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Encyclopedia > Black Hawk War
Black Hawk War

Black Hawk
Date 1832
Location Illinois and Michigan Territory
Result United States victory
Belligerents
United States:
United States
Ho-Chunk
Menominee
Potawatomi
Black Hawk's "British Band":
Sauk
Fox
Kickapoo
Commanders
Henry Atkinson
Henry Dodge
Adam W. Snyder
Isaiah Stillman
Samuel Whiteside et al.
Black Hawk
Neapope
Weesheet
Mike Girty
Strength
9,000 Illinois Militia
1,500 Regulars
300+ U.S. aligned Ho-Chunk, Menominee, and Potawatomi
500 warriors
1,000 civilians
Casualties and losses
at least 60 KIA (including non-combatants) 450-600

The Black Hawk War was fought in 1832 in the Midwestern United States. The war was named for Black Hawk, a war chief of the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo Native Americans, whose British Band fought against the United States Army and militia from Illinois and the Michigan Territory (present-day Wisconsin) for possession of lands in the area. Black Hawk War may refer to: The Black Hawk War, a war fought in 1832 in the Midwestern United States between Sauk and Fox Indians on one side and the United States Army and Illinois militia on the other Utahs Black Hawk War The Black Hawk War, or, How... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses of Blackhawk/Black Hawk, see Black Hawk. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... From 1805-1818, the western border was a line through Lake Michigan. ... Image File history File links US_flag_24_stars. ... Image File history File links Bandera_Ho_CHunk. ... The Ho-Chunk or Winnebago (as they are commonly called) are a tribe of Native Americans, native to what are now Wisconsin and Illinois. ... The Menominee are a nation of Native Americans living in Wisconsin. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... Chief Black Hawks Band of 1832, commonly referred to as the British Band was a group of Native Americans which fought the Illinois and Michigan Territory Militias during the 1832 Black Hawk War. ... Image File history File links Bandera_Sac_i_Fox_Oklahoma. ... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... Image File history File links Bandera_Sac_i_Fox_Oklahoma. ... The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sac tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation. ... Image File history File links Bandera_Kickapoo. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Henry Atkinson (1782 - 1842) was a U.S. army officer. ... Henry Dodge (October 12, 1782 - June 19, 1867) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1848 - 1857. ... This article is about the U.S. Representative from Illinois. ... Cavalry Major Isaiah Stillman (1793-April 15, 1861) led Illinois militia in the first armed confrontation of the Black Hawk War against Black Hawks Sauk Indian Band. ... Samuel A. Whiteside (1783-1868) was an Illinois pioneer, political figure and military leader. ... Black Hawk or Blackhawk or Blackhawks refer to several people, places and things. ... Neapope was a spiritual leader of the Sauk tribe and advisor to Black Hawk during the Black Hawk War. ... Mike Girty, (fl. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Non-combatant is a military and legal term describing civilians not engaged in combat. ... Combatants United States Various factions affiliated with the Sauk, Fox, Potawatomi, Kickapoo, and Ho-Chunk Commanders various various After the outbreak of the Black Hawk War, at the Battle of Stillmans Run in May 1832, there were minor attacks and skirmishes throughout the duration of the conflict. ... Combatants United States Sauk and Fox of Black Hawks British Band Commanders Isaiah Stillman David Bailey John Giles Adams Black Hawk Strength 275 40-50 Casualties 12 3-5 The Battle of Stillmans Run, also known as the Battle of Sycamore Creek or the Battle of Old Man... Combatants United States Kickapoo warriors Commanders Henry Atkinson James M. Strode Strength 6 Not known Casualties 1 Not known The Buffalo Grove ambush was an ambush that occurred on May 19, 1832 as part of the Black Hawk War. ... Combatants United States Sauk or Fox Commanders James M. Strode unknown Strength 6; 3 present unknown; small band Casualties 0 0 The Plum River raid was a bloodless skirmish that occurred at present-day Savanna, Illinois, on May 21, 1832, as part of the Black Hawk War. ... Combatants United States non-combatants Potawatomi Sauk Commanders none Keewasee Strength 22 civilians 20-40 Casualties 15 non-combatants possibly 1 KIA The Indian Creek massacre occurred on May 21, 1832 when a group of settlers living 6 miles north of Ottawa, Illinois, United States, along Indian Creek, were attacked... Combatants United States Ho-Chunk or Sauk/Fox Commanders Henry Atkinson Felix St. ... Combatants United States possibly Ho-Chunk Strength 50-100 Casualties 3 KIA The Attacks at Fort Blue Mounds were two separate incidents which occurred on June 6 and 20, 1832, as part of the Black Hawk War. ... Combatants United States Black Hawk aligned Kickapoo Strength 6 unknown Casualties 4 1 The Spafford Farm massacre, also referred to as the Wayne massacre, was an attack upon U.S. militia and civilians that occurred as part of the Black Hawk War near present day South Wayne, Wisconsin. ... Combatants United States Kickapoo; loosely affiliated with Chief Black Hawks British Band Commanders Henry Dodge Strength 30 11 Casualties 3 KIA 1 WIA 11 KIA This article is about Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1832). ... Combatants United States Sauk Commanders James W. Stephenson Strength 12+ unknown Casualties 3 KIA 2-6 KIA The Battle of Waddams Grove, also known as the Battle of Yellow Creek, took place in present-day Stephenson County, Illinois during the 1832 Black Hawk War. ... Combatants United States Sauk Fox Kickapoo Commanders Adam W. Snyder Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength approximately 300 80 Casualties 8 KIA at least 15 KIA The Battle of Kelloggs Grove is either of two minor battles, or skirmishes, fought during the Black Hawk War in U.S. state of... Combatants United States Potawatomi Commanders Mike Girty Strength 7 30 Casualties 1 KIA 0 The Attack at Aments Cabin was an event during the Black Hawk War that occurred on June 17, or June 18, 1832. ... Combatants United States Sauk/Fox Commanders Clack Stone Black Hawk Strength 25 150-200 Casualties 1 KIA 2 WIA Unknown The Battle of Apple River Fort occurred on June 24, 1832 at the hastily constructed Apple River Fort, near present-day Elizabeth, Illinois, when Black Hawk and his British Band... Combatants United States Sauk and Fox of Black Hawks British Band Commanders James W. Stephenson Strength 3 unknown Casualties 2 killed 0 The Sinsinawa Mound raid occurred on June 29, 1832, near the Sinsinawa mining settlement in Michigan Territory (present-day Grant County, Wisconsin). ... Combatants United States U.S. aligned Menominee Sauk/Fox Commanders Henry Dodge James D. Henry Black Hawk Strength 600-750 miltia 300 Menominee warriors approximately 50-80 warriors Casualties 1 KIA 8 WIA 40-70 KIA The Battle of Wisconsin Heights was a major engagement between the United States involving... In the spring of 1832 a band of Sac and Fox Indians following the warrior Black Hawk crossed the Mississippi River, moving eastward from present-day Iowa to their ancestral lands in northern Illinois Rock River valley. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... For other uses of Blackhawk/Black Hawk, see Black Hawk. ... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sac tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Chief Black Hawks Band of 1832, commonly referred to as the British Band was a group of Native Americans which fought the Illinois and Michigan Territory Militias during the 1832 Black Hawk War. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... From 1805-1818, the western border was a line through Lake Michigan. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Contents

Background

Following the Fox Wars in the western Great Lakes and Detroit regions, the remaining Sauk and Fox sought refuge together in lands further west, extending north from the Wisconsin River to the Illinois River in the south. Other settlements were established north of the Missouri River. These lands were the area that Black Hawk and his band viewed as their homeland in 1832. The Sauk's main village, Saukenuk, was established in the mid-18th century. Black Hawk was born there in 1767 and lived much of his life in the village.[1] The Fox Wars were two wars between the Fox Indians and the French (mainly through their Indian allies) which occurred in modern Wisconsin, U.S.A.. The First Fox War broke out with the French (1712-1714) when the Fox numbered some 3,500. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sac tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation. ... The Wisconsin River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 430 mi (692 km) long, in the state of Wisconsin in the United States. ... This article is about the river in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... Black Hawk or Blackhawk or Blackhawks refer to several people, places and things. ... The Black Hawk State Historic Site, in Rock Island, Illinois, occupies much of the historic site of the village of Saukenuk, the home of a band of Native Americans of the Sauk nation. ...


In 1804, William Henry Harrison, Governor of Indiana Territory (which then included what would become Illinois), negotiated a treaty in St. Louis, Missouri with a group of Sauk and Fox leaders, in which they ceded lands east of the Mississippi in exchange for $1,000 per year and the condition that the tribes could continue to reside there until the land was surveyed and sold by the U.S. government.[2] It was Article 2 which ceded the land to the United States "forever," and raised the ire of the Sauk and Fox tribes.[1][2] This treaty was subsequently disputed by Black Hawk and other members of the tribes, since the full tribal councils had not been consulted, nor did those representing the tribes have authorization to cede lands.[1] After the War of 1812, in which Black Hawk had fought against the U.S., he signed a peace treaty in May 1816 that re-affirmed the treaty of 1804, a provision of which Black Hawk later protested ignorance. While Black Hawk was away during the War of 1812, Keokuk had risen in prominence, and the two men became rivals.[1] William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Map of the Indiana Territory Indiana Territory was an organized territory of the United States from 1800 to 1816, created by Act of Congress and signed into law by President John Adams on May 7, 1800, effective on July 4. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Keokuk Keokuk (1767-1848) was a chief of the Sauk tribe in central North America noted for his involvement in the Black Hawk War. ...


The white population of Illinois exploded after the War of 1812, exceeding 50,000 in 1820 and 150,000 in 1830. In 1825, thirteen Sauk and six Fox signed another agreement re-affirming the 1804 treaty. In 1828, the U.S. government liaison, Thomas Forsyth, informed the tribes that they should begin vacating their settlements east of the Mississippi.[1] This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


On July 15, 1830, U.S. Indian Commissioner William Clark signed another treaty with Sauk and Fox leaders, among other tribes, at Fort Crawford in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.[3] The treaty ceded about 26,500,000 acres (107,000 km²) of Sauk land east of the Mississippi to the government of the United States. It also created a "Neutral Ground" boundary between the Sauk and Foxes and their traditional enemies, the Sioux, for the purpose of preventing future hostilities between the tribes. The treaty was signed by Keokuk, and in November 1830 was approved by the Dakota Sioux.[4] is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... William Clark William Clark (August 1, 1770 - September 1, 1838) was an American explorer who accompanied Meriwether Lewis on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. ... Fort Crawford was the name of two fortifications of the United States Army built in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. ... Prairie du Chien is the county seat of Crawford County, Wisconsin. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ...


Trigger

The "Treaty House" was the exact location Chief Keokuk and General Winfield Scott signed a treaty to end the Black Hawk War in 1832. The house has since been moved from its original location. The house was completed in 1833 by Antoine LeClaire.

The land ceded in the treaty included the village of Saukenuk, but Black Hawk did not sanction the sale of this land and was determined to remain in the village.[1][2] Despite opposition by Keokuk and the US authorities, Black Hawk's band returned to Saukenok in 1830 following their winter hunting.[1] After a year of tension, they returned again in 1831, and Illinois Governor John Reynolds proclaimed it an "invasion of the state."[1] Keokuk Keokuk (1767-1848) was a chief of the Sauk tribe in central North America noted for his involvement in the Black Hawk War. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Keokuk Keokuk (1767-1848) was a chief of the Sauk tribe in central North America noted for his involvement in the Black Hawk War. ... The Governor of Illinois is the chief executive of the State of Illinois and the various agencies and departments over which the officer has jurisdiction, as prescribed in the state constitution. ... John Reynolds, US politician and Governor of Illinois John Reynolds (February 26, 1788–May 8, 1865) was a United States politician from the U.S. state of Illinois. ...


Responding to Governor Reynolds' call, General Edmund Pendleton Gaines brought his federal troops from St. Louis, Missouri to Saukenuk to insist upon Black Hawk's immediate departure.[1] Black Hawk departed but soon returned, without bloodshed, west across the Mississippi, threatened by Gaines' troops and an additional 1,400 militia called up by Reynolds on June 25, 1831.[1] On June 30, Black Hawk and the chiefs of the "British Band" were forced to sign a surrender agreement in which they promised to remain west of the Mississippi.[1] Edmund Pendleton Gaines was a United States army officer who served with distinction during the War of 1812 and the Seminole Wars. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chief Black Hawks Band of 1832, commonly referred to as the British Band was a group of Native Americans which fought the Illinois and Michigan Territory Militias during the 1832 Black Hawk War. ...


On 5 April 1832, chafing under the rule of Keokuk, Black Hawk and his group of 1,000, called the "British band," returned to Illinois.[1] Ho-Chunk prophet White Cloud contributed to the outbreak of war by promising Black Hawk the support of the Ho-Chunk Nation, when in fact he could only speak for his tribe.[5] Black Hawk was also misled by another ally, Neapope, who promised British aid.[5] Reynolds issued a proclamation on 16 April, mustering five brigades of volunteers to form at Beardstown and to head north to force Black Hawk out of Illinois. Although ⅓ of all federal troops from the United States Army were eventually involved in the conflict, the 9,000 soldiers from the Illinois Militia provided the majority of U.S. combatants.[6] is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This drawing of White Cloud was published in 1848. ... The Ho-Chunk or Winnebago (as they are commonly called) are a tribe of Native Americans, native to what are now Wisconsin and Illinois. ... Neapope was a spiritual leader of the Sauk tribe and advisor to Black Hawk during the Black Hawk War. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Beardstown is a city located in Cass County, Illinois. ... Black Hawk or Blackhawk or Blackhawks refer to several people, places and things. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...


Black Hawk's British Band was composed of about 500 warriors and 1,000 old men, women and children when they crossed the Mississippi on April 5.[7][8] The group comprised members of the Sauk, Fox and Kickapoo Nations. They crossed the Mississippi near the mouth of the Iowa River and then followed the Rock River northeast. Along the way they passed the ruins of Saukenuk and headed for the village of Ho-Chunk prophet White Cloud.[8] is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sac tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... The Iowa River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the state of Iowa in the United States. ... The frozen Rock River near Oregon, Illinois. ...


Brevet Brigadier General Henry Atkinson was given charge for prosecuting the war.[9] Federal authorities, along with Sauk and Fox tribal councils, ordered Black Hawk and his band to retreat west of the Mississippi, but they refused to leave.[7] Soon after, Black Hawk conferred with the Ho-Chunk and Potawatomi tribes and learned that none of the Illinois or Michigan tribes, or the British, would aid his band.[7] The word brevet has several meanings: In the military, brevet refers to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to temporarily hold a higher rank, without a corresponding pay increase. ... Henry Atkinson (1782 - 1842) was a U.S. army officer. ... Rain dance, Kansas, c. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Chronology

Hostilities begin

An 1854 artist's depiction of the Battle of Stillman's Run.
An 1854 artist's depiction of the Battle of Stillman's Run.

On 9 May, a small Illinois militia battalion began the pursuit of Black Hawk from the army's point of rendezvous on the Rock River at Dixon.[10] On May 10, 1832 the state militia burned the Prophet's Village, upon hearing of this Black Hawk decided to return, with his band, to Iowa. Ensuing events at Stillman's Run prevented this; the Black Hawk War had begun.[7] Combatants United States Sauk and Fox of Black Hawks British Band Commanders Isaiah Stillman David Bailey John Giles Adams Black Hawk Strength 275 40-50 Casualties 12 3-5 The Battle of Stillmans Run, also known as the Battle of Sycamore Creek or the Battle of Old Man... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants United States Sauk and Fox of Black Hawks British Band Commanders Isaiah Stillman David Bailey John Giles Adams Black Hawk Strength 275 40-50 Casualties 12 3-5 The Battle of Stillmans Run, also known as the Battle of Sycamore Creek or the Battle of Old Man... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dixon Memorial Arch. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Prophetstown is a city in Whiteside County, Illinois, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Stillman Creek, also known during different eras as Mud Creek, Old Mans Creek, Sycamore Creek, and Stillmans Run, is part of the Rock River watershed, and located in Ogle County, Illinois, United States. ...

Major Isaiah Stillman commanded the Illinois Militia troops present at Stillman's Run.
Major Isaiah Stillman commanded the Illinois Militia troops present at Stillman's Run.

The first named confrontation of the Black Hawk War occurred on May 14, 1832 and resulted in an unexpected victory for Black Hawk's band of Sauk and Fox warriors over the disorganized militia under the command of Isaiah Stillman.[11] After a long march (the militia was mounted and followed by several supply wagons) the white militia finally came into contact with Black Hawk and his warriors north of the Kishwaukee River near present day Stillman Valley. When the militia killed a member of a three-man parley that had been sent by Black Hawk, he rallied 40 mounted warriors and attacked the militia camp at dusk.[11] Although the militia numbered around 275 men, cohesion rapidly collapsed, and they fled to Dixon's Ferry, some 35 miles (56 km) away.[12] During the melee 11 militia men under the command of John Giles Adams were killed.[13] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cavalry Major Isaiah Stillman (1793-April 15, 1861) led Illinois militia in the first armed confrontation of the Black Hawk War against Black Hawks Sauk Indian Band. ... Stillman Creek, also known during different eras as Mud Creek, Old Mans Creek, Sycamore Creek, and Stillmans Run, is part of the Rock River watershed, and located in Ogle County, Illinois, United States. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cavalry Major Isaiah Stillman (1793-April 15, 1861) led Illinois militia in the first armed confrontation of the Black Hawk War against Black Hawks Sauk Indian Band. ... The Kishwaukee River is a river in Illinois. ... Stillman Valley is a village located in Ogle County, Illinois. ... Look up parley in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dixons Ferry was the former name for Dixon, Illinois, United States. ... John Giles Adams (December 2, 1792–May 14, 1832) was a cavalry officer in the Illinois Militia during the Black Hawk War of 1832. ...


Soon after the Battle of Stillman's Run, at present-day Stillman Valley, the exaggerated claim that 2,000 "bloodthirsty warriors . . . sweeping all Northern Illinois with the bosom of destruction" sent shock waves of terror through the region.[10] After this initial skirmish, Black Hawk led many of the civilians in his band to the Michigan Territory.[10] On 19 May, the militia traveled up the Rock River trailing and searching for Black Hawk and his band.[10] Several small skirmishes and massacres ensued over the next month in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin before the milita was able to regain public confidence in battles at Horseshoe Bend and Waddams Grove.[14] From 1805-1818, the western border was a line through Lake Michigan. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Waddams Grove, previously known as Wadams, Waddams Grove, and Sada, is an unincorporated community in the Stephenson County township of West Point, Illinois, USA. Waddams Grove was the first settlement in Stephenson County. ...


Massacres and skirmishes

After the first engagement of the war several small skirmishes and "massacres" ensued. On May 19, 1832 a six-man detail carrying dispatches from Colonel James M. Strode was ambushed by a party of Kickapoo near the settlement of Buffalo Grove, Illinois in Ogle County.[15] The ambush had one victim, William Durley, who was later buried in the spot he fell by Felix St. Vrain and his party as it was en route to Galena.[16][17][18] Two others present at the attack had bullet holes through articles of clothing by neither was injured.[15] In 1910 a memorial to the Buffalo Grove ambush and William Durely was erected by the Polo, Illinois Historical Society. At that time Durley's remains were reinterred beneath the memorial.[19] is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... James M. Strode (fl. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... This article is about the unincorporated Ogle County community of Buffalo Grove, Illinois. ... Ogle County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ... Felix St. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois Counties Jo Daviess Mayor Tom F. Brusch Area    - City 9. ... Combatants United States Kickapoo warriors Commanders Henry Atkinson James M. Strode Strength 6 Not known Casualties 1 Not known The Buffalo Grove ambush was an ambush that occurred on May 19, 1832 as part of the Black Hawk War. ... Polo is a city located in Ogle County, Illinois. ...

The grave of U.S. Indian Agent Felix St. Vrain is located beneath a monument in Kellogg's Grove, Illinois.
The grave of U.S. Indian Agent Felix St. Vrain is located beneath a monument in Kellogg's Grove, Illinois.

One of the Black Hawk War's most famous and well publicized events is also considered a peripheral event that was not directly connected to the war or Black Hawk and his "British Band."[20] The Indian Creek massacre occurred two days after the incident in Buffalo, following a dispute between a local settler and a Potawatomi warrior over the damming of nearby Indian Creek. The young Potawatomi warrior, Keewasee, recruited a band of warriors and attacked the William Davis settlement along the bank of the creek.[21] The attack resulted in the brutal murders of 15 men, women and children, most of whom were unarmed, though it is possible Davis may have killed one assailant before being felled himself.[21] The dead were scalped and mutilated.[22] In addition two teenage girls were kidnapped and held until they were ransomed almost two weeks later, and released at Fort Blue Mounds.[22][23] Events surrounding the release of the girls would lead to two attacks at the fort in June.[24] The incident at Indian Creek triggered panic in the white population and many settlers fled to the safety of local forts while the Illinois Militia used the massacre to help lift recruiting in Illinois and Kentucky.[25][20] The same day as the massacre at the Indian Creek settlement, a settlement on the Plum River was raided by a party of Sauk or Fox warriors. Though the battle was bloodless, it was one of many incidents that contributed to the atmosphere of fear.[26] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Felix St. ... Kelloggs Grove is an area in western Stephenson County, Illinois, United States near the present-day unincorporated town of Kent. ... Combatants United States non-combatants Potawatomi Sauk Commanders none Keewasee Strength 22 civilians 20-40 Casualties 15 non-combatants possibly 1 KIA The Indian Creek massacre occurred on May 21, 1832 when a group of settlers living 6 miles north of Ottawa, Illinois, United States, along Indian Creek, were attacked... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Combatants United States Sauk or Fox Commanders James M. Strode unknown Strength 6; 3 present unknown; small band Casualties 0 0 The Plum River raid was a bloodless skirmish that occurred at present-day Savanna, Illinois, on May 21, 1832, as part of the Black Hawk War. ...


The St. Vrain massacre, another of the small skirmishes after Stillman's Run, occurred near present-day Pearl City, Illinois in Kellogg's Grove on May 24, 1832. The massacre was most likely perpetrated by Ho-Chunk warriors who were unaffiliated with Black Hawk's band of warriors.[18] It is also unlikely that the group of Ho-Chunk had the sanction of their nation.[18] The massacre left United States Indian Agent Felix St. Vrain and three of his companions dead. Some accounts indicated that St. Vrain's body was subjected to mutilation, and at least one asserted it happened while he was still alive.[16][27] Combatants United States Ho-Chunk or Sauk/Fox Commanders Henry Atkinson Felix St. ... Pearl City is a village located in Stephenson County, Illinois. ... Kelloggs Grove is an area in western Stephenson County, Illinois, United States near the present-day unincorporated town of Kent. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Ho-Chunk or Winnebago (as they are commonly called) are a tribe of Native Americans, native to what are now Wisconsin and Illinois. ... Black Hawk or Blackhawk or Blackhawks refer to several people, places and things. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ...


The massacre led to unwarranted fear of all Native Americans in the area, even those friendly to the settlers' cause.[18] One example of this appeared in an article published in the New Galenian on May 30, 1832. While the article described the events of the massacre it also went on to associate the murders of St. Vrain and his companions with the Sauk and Fox of Keokuk's band.[18] Following these skirmishes and massacres, the governor recruited additional militia forces, raising the number to 4,000.[28] This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sac tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation. ... Keokuk Keokuk (1767-1848) was a chief of the Sauk tribe in central North America noted for his involvement in the Black Hawk War. ...


Cholera epidemic

"Old Fuss and Feathers," Winfield Scott as he appeared in his younger years.
"Old Fuss and Feathers," Winfield Scott as he appeared in his younger years.

On May 27 and May 28, their one month enlistment being expired, Reynolds mustered the first of the militia out of service.[10] The federal government then ordered General Winfield Scott's 1,000 regulars and 300 mounted volunteers into action.[10] For the moment it looked as though Atkinson's role in the war would end soon, but a cholera epidemic struck much of the United States. Winfield Scott's troops would bring it over from the east into Illinois. Image File history File links Younger_Scott. ... Image File history File links Younger_Scott. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


General Scott assembled a force of about 1,000 federal troops.[29] They embarked on boats from Buffalo, New York, making their way towards Chicago. To wide-spread horror, cholera was reported among the troops.[30][29] The expedition was doomed. Troops became ill, and many of them died. At each place the vessels landed, the sick were deposited and soldiers deserted.[30] Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie First Settled 1789 Founded 1801 Incorporated (City) 1832 Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


Efforts to prevent the immediate spread of the illness into the population of the towns the expedition passed were largely successful as only 3 civilians died in the initial outbreak.[29] However, later, in 1833 a larger-scale cholera epidemic affected large regions of the United States, its roots can be traced to the Scott expedition.[31] By the time the expedition landed in Chicago, there were less than two hundred effective troops left.[30] Scott felt the need to cancel his plans for an immediate march into the war zone. Instead he waited for reinforcements, supplies, and tended to his stricken men. Winfield Scott arrived too late for military action, but he played an important part in drafting the terms of peace.[32]


More raids

A present-day image of the area where the Spafford Farm massacre occurred.
A present-day image of the area where the Spafford Farm massacre occurred.

Public confidence in the militia, eroded since the outbreak of hostilities at Stillman's Run, was still low when the month of June began. Small attacks and skirmishes continued to plague the frontier of southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois. Though Fort Blue Mounds, in present-day Dane County, Wisconsin near the village of Blue Mounds, was never the site of a full-fledged battle or skirmish there were war-related events near the fort between June 6 and June 20.[33][34] The first event killed a civilian miner, and area residents suspected Ho-Chunk warriors were responsible. This belief exacerbated the fear that more from the Ho-Chunk Nation were set to join Black Hawk's band against the white settlers in Michigan Territory and Illinois.[35] The second incident was a full-fledged attack near Blue Mounds Fort by a raiding party estimated by eyewitnesses to be as large as 100 warriors.[35] Two members of the militia were killed in that attack, one of whom was badly mutilated and missing a "part" when his body was found.[35][36] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants United States Black Hawk aligned Kickapoo Strength 6 unknown Casualties 4 1 The Spafford Farm massacre, also referred to as the Wayne massacre, was an attack upon U.S. militia and civilians that occurred as part of the Black Hawk War near present day South Wayne, Wisconsin. ... Dane County is a county located in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Blue Mounds is a village in Dane County, Wisconsin, United States. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ho-Chunk or Winnebago (as they are commonly called) are a tribe of Native Americans, native to what are now Wisconsin and Illinois. ... From 1805-1818, the western border was a line through Lake Michigan. ... Combatants United States possibly Ho-Chunk Strength 50-100 Casualties 3 KIA The Attacks at Fort Blue Mounds were two separate incidents which occurred on June 6 and 20, 1832, as part of the Black Hawk War. ...


Another event, the Spafford Farm massacre, also known as the Wayne massacre, occurred on June 14, 1832 near present-day South Wayne, Wisconsin. A band of Native Americans attacked a group of 7 men working on the farm of Omri Spafford, 5 men, including Spafford, were killed.[37] Two men escaped, one of them killing an attacker before individually making their way to Fort Hamilton.[37] One of the men spent several days hiding in the forest because he was under the erroneous impression that the fort was being overtaken by friendly Menominee who had arrived around the same time.[38] Combatants United States Black Hawk aligned Kickapoo Strength 6 unknown Casualties 4 1 The Spafford Farm massacre, also referred to as the Wayne massacre, was an attack upon U.S. militia and civilians that occurred as part of the Black Hawk War near present day South Wayne, Wisconsin. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... South Wayne is a village located in Lafayette County, Wisconsin. ... The Menominee are a nation of Native Americans living in Wisconsin. ...


Renewed confidence

An 1857 painting of the battlefield at Horseshoe Bend.
An 1857 painting of the battlefield at Horseshoe Bend.

The second half of June 1832 brought more battle; this time the militia would be dominant. After Colonel Henry Dodge was informed of the massacre at Spafford Farm he set out for Fort Hamilton Arriving at Fort Hamilton on June 16, Dodge gathered a force of 29 mounted volunteers and set out in pursuit of the band of Kickapoo warriors responsible for the massacre.[39] They caught up with them at a bend in the Pecatonica River known as "Horseshoe Bend." The Battle of Horseshoe Bend was the first real victory for the militia and a major turning point in the conflict.[40] The clash helped restore public confidence in the volunteer militia force.[41] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Henry Dodge (October 12, 1782 - June 19, 1867) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1848 - 1857. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pecatonica River is a tributary of the Rock River, 120 mi (193 km) long, in southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois in the United States. ... Combatants United States Kickapoo; loosely affiliated with Chief Black Hawks British Band Commanders Henry Dodge Strength 30 11 Casualties 3 KIA 1 WIA 11 KIA This article is about Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1832). ...


The Black Hawk War also included two clashes at Kellogg's Grove, in present-day Stephenson County, Illinois. The first battle took place the same day as Dodge's clash with the Kickapoo, on June 16, 1832, and was really nothing more than a minor skirmish.[42] Forces commanded by Adam W. Snyder fought with a band of about 80 Kickapoo warriors.[43] During the fighting three militia members were killed and six Kickapoo warriors died.[43] Stephenson County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. Representative from Illinois. ...


The Battle of Waddams Grove, also called the Battle of Yellow Creek occurred on June 18, 1832 near Yellow Creek in present-day Stephenson County, Illinois.[35][41][43] The fight became a bloody battle with bayonets and knives. Up to six Sauk, and three militia men under the command of James W. Stephenson were killed in action, while Stephenson was severely wounded during the battle by a musketball to the chest.[44][35][41] The battle served to restore confidence in the militia within the population of the area, who were still afraid following the defeat at Stillman's Run. The dead militia men were eventually buried in a memorial cemetery in Kellogg's Grove, Illinois.[43] Combatants United States Sauk Commanders James W. Stephenson Strength 12+ unknown Casualties 3 KIA 2-6 KIA The Battle of Waddams Grove, also known as the Battle of Yellow Creek, took place in present-day Stephenson County, Illinois during the 1832 Black Hawk War. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Yellow Creek is a tributary of the Pecatonica River in Stephenson County, Illinois. ... Stephenson County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... James W. Stephenson (1806–August 1838) was a military officer and politician from the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ...


The Battle of Apple River Fort commenced on June 24, 1832 at the hastily constructed Apple River Fort, near present-day Elizabeth, Illinois. Approximately 150-200 Sauk and Fox warriors under the command of Black Hawk attacked the fort which was defended by about 25 militia.[45][46] The militia, under the command of Captain Clack Stone, was shorthanded during the battle as most of the fort's detachment were not present.[47] Fierce fighting ensued for at least 45 minutes with both sides exchanging heavy gunfire.[7] Combatants United States Sauk/Fox Commanders Clack Stone Black Hawk Strength 25 150-200 Casualties 1 KIA 2 WIA Unknown The Battle of Apple River Fort occurred on June 24, 1832 at the hastily constructed Apple River Fort, near present-day Elizabeth, Illinois, when Black Hawk and his British Band... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Apple River Fort, alternatively known as the Apple River Fort Site, was one of many frontier forts hastily completed by settlers in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin following the onset of the 1832 Black Hawk War. ... Elizabeth is a village located in Jo Daviess County, Illinois. ... Black Hawk or Blackhawk or Blackhawks refer to several people, places and things. ... Clack Stone (fl. ...


The second, and larger, Battle of Kellogg's Grove commenced on June 25, 1832 when forces commanded by Major John Dement met and fought with a large band of Native Americans at the grove. The Native forces, under the command of Black Hawk mounted an unrelenting attack during which 25 horses and five militia men were killed and at least of nine of Black Hawk's band died.[43] Combatants United States Sauk Fox Kickapoo Commanders Adam W. Snyder Samuel Whiteside Black Hawk Strength approximately 300 80 Casualties 8 KIA at least 15 KIA The Battle of Kelloggs Grove is either of two minor battles, or skirmishes, fought during the Black Hawk War in U.S. state of... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Dement (26 April 1804–16 January 1883) was a politician and militia commander from the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Black Hawk or Blackhawk or Blackhawks refer to several people, places and things. ...


On July 21, 1832 Illinois and Wisconsin militia men under the command of Generals Henry Dodge and James D. Henry caught up with Black Hawk's British Band near present-day Sauk City, Wisconsin.[42][48] The clash became known as the Battle of Wisconsin Heights. Militarily, the battle was devastating for Black Hawk's band of warriors; including those who drowned during the melee, casualty estimates climbed as high as 70.[42] Despite the relatively high casualties the battle did serve to allow much of the band, including many women and children, to escape across the Wisconsin River.[42] The reprieve was temporary for the group of Sauk and Fox, the militia would eventually catch up with them at the mouth of the Bad Axe River resulting in the decisive battle of the war. is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... James D. Henry (1797 – March 5, 1834) was a militia officer from the U.S. state of Illinois who rose to the rank of general during the Black Hawk War. ... Chief Black Hawks Band of 1832, commonly referred to as the British Band was a group of Native Americans which fought the Illinois and Michigan Territory Militias during the 1832 Black Hawk War. ... Sauk City is a village located in Sauk County, Wisconsin. ... Combatants United States U.S. aligned Menominee Sauk/Fox Commanders Henry Dodge James D. Henry Black Hawk Strength 600-750 miltia 300 Menominee warriors approximately 50-80 warriors Casualties 1 KIA 8 WIA 40-70 KIA The Battle of Wisconsin Heights was a major engagement between the United States involving... The Wisconsin River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 430 mi (692 km) long, in the state of Wisconsin in the United States. ... The Bad Axe River is a short tributary of the Mississippi River in southwestern Wisconsin in the United States. ...


Bad Axe

Main article: Battle of Bad Axe

The Battle of Bad Axe, also known as the Bad Axe Massacre, occurred 1–2 August, 1832, between Sauk (Sac) and Fox Indians and United States Army regulars and militia. This final battle of the Black Hawk War took place near present-day Victory, Wisconsin in the United States. It marked the end of the war between white settlers and militia in Illinois and Michigan Territory, and the Sauk and Fox tribes under Chief Black Hawk. The Battle of Bad Axe, one of the last major battles during the Black Hawk War, was fought between the combined forces of the Sauk (Sac) and Fox tribes and United States troops under Gen. ...


The battle occurred in the aftermath of the Battle of Wisconsin Heights, as Black Hawk's band fled the pursuing militia. The militia caught up with them on the eastern bank of the Mississippi, a few miles downstream from the mouth of the Bad Axe River. The battle that followed was very one-sided; historians have been calling it a massacre since the 1850s. The fighting took place over two days, with the Warrior steamboat present on both days. By the second day, Black Hawk and most of the Native American commanders had fled, though many of the band stayed behind. The victory for the United States was decisive and the end of the war allowed much of Illinois and present-day Wisconsin to be opened for further settlement.


Aftermath

Military results

The Black Hawk War of 1832 resulted in the deaths of 70 settlers and soldiers, and hundreds of Black Hawk's band.[citation needed][9] As well as the combat casualties of the war, a relief force under General Winfield Scott suffered hundreds dead and deserted.[30] The war also resulted in the settlement of Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin. It ended the threat of Native American attacks in northwest Illinois and allowed the region to be further settled.[49] This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Political results

Abraham Lincoln, the future US president, served in Reynolds' militia during the time of the Black Hawk War, but never saw action.[42] Zachary Taylor, another future US president, commanded the troops under General Atkinson during the war.[42] Jefferson Davis, future president of the Confederacy, was on leave during most of the war but returned in time to escort the surrendered Black Hawk, son Whirling Thunder, Neapope, White Cloud and others to Jefferson Barracks, Missouri in September 1832.[42] Davis gave an interview in 1887 in which he indicated he was at the Battle of Wisconsin Heights, but this assertion today has been largely discredited.[50] For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Jefferson Barracks Military Post was open in 1826 to replace Fort Bellefontaine 1806-1826. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The Black Hawk War was similar to other frontier wars fought in the United States in that in provided a boost to several political careers. Besides the notable involvement of Lincoln and Davis, four Illinois governors served during the war: Thomas Ford, John Wood, Joseph Duncan and Thomas Carlin.[9] The conflict also helped in the political careers of a future governor in both Michigan and Nebraska as well as boosting at least 7 U.S. Senators.[9] In 1836, Henry Dodge was appointed governor of the Wisconsin Territory.[9] Thomas Ford (December 5, 1800 - November 3, 1850) was a Democrat and governor of Illinois from 1842 to 1846 remembered largely for the Illinois Mormon War. ... John Wood (December 20, 1798 – June 11, 1880) was governor of Illinois, serving from 1860 to 1861. ... Joseph Duncan (1794–1844) was a U.S. political figure. ... Thomas Carlin (July 18, 1789 – February 14, 1852) was governor of Illinois, serving from 1838 to 1842. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Wisconsin Territory became an organized territory of the United States by an act of U.S. Congress passed on April 20, 1836 which went into effect on July 3, 1836. ...


Henry Atkinson, however, did not fare as well following the war and spent the last decade of his life at Jefferson Barracks in St. Louis.[9] Most of those affiliated with the conflict, subordinates and superiors believed that Atkinson had handled the prosecution of the war badly.[9] U.S. President Andrew Jackson was looking for someone to blame for the conflict even as it was ongoing. After the war Congressional reports glossed over Atkinson's failings but privately others still criticized him. Zachary Taylor stated he believed that had Atkinson's regulars met with Black Hawk in the war's first battle instead of the militia under Isaiah Stillman the war could have ended without a single shot being fired.[9] Historians generally believe that a more decisive action by General Atkinson, charged with prosecuting the war, in stopping Black Hawk's Band from moving up the Rock River may have prevented the war. Zachary Taylor made similar observations shortly after the war ended.[51] Henry Atkinson (1782 - 1842) was a U.S. army officer. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

The Black Hawk Purchase, sometimes called the Forty-Mile Strip or Scotts Purchase, was a land acquistion made in what is now Iowa by the United States federal government. ... The Indian Campaign Medal is a decoration of the United States Army which was first created in 1905. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... For wars involving India, see Military history of India. ... The Sixty Years War (1754–1814) was a military struggle for control of the Great Lakes region in North America, encompassing a number of wars over several generations. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lewis, "Background."
  2. ^ a b c Kappler, "Treaty with the Sauk and Foxes, 1804."
  3. ^ Treaty with the Sauk and Foxes, etc., 1830, July 15, 1830, 7 Stat., 328, Proclamation: February 24, 1831. Retrieved 1 August 2007
  4. ^ Hurt, R. Douglas, The Indian Frontier: 1763-1846 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2002), pp. 176-7, (ISBN 0826319661).
  5. ^ a b Wisconsin State Historical Society, "April 6: The U.S. suspects Black Hawk is crossing the Mississippi."
  6. ^ Lewis, James. "The Black Hawk War of 1832," Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University, p. 2A. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  7. ^ a b c d e Harmet, "Apple River Fort," p. 13-13.
  8. ^ a b Lewis, "Introduction."
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Lewis, James. "The Black Hawk War of 1832", p. 2D.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Illinois State Military Museum, "Black Hawk War."
  11. ^ a b Wisconsin State Historical Society, "May 14: Black Hawk's Victory at the Battle of Stillman's Run."
  12. ^ "Battle of Sycamore Creek, Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  13. ^ "Major Isaiah Stillman," Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, 2002, Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  14. ^ "James Stephenson Describes the Battle at Yellow Creek, Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War, Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  15. ^ a b Kett, The History of Jo Daviess County, Illinois, p. 284.
  16. ^ a b Stevens, The Black Hawk War, pp. 169-171.
  17. ^ "Buffalo Grove," Polo Community High School, Lee/Ogle Regional Office of Education #47. Retrieved 30 July 2007.
  18. ^ a b c d e Wisconsin Historical Society, "The Killing of Felix St. Vrain."
  19. ^ "William Durley Monument," Illinois Digital Archives, Illinois Secretary of State/State Librarian, to access (PDF) click access this item. Retrieved 30 July 2007.
  20. ^ a b Wisconsin State Historical Society, "May 21, Indian Creek, Ill.: Abduction of the Hall Sisters."
  21. ^ a b McIntyre, "The Indian Creek Massacre."
  22. ^ a b Barton, Albert O. "Echoes of the Black Hawk War" Wisconsin Magazine Of History, Vol. 16 Issue 4 (1932-1933). Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  23. ^ Lewis, James. "The Black Hawk War of 1832," Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University, p. 2B. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  24. ^ Birmingham, Robert. "Uncovering the Story of Fort Blue Mounds," Wisconsin Magazine of History, Spring 2003. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
  25. ^ Matile, Roger. "U.S. Army, cholera mark end of Black Hawk War," Ledger-Sentinel (Oswego, Illinois), 14 June 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  26. ^ Trask, Black Hawk, p. 197-198.
  27. ^ Matson, Nehemiah. Memories of Shaubena: With Incidents Relating to the Early Settlement of the West, (Google Books), D.B. Cooke & Co., 1887, pp. 207-210. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  28. ^ Howe, Henry. Historical Collections of the Great West, (Google Books), H. Howe: 1857, p. 298. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  29. ^ a b c Wisconsin State Historical Society, "July 12: The Most Painful Situation Which Can Well Be Imagined."
  30. ^ a b c d Wisconsin State Historical Society, "July 8, Fort Gratiot, Mich.: Cholera Strikes Down Gen. Winfield Scott's Army."
  31. ^ Olson, Greg. "Plague on the Prairie" Illinois Heritage, February 2002. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  32. ^ Nielsen, Lynn. "Theme 2: American Indians in Iowa," (PDF), University of Northern Iowa, Explorations in Iowa History Project, 2003. Compiled from: Sage, Leland L. A History of Iowa, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa: 1974, (ISBN 0813807166).
  33. ^ Adams, Barry. "Rounding up its rich past," Wisconsin State Journal, Capital Newspapers. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  34. ^ Beaouchard, Edward D. Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, "Edward D. Beaouchard's Vindication," Wisconsin State Historical Society, pp. 293-294. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  35. ^ a b c d e Trask, Black Hawk, pp. 220-221.
  36. ^ Smith, William Rudolph. The History of Wisconsin, (Google Books), 1854, B. Brown, p. 213. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  37. ^ a b Butterfield,History of LaFayette County, Wisconsin, p. 599.
  38. ^ Wakefield, John Allen; Stevens, Frank Everett, ed. History of the War between the United States and the Sac and Fox Nations of Indians, and Parts of Other Disaffected Tribes of Indians, in the Years Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-Seven, Thirty-One, and Thirty-Two; Reprinted as: Wakefield's History of the Black Hawk War, Original Publication: Jacksonville, Ill.: Calvin Goudy, 1834. Reprint Publication: Chicago: The Caxton Club, 1908, Chapter 4, Section 70. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  39. ^ Trask, Black Hawk, pp. 233-237.
  40. ^ "June 16: Henry Dodge Describes The Battle of the Pecatonica," Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War, Wisconsin State Historical Society. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  41. ^ a b c Carter, "Captain Stephenson's Fight."
  42. ^ a b c d e f g Lewis, James. "The Black Hawk War of 1832:," Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University, p. 2C Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  43. ^ a b c d e Dameier, "Kellogg's Grove."
  44. ^ "James Stephenson Describes the Battle at Yellow Creek, Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War, Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  45. ^ "Apple River Fort," Historic Sites, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
  46. ^ Marshall, Janet A. and Marshall, Mary K., Black Hawk's War 1832, 1997, pp. 90-94.
  47. ^ "May 14: Black Hawk's Victory at the Battle of Stillman's Run," Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War, Wisconsin State Historical Society. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  48. ^ Cole, Harry Ellsworth, ed. A Standard History of Sauk County, Wisconsin: Volume I, Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co., 1918, pp. 170-171. Available online via The State of Wisconsin Collection, University of Wisconsin.
  49. ^ "The Driftless Area: An Inventory of the Regions Resources," 2000, Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
  50. ^ "April 20: Jefferson Davis in the Black Hawk War," Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War, Wisconsin State Historical Society. Interview originally published: Aldrich, Charles. "Jefferson Davis and Black Hawk." The Midland Monthly, Vol 5, No. 5 May 1896, pp. 408-409. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  51. ^ Trask, Black Hawk: The Battle for the Heart of America, pp. 152–156.

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References

  • Butterfield, Consul Willshire. History of LaFayette County, Wisconsin, (Google Books), , Western Historical Co: 1881, p. 599. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  • Carter, Greg. "Captain Stephenson's Fight," May 2004, Old Lead Historical Society. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  • Dameier, Evelyn. "Kellogg's Grove," (PDF), National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, 18 January 1978, HAARGIS Database, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  • Harmet, A. Richard. "Apple River Fort Site, (PDF), National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, 31 March 1997, HAARGIS Database, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  • Illinois State Military Museum, "Black Hawk War," Historical Events. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  • Kett, H.F. and Co. The History of Jo Daviess County, Illinois, (Google Books), H.F. Kett & Co., Chicago: 1887. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
  • Lewis, James. "Background," The Black Hawk War of 1832, Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  • Lewis, James. "The Black Hawk War of 1832", Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University, p. 2D. Retrieved 1 August 2007.</ref>
  • Lewis, James. "Introduction," The Black Hawk War of 1832, Abraham Lincoln Digitization Project, Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  • Trask, Kerry A. Black Hawk: The Battle for the Heart of America, (Google Books), Henry Holt and Company, New York: 2006, p. 197-198, (ISBN 0805077588). Retrieved 13 August 2007.</ref>
  • Kappler, Charles J. ed. Treaty with the Sauk and Foxes, 1804, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904. November 3, 1804 7 Stat., 84. Ratified January 25, 1805, proclaimed February 21, 1805. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  • McIntyre, Mac. "The Indian Creek Massacre," 2000, DeKalb County History, DeKalb County Online. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  • Stevens, Frank E. The Black Hawk War, Frank E. Stevens 1903. Available online at Northern Illinois University Libraries Digitization Project. Retrieved 30 July 2007.
  • Wisconsin State Historical Society. April 6: The U.S. suspects Black Hawk is crossing the Mississippi," Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
  • Wisconsin State Historical Society. "May 14: Black Hawk's Victory at the Battle of Stillman's Run," Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  • Wisconsin State Historical Society. "May 21, Indian Creek, Ill.: Abduction of the Hall Sisters," Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  • Wisconsin Historical Society. "May 30 Galena: The Killing of Felix St. Vrain," Historic Diaries: Black Hawk War. Retrieved 30 July 2007.
  • Wisconsin State Historical Society, "July 8, Fort Gratiot, Mich.: Cholera Strikes Down Gen. Winfield Scott's Army," Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  • Wisconsin State Historical Society, "July 12: "The Most Painful Situation Which Can Well Be Imagined"", Historic Diaries: The Black Hawk War. Retrieved 6 August 2007.

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External links

The Black Hawk War of 1832, Illinois Historical Digitization Projects at Northern Illinois University Libraries


  Results from FactBites:
 
Black Hawk War (941 words)
The Black Hawk War, named for the leader of a band of Sauk and Fox Indians[?], was the result of government annexation of lands in Illinois.
Black Hawk did not sanction the sale of this land and was determined to regain the village; after a year of tension, he returned again in 1831, and Governor John Reynolds[?] proclaimed it an "invasion of the state".
Black Hawk escaped with ten warriors and 35 women and children to Wisconsin, but on August 27 they were captured and delivered to Prairie du Chien[?].
Black Hawk - LoveToKnow 1911 (609 words)
BLACK HAWK [Ma`katawimesheka`ka, "Black Sparrow Hawk"], (1767-1838, American Indian warrior of the Sauk and Fox tribes, was born at the Sauk village on Rock river, near the Mississippi, in 1767.
British influences were still strong in the upper Mississippi valley and undoubtedly led Black Hawk and the chiefs of the Sauk and Fox confederacy to repudiate this agreement of 1804, and subsequently to enter into the conspiracy of Tecumseh and take part with the British in the war of 1812.
That of 1816 was signed by Black Hawk himself, who declared, however, when in 1823 Chief Keokuk and a majority of the two nations crossed the river, that the consent of the chiefs had been obtained by fraud.
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