World War. It is a follow-up to his previous book, The Zombie Survival Guide. ...


The Black Hills were referenced in Bright Eyes' song "Four Winds." Bright Eyes is a band consisting of singer-songwriter/guitarist Conor Oberst, multi-instrumentalist/producer Mike Mogis, Nate Walcott, and a rotating lineup of collaborators drawn primarily from Omahas indie music scene. ... Four Winds is an EP by the indie rock band Bright Eyes, that was released on March 6, 2007. ...


See also

The Needles of the Black Hills of South Dakota are a region of fantastically eroded granite pillars, towers, and spires. ... The Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming feature many scenic highways, constructed from the 1920s on to provide routes of interest for tourists. ... The Black Hills Central Railroad is a tourist railroad operating on the former BN (nee CB&Q) Keystone Branch between Hill City and Keystone, South Dakota. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/blackhills/faq/index.shtml#q2

// The Encyclopedia Americana is the second largest printed general encyclopedia in the English language (after the Encyclopædia Britannica). ...

External links

Coordinates: 44°00′N, 104°00′W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Black Hills - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1340 words)
The Black Hills are considered by the Lakota (Teton Sioux) to be the axis mundi, or center of the world; the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) had previously confirmed their ownership of the mountain range.
The southern Black Hills are characterized by Precambrian granite, pegmatite, and metamorphic rocks that comprise the core of the entire Black Hills uplift.
Today, the major city in the Black Hills is Rapid City, with an incorporated population of 60,000 and a metropolitan population of 85,000.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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