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Encyclopedia > Black Hand
Members of the Black Hand

Black Hand (Serbian: Црна рука / Crna Ruka), officially Unification or Death (Serbian: Уједињење или смрт / Ujedinjenje ili smrt), was a secret society founded in Serbia in May 1911[1][2], as part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary[3]. This society's possible connections to the June 28, 1914 assassination in Sarajevo of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria is considered to have been the main catalyst to the start of World War I. Black Hand (blackmail), blackmail practiced by gangsters of Camorra and Mafia. ... Image File history File links Members of the Black Hand (From Serbian Wikipedia) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Members of the Black Hand (From Serbian Wikipedia) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young... Franz Ferdinand links to here. ... For the war in general, see World War I. The Causes of World War I were complex and included many factors, including the conflicts and antagonisms of the four decades leading up to the war. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Origin

The Black Hand seal
The Black Hand seal

The Black Hand was founded by former members of a semi-secret society named Narodna Odbrana (Defense of the People) dedicated to achieving Pan-Slavism and nationalism by means of assassination. The purpose of the group was to recruit and train partisans for a possible war between Serbia and Austria and eventually free Serbia from Austria. Under their anti-Austrian propaganda, they organized spies and saboteurs to operate within the empire's provinces. Satellite groups were formed in Slovenia, Bosnia, Herzegovina and Austria. In 1909, after the Bosnian Annexation Crisis, Austria pressured the Serbian government to put a stop to their anti-Austrian insurrection. At that time Russia lacked military strength to fully support Serbia in case of a war, so the organization was forced to stop. From then on, Narodna Odbrana attempted to disguise itself as a cultural organization by shifting its concentration to education and propaganda within Serbia. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Narodna Odbrana logo Narodna Odbrana (literally, The Peoples Defense) was a Serbian nationalist group that was created around 1908 as a reaction to the Austria-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 was caused by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in October, 1908. ...


In 1912, differences between the two main groups of the Narodna Odbrana—political leaders of the Radical Party and military officers—arose. The political leaders preferred a more passive approach for the time being, including more peaceful relations with Austria and concentrating on strengthening Serbia for future struggle, but some of the military officers grew impatient with the more moderate radical policies. Consequently, the more zealous members of the Narodna Odbrana started a new secret society, and the Black Hand was founded .


Ideology

The group encompassed a range of ideological outlooks, from conspiratorially-minded army officers to idealistic youths, sometimes tending towards republicanism, despite the acquisition of nationalistic royal circles in its activities (the movement's leader, Col. Dragutin Dimitrijević or "Apis", had been instrumental in the June 1903 coup which had brought King Petar Karađorđević to the Serbian throne following 45 years of rule by the rival Obrenović dynasty). The group was denounced as nihilist by the Austro-Hungarian press and compared to the Russian People's Will and the Chinese Assassination Corps which, like the Black Hand, used assassination to achieve anti-imperialist political goals. This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... King Peter I of Serbia (Serbian Cyrillic: Петар I Карађорђевић, Petar I KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević) (29 June 1844 – 16 August 1921) was King of Serbia from 1903 to 1918 after which he became the first King of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. ... Coat of arms of Serbia This is a list of Serbian monarchs. ... The house Obrenović(i) ruled Serbia from 1815-1842 and 1858-1903. ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Narodnaya Volya (Народная воля in Russian, known as People’s Will in English) was a Russian revolutionary organization in the early 1880s. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ...


Impact

Just prior to World War I, under the orders of the Chief of Serbian Military Intelligence, Serbian Military Officers and remnants of the by then moribund Black Hand organized and facilitated the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria on occasion of his visit to Sarajevo, Bosnia. The Austro-Hungarian investigation of the assassination rounded up all but one of the assassins and also much of the underground railroad that had been used to transport the assassins and their weapons from Serbia to Sarajevo. Under interrogation, the assassins fingered members of the Serbian Military. Within two days following the assassination, Austria-Hungary and Germany advised Serbia that she should open an investigation, but Serbian Foreign Minister Gruic, speaking for Serbia replied, "Nothing had been done so far, and the matter did not concern the Serbian Government," after which "high words" were spoken on both sides. Entreaties by Germany asking Russia to intercede with Serbia were ignored. On July 23rd, Austria-Hungary delivered a toughly worded letter to Serbia with ten enumerated demands and additional demands in the preamble aimed at the destruction of the anti-Austrian terrorist and propaganda network in Serbia. Austria called attention to Serbia's March, 1909 declaration committing to the Great Powers to respect Austria-Hungary's sovereignty over Bosnia-Herzegovina and committing Serbia to maintain good neighborly relations with Austria-Hungary. If the ten enumerated demands and demands in the preamble were not agreed to within 48 hours, Austria-Hungary would recall its ambassador from Serbia. The letter became known as the July Ultimatum. Serbia accepted all but one of the demands, which would have compromised its sovereignty. In response, Austria-Hungary recalled its ambassador. Franz Ferdinand links to here. ... The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia or July Ultimatum was an ultimatum or final list of demands delivered to the government of Serbia on July 23, 1914, following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. ...


Austria-Hungary authorized the mobilization and the declaration of war against Serbia on July 28, 1914. The Secret Treaty of 1892 required both Russia and France to mobilize immediately followed by a commencement of action against the Triple Alliance if any member of the Triplice mobilized, and so soon all the Great Powers of Europe were at war except Italy. Italy cited a clause in the Triple Alliance treaty which only bound it to enter in case of aggression against one of the treaty members, and so remained neutral - for the time being. is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pont Alexandre III in Paris and the Trinity Bridge in St Petersburg remain two symbols of the Franco-Russian Alliance. ... For other uses, see Triple Alliance. ...


The six assassins caught by Austria-Hungary were tried and convicted of treason. The leader, Danilo Ilic, was hanged. The remaining assassins in custody were not yet twenty years old at the time of the assassination and so were given prison terms. Most of the underground railroad that transported them were also arrested, tried, and convicted. Two of these were executed. A few peripheral conspirators were acquitted. A wide ranging investigation rolled up many additional irredentist youths, and the fifth column that the Black Hand and Serbian Military Intelligence had tried to organize was eliminated. After receiving the Austrian letter, Serbia arrested Major Tankosic (a member of the Black Hand committee who had been fingered by the assassins) but then promptly released him and returned him to his unit. The seventh assassin escaped to Montenegro where he was arrested. Austria-Hungary asserted its right to extradite him, but Montenegrin authorities instead allowed the assassin to "escape" to Serbia where he joined Major Tankosic's unit; Major Tankosic died in November 1915 covering the Serbian retreat, but not before confessing his role in the assassination to historians at Azania. Masterspy Rade Malobabic, Serbian Military Intelligence's top agent against Austria-Hungary, was arrested on his return from Austria-Hungary after the assassination, but was also later released and given a commission running an army supply store. In 1917 Serbia's government in exile arrested the leadership of the Black Hand wishing to halt their underground influence in both the army and politics. The leadership was tried before a kangaroo court and convicted on false charges unrelated to Sarajevo, such as plotting an assassinations of Nikola Pašić and Crown prince Aleksandar; many were given death sentences. Three of the accused were ultimately shot by firing squad, against protests of the new Kerenskz government of Russia. Before being shot, Dragutin Dimitrievic made a written confession to the court that he had ordered Rade Malobabic to organize the assassination of Franz Ferdinand. Malobabic made an implied confession to a priest before he was executed. Vulovovic's confession came at trial were he said he received orders signed by Serbia's top military officer to send Malobabic into Austria-Hungary just before the assassination. Much later, a new trial was ordered by Yugoslavia and the convictions were overturned. Irredentism is claiming a right to territories belonging to another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Nikola PaÅ¡ić // Nikola P. PaÅ¡ić (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола П. Пашић, at the time also spelled Pashitch or Pachitch), (December 18, 1845 - December 10, 1926) was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat, the most important Serbian political figure for almost 40 years, leader of the Peoples Radical Party who, among...


References

  1. ^ Black Hand
  2. ^ The Black Hand: The Secret Serbian Terrorist Society
  3. ^ Gavrilo Princip and the Black Hand organization

See also

Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Narodna Odbrana logo Narodna Odbrana (literally, The Peoples Defense) was a Serbian nationalist group that was created around 1908 as a reaction to the Austria-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... White Hand, or Bela Ruka, was a secret, unofficial military organization in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (and later in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Black Hand (1110 words)
The Black Hand was organized at the grassroots level in 3 to 5-member cells.
The Black Hand was displeased with Prime minister Nikola Pasic.
In June 1917, the Black Hand was outlawed.
Black Hand - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (609 words)
The Black Hand was founded by former members of a semi-secret society named Narodna Odbrana (Defence of the People) dedicated to achieving Pan-Slavism and nationalism by means of terrorism.
Just prior to World War I, the Black Hand supplied weapons and assistance to fifteen people in a plot to assassinate the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand while he was visiting present day Bosnia.
His subsequent execution signaled the Black Hand's eclipse by the monarchist White Hand, which was to dominate the political outlook of military leaders in the inter-war Yugoslav kingdom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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