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Encyclopedia > Black Consciousness Movement
AZAPO emblem
Apartheid in South Africa
Events and Projects

Sharpeville Massacre · Soweto uprising
Treason Trial
Rivonia Trial · Church Street bombing
CODESA · St James Church massacre
taken from http://www. ... taken from http://www. ... See also Official website Categories: Politics stubs | South African political parties ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people including Nelson Mandela were arrested in a raid and accussed of treason in 1956. ... The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to ferment violent revolution. // Origins It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19... The Church Street bombing was a 1983 terrorist attack by the African National Congress in Pretoria, South Africa which killed 16 and wounded 130. ... The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993. ... The St James Church massacre was a massacre perpetrated at St James Church, Cape Town by the Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA). ...

Organizations

ANC · IFP · AWB · Black Sash · CCB
Conservative Party · PP · RP
PFP · HNP · MK · PAC · SACP · UDF
Broederbond · National Party · COSATU For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ... The Black Sash was a non-violent white womens resistance organisation founded in 1955 in South Africa by Jean Sinclair. ... The Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) was a covert South African apartheid-era hit squad[1]. Inaugurated in 1986, and fully functional by 1988 it was set up to eliminate anti-apartheid activists, destroy ANC facilities, and find means to circumvent the economic sanctions[1] imposed on that country. ... The Conservative Party of South Africa (Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a far-right party formed in 1982 as a breakaway from the ruling National Party. ... The Progressive Party was a liberal South African party that opposed the ruling National Partys policies of apartheid. ... The Reform Party was created by a group who left the United Party led by Harry Schwarz on February 11 1975. ... The Progressive Federal Party (PFP) was a South African political party formed in 1977. ... The Herstigte Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (Refounded National Party of South Africa) was formed as a right wing splinter group of the South African National Party. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... PAC symbol This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The United Democratic Front (UDF) was one of the most important anti-apartheid organisations of the 1980s. ... The Afrikanerbond or, formerly, the Afrikaner Broederbond, is an organisation which promotes the interests of the Afrikaners. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. ...

People

P.W Botha · Oupa Gqozo · DF Malan
Nelson Mandela · Desmond Tutu · F.W. de Klerk
Walter Sisulu · Helen Suzman · Harry Schwarz
Andries Treurnicht · HF Verwoerd · Oliver Tambo
BJ Vorster · Kaiser Matanzima · Jimmy Kruger
Steve Biko · Mahatma Gandhi · Trevor Huddleston Pieter Willem Botha (January 12, 1916 – October 31, 2006), commonly known as PW and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for The Big Crocodile), was the prime minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive state president from 1984 to 1989. ... Joshua Oupa Gqozo (10 March 1952 - ) was a former Ciskei military ruler. ... Daniel François Malan (May 22, 1874 - February 7, 1959) is seen as the champion of South African nationalism. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Helen Suzman was born Helen Gavronsky on 7th November 1917 in Germiston, South Africa as the daughter of Lithuanian-Jewish immigrants. ... Harry H. Schwarz (born Cologne, Germany, May 13, 1924), is a South African politician, diplomat, and jurist. ... Andries Treurnicht (1921-1993) was the founder and the leader of the Conservative Party in South Africa. ... Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 - 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, when he was assassinated. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (June 15, 1915 - June 15, 2003) was a former leader of the then-bantustan of Transkei in South Africa; He led Transkei to self-government in 1964 and to an internationally unrecognised indepedence in October, 1976. ... James Thomas Jimmy Kruger (1917 - 1987) was a South African politician who rose to the position of Minister of Justice and the Police in the cabinet of Prime Minister John Vorster from 1974 to 1979. ... Steve Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Bronze bust in Bedford. ...

Places

Bantustan · District Six · Robben Island
Sophiatown · South-West Africa
Soweto · Vlakplaas Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986 Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978 Bantustan is a territory designated as a tribal homeland for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. ... District Six is the name of a former neighborhood of Cape Town, South Africa, best known for the forced removal of its inhabitants during the 1970s. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ... Sophiatown was a lively, mostly-black suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. ... Vlakplaas is a farm that served as the headquarters of a counterinsurgency unit working for the apartheid government in South Africa. ...

Other aspects

Apartheid laws · Freedom Charter
Sullivan Principles · Kairos Document
Disinvestment campaign
South African Police The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ... The Sullivan Principles were developed in 1977 by the Rev. ... The Kairos Document (KD) is a provocative theological statement issued by an anonymous group of theologians mostly based in the black townships of Soweto, South Africa, in 1985. ... The campaign gained prominence in the mid-1980s on university campuses in the US. The debate headlined the October 1985 issue (above) of Vassar Colleges student newspaper. ... The South African Police Service is the national police force of South Africa. ...

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The Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) was a grassroots anti-Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960’s out of the political vacuum created by the decimation of the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress leadership, by jailing and banning, after the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960.[1]. The BCM represents a social movement for political consciousness. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... A power vacuum is an expression for a political situation that can occur when a government has no identifiable central authority. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... PAC symbol The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ... The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... // Consciousness typically refers to the idea of a being who is self-aware. ...


“Black Consciousness had a great impact on South African society and the churches were no exception. Its origins were deeply rooted in Christianity. In 1966, the Anglican Church under the incumbent, Archbishop Robert Selby Taylor, convened a meeting which later on led to the foundation of the University Christian Movement (UCM). This was to become the vehicle for Black Consciousness.” [2] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... Diocese Chart showing Bishops and Deans of St. ...


From its onset, the BCM aggressively launched an attack on traditional White values, especially the ‘condescending’ values of Whites of liberal opinion. They refused to engage White Liberal opinion on the pros and cons of Black Consciousness, and emphasized the rejection of White monopoly on truth as a central tenet of their movement. While this philosophy at first generated some heat amongst Black anti-Apartheid activists within South Africa, it was in short order adopted by most as a positive development. As a result, there emerged a greater cohesiveness and solidarity amongst black groups in general, which in turned propelled Black Consciousness to the forefront of the anti-Apartheid struggle within South Africa.[3] – Pages 47-48. Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of...


The BCM’s policy of perpetually challenging the dialectic of Apartheid South Africa as a means of conscientizing Black brought it into direct conflict with the full force of the Security Apparatus of the Apartheid regime. “Black man, you are on your own” became the rallying cry as mushrooming activity committees implemented what was to become a relentless campaign of challenge to what was then referred to by the BCM as ‘the System’. It eventually sparked a confrontation on June 16th, 1976 in Soweto, when at least 200 people were killed by the South African Security Forces, as students marched to protest the use of the Afrikaans language in African Schools. Unrest spread like wildfire throughout the country. The Black revolution in South Africa had begun. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


However, although it successfully implemented a system of comprehensive local committees to facilitate organized resistance, the BCM itself was decimated by security action taken against its leaders and social programs. By June 19th, 1976, 123 key members had been banned and confined to remote rural districts. In 1977 all BCM related organizations were banned, many of its leaders arrested, and their social programs dismantled under provisions of the newly Implemented Internal Security Amendment Act . In September 1977, its banned National Leader, Steve Biko, was murdered while in the custody of the South African Security Police.[4][5] Steve Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ...

Contents

History

Steve Biko and the formation of Black Consciousness

The Black Consciousness Movement started to develop during the late 1960s, and was led by Steve Biko, a black medical student, and Barney Pityana. During this period, the ANC had committed to an armed struggle through its military wing Umkhonto we Sizwe, but this small guerrilla army was neither able to seize and hold territory in South Africa nor to win significant concessions through its efforts. The ANC had been banned by apartheid leaders, and although the famed Freedom Charter remained in circulation in spite of attempts to censor it, for many students the ANC had disappeared. As black people continued to struggle to find ways to gain ground against apartheid, Biko and other Black Consciousness theorists began to concern themselves not only with political liberation but with the meaning of blackness itself. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Steve Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ... Medical school generally refers to a tertiary educational institution (or part of such an institution) which is involved in the education of future medical practitioners (medical doctors). ... Nyameko Barney Pityana is a lawyer and theologian in South Africa. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ...


The term Black Consciousness stems from American educator W. E. B. DuBois's evaluation of the double consciousness of American black's being taught what they feel inside to be lies about the weakness and cowardice of their race. DuBois echoed Civil War era black nationalist Martin Delaney's insistence that black people take pride in their blackness as an important step in their personal liberation. This line of thought was also reflected in the Pan Africanist, Marcus Garvey, as well as Harlem Renaissance philosopher Alain Locke and in the salons of the Nardal sisters in Paris. Biko's understanding of these thinkers was further shaped through the lens of postcolonial thinkers such as Frantz Fanon, Léopold Senghor, and Aimé Césaire. Biko reflects the concern for the existential struggle of the black person as a human being, dignified and proud of his blackness, in spite of the oppression of colonialism (see Négritude). The aim of this global movement of black thinkers was to restore black consciousness and African consciousness, which they felt had been suppressed under colonialism. [6] W. E. B. DuBois William Edward Burghardt DuBois (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an African-American civil rights activist, sociologist, freemason, and scholar. ... Double-Consciousness, in its contemporary sense, was a term coined by W.E.B. Du Bois. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Martin Robison Delany (May 6, 1812 - 1885) was the First Afro-American Field Officer in the United States Army. ... Pan-Africanism literally means all Africanism. It is a sociopolitical world-view, as well as a movement, which seeks to unify and uplift blacks on the African continent and in the African diaspora as part of a global African community. As originally conceived by Trinidadian Henry Sylvester Williams, pan-Africanism... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... The Harlem Renaissance(also known as the Black Literary Renaissance and The New Negro Movement) refers to the flowering of African American cultural and intellectual life during the 1920s and 1930s. ... Alain LeRoy Locke (1886-1954) was born on September 13, 1886, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania He was an American educator, writer, and philosopher, and is best remembered as a leader and chief interpreter of the Harlem Renaissance. ... Postcolonial theory is a literary theory or critical approach that deals with literature produced in countries that were once, or are now, colonies of other countries. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was an author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... Léopold Sédar Senghor (October 9, 1906–December 20, 2001) was an Seneglese poet and politician who served as the first president of Senegal (1960–1980). ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (born June 25, 1913) is a French poet, author and politician. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Part of the insight of the Black Consciousness Movement was in understanding that black liberation would not only come from imagining and fighting for structural political changes, as older movements like the ANC did, but also from psychological transformation in the minds of black people themselves. This analysis suggested that to take power, black people had to believe in the value of their blackness. That is, if black people believed in democracy, but did not believe in their own value, they would not truly be committed to gaining power.


Along these lines, Biko saw the struggle to restore African consciousness as having two stages, "Psychological liberation" and "Physical liberation". While at times Biko embraced the non-violent tactics of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, this was not because Biko fully embraced their spiritually-based philosophies of non-violence. Rather, Biko knew that for his struggle to give rise to physical liberation, it was necessary that it exist within the political and military realities of the apartheid regime, in which the armed power of the white government outmatched that of the black majority. Therefore Biko's non-violence may be seen more as a tactic than a personal conviction. [7] However, along with political action, a major component of the Black Consciousness Movement was its Black Community Programs, which included the organization of community medical clinics, aiding entrepreneurs, and holding "consciousness" classes and adult education literacy classes. “Gandhi” redirects here. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ...


Another important component of psychological liberation was to embrace blackness by insisting that black people lead movements of black liberation. This meant rejecting the fervent "non-racialism" of the ANC in favor of asking whites to understand and support, but not to take leadership in, the Black Consciousness Movement. A parallel can be seen in the United States, where student leaders of later phases of SNCC, and black nationalists such as Malcolm X, rejected white participation in organizations that intended to build black power. While the ANC viewed white participation in its struggle as part of enacting the non-racial future for which it was fighting, the Black Consciousness view was that even well-intentioned white people often reenacted the paternalism of the society in which they lived. This view held that in a profoundly racialized society, black people had to first liberate themselves and gain psychological, physical and political power for themselves before "non-racial" organizations could truly be non-racial. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ...


Biko's BCM had much in common with other left-wing African nationalist movements of the time, such as Amilcar Cabral's PAIGC and Huey Newton's Black Panther Party. lcar Cabral Am lcar Lopes Cabral (1924–January 20, 1973) was an African writer and nationalist. ... PAIGC emblem A PAIGC soldier with an AK-47 The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (Portuguese: Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde), or PAIGC is a political party in Guinea-Bissau. ... Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 - August 22, 1989) was co-founder and inspirational leader of the Black Panther Party, a militant African-American activist group. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ...


Note: For those interested in Steve Biko watch the movie Cry Freedom!


Early years: 1960-1976

Although the ANC and others opposed to apartheid had initially focused on non-violent campaigns, the brutality of the Sharpeville Massacre of March 21, 1960 caused many blacks to embrace the idea of violent resistance to apartheid. However, although the ANC's armed wing started its campaign in 1961, no victory was in sight by the time that Steve Biko was a medical student in the late nineteen-sixties. Even as the nation's leading opposition groups like the ANC proclaimed a commitment to armed struggle, their leaders had failed to organize a credible military effort. If their commitment to revolution had inspired many, the success of the white regime in quashing it had dampened the spirits of many. The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It was in this context that black students, Biko most notable among them, began critiquing the liberal whites with whom they worked in anti-apartheid student groups, as well as the official non-racialism of the ANC. They saw progress towards power as requiring the development of black power distinct from supposedly "non-racial groups." They formed the South African Students' Organization in 1969, an all-black student group, and from this grew an increasingly militant Black Consciousness Movement, including the formation of a non-student organization, the Black People's Convention (BPC). The South African Student Organization (also known as SASO) was a body of South African students who resisted apartheid through political action. ...


This new Black Consciousness Movement not only called for resistance to the policy of Apartheid, freedom of speech, and more rights for South African blacks who were oppressed by the white Apartheid regime, but also black pride and a readiness to make blackness, rather than simple liberal democracy, the rallying point of unapologetically black organizations. Importantly, the group defined black to include other "people of color" in South Africa, most notably the large number of South Africans of Indian descent. The movement stirred many blacks to confront not only the legal but also the cultural and psychological realities of Apartheid, seeking "not black visibility but real black participation" in society and in political struggles. [8] This article is about the general concept. ... Black pride is a slogan used interchangeably to depict both the movement of and concept within politically active black communities, especially African Americans in the United States and secluding White communities. ...


The gains this movement made were widespread across South Africa. Many black people felt a new sense of pride about being black as the movement helped to expose and critique the inferiority complex felt by many blacks at the time. The group formed Formation Schools to provide leadership seminars, and placed a great importance on decentralization and autonomy, with no person serving as president for more than one year (although Biko was clearly the primary leader of the movement). Early leaders of the movement such as Bennie Khoapa, Barney Pityana, Mapetla Mohapi, and Mamphela Ramphele joined Biko in establishing the Black Community Programmes (BCP) in 1970 as self-help groups for black communities, forming out of the South African Council of Churches and the Christian Institute. They also published various journals, including the Black Review, Black Voice, Black Perspective, and Creativity in Development. Bennie Khoapa was a social worker in South Africa during the 1960s and 1970s involved in the resistance to apartheid. ... Nyameko Barney Pityana is a lawyer and theologian in South Africa. ... Mamphela Aletta Ramphele (28 December 1947 - ) is a South African academic, businesswoman and medical doctor and was an anti-apartheid activist. ... The South African Council of Churches (SACC) is an interdenominational forum in South Africa. ...


On top of building schools and day cares and taking part in other social projects, the BCM through the BCP was involved in the staging of the large scale protests and workers strikes which gripped the nation in 1972 and 1973, especially in Durban. Indeed, in 1973 the government of South Africa began to clamp down on the movement, claiming that their ideas of black development were treasonous, and virtually the entire leadership of SASO and BPC were banned. In late August and September of 1974, after holding rallies in support of the Frelimo government which had taken power in Mozambique, many leaders of the BCM were arrested under the Terrorism Act and the Riotous Assemblies Act. Arrests under these laws allowed the suspension of the doctrine of habeas corpus, and many of those arrested were not formally charged until the next year, resulting in the arrest of the "Pretoria Twelve" and conviction of the "SASO nine", which included Maitshe Mokoape and Patrick Lekota. These were the most prominent among various public trials which gave a forum for members of the BCM to explain their philosophy and to describe the abuses that had been inflicted upon them. Far from crushing the movement, this led to its wider support among black and white South Africans. [9] Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO, pronounced fray-LEE-moo; Portuguese: Frente de Libertação de Moçambique) is a political party that has ruled Mozambique since independence in 1975. ... For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ... Mosiuoa Gerard Patrick Lekota (13 August 1948 -) is the current (as of 2006) South African Minister of Defence, a position he has held since 17 June 1999. ...


The Soweto riots and after: 1976-present

Main article: Soweto riots
The body of Hector Pieterson, one of the first fatalities, is carried by a student during the Soweto riots. Photo by Sam Nzima.

The Black Consciousness Movement heavily supported the protests against the policies of the apartheid regime which led to the Soweto riots in June of 1976. The protests began when it was decreed that black students be forced to learn Afrikaans, and that many secondary school classes were to be taught in that language. This was another encroachment against the black population, which generally spoke indigenous languages like Zulu and Xhosa at home, and saw English as offering more prospects for mobility and economic self-sufficiency than did Afrikaans. And the notion that Afrikaans was to define the national identity stood directly against the BCM principle of the development of a unique black identity. The protest began as a non-violent demonstration before police opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds of youths. Fatally-wounded Hector Pieterson (13), one of the first fatalities, is carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo on June 16, 1976, with Antoinette Pieterson (17) running alongside. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 464 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (468 × 605 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Riots in Soweto. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 464 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (468 × 605 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Riots in Soweto. ... Fatally-wounded Hector Pieterson (13), one of the first fatalities, is carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo on June 16, 1976, with Antoinette Pieterson (17) running alongside. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The government's efforts to suppress the growing movement led to the imprisonment of Steve Biko, who became a symbol of the struggle. Biko died in police custody on September 12, 1977. It should be noted that Steve Biko was a non-violent activist, even though the movement he helped start eventually took up violent resistance. White newspaper editor Donald Woods supported the movement and Biko, whom he had befriended, by leaving South Africa and exposing the truth behind Biko's death at the hands of police by publishing the book Biko. is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Donald James Woods, CBE (December 15, 1933 – August 19, 2001) was a South African journalist and anti-apartheid activist. ...


One month after Biko's death, the South African government declared 17 groups associated with the Black Consciousness Movement to be illegal. Following this, many members joined more concretely political and tightly-structured parties such as the ANC, which used underground cells to maintain their organizational integrity despite banning by the government. And it seemed to some that the key goals of Black Consciousness had been attained, in that black identity and psychological liberation were growing. Nonetheless, in the months following Biko's death, activists continued to hold meetings to discuss resistance. Along with members of the BCM, a new generation of activists who had been inspired by the Soweto riots and Biko's death were present, including Bishop Desmond Tutu. Among the organizations that formed in these meetings to carry the torch of Black Consciousness was the Azanian People's Organization (AZAPO) which persists to this day. [10] A covert cell structure is a method for organizing a group in such a way that it can more effectively resist penetration by an opposing organization. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... See also Official website Categories: Politics stubs | South African political parties ...


Almost immediately after the formation of AZAPO in 1978, its chairman, Ishmael Mkhabela, and secretary, Lybon Mabasa were detained under the Terrorism Act. In the following years, other groups sharing Black Consciousness principles formed, including the Congress of South African Students (COSAS), Azanian Student Organization (AZASO) and the Port Elizabeth Black Civic Organization (PEBCO). Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


While many of these organizations still exist in some form, some evolved and could no longer be called parts of the Black Consciousness Movement. And as the influence of the Black Consciousness Movement itself waned, the ANC was returning to its role as the clearly leading force in the resistance to white rule. Still more former members of the Black Consciousness Movement continued to join the ANC, including Thozamile Botha from PEBCO. Thozamile Botha (b. ...


Others formed new groups. For instance, in 1980, Pityana formed the Black Consciousness Movement of Azania (BCMA), an avowedly Marxist group which used AZAPO as its political voice. Curtis Nkondo from AZAPO and many members of AZASO and the Black Consciousness Media Workers Association joined the United Democratic Front (UDF). [11] Many groups published important newsletters and journals, such as the Kwasala of the Black Consciousness Media Workers and the London based BCMA journal, Solidarity. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Malawi political parties ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


And beyond these groups and media outlets, the Black Consciousness Movement had an extremely broad legacy, even as the movement itself was no longer represented by a single organization.


Indeed, while the Black Consciousness Movement itself spawned an array of smaller groups, many people who came of age as activists in the Black Consciousness Movement did not join them. Instead, they joined a plethora of other organizations, including the ANC, the Unity Movement, the Pan Africanist Congress, the United Democratic Front and trade and civic unions. PAC symbol The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Malawi political parties ...


The Black Consciousness Movement's most-lasting legacy is as an intellectual movement. The weakness of theory in and of itself to mobilize constituencies can be seen in AZAPO's inability to win significant electoral support in modern-day South Africa. But the strength of the ideas can be seen in the diffusion of Black Consciousness language and strategy into nearly every corner of black South African politics. See also Official website Categories: Politics stubs | South African political parties ...


In fact, these ideas helped make the complexity of the South African black political world, which can be so daunting to the newcomer or the casual observer, into a strength. As the government tried to act against this organization or that one, people in many organizations shared the general ideas of the Black Consciousness Movement, and these ideas helped to organize action beyond any specific organizational agenda. If the leader of this group or that one was thrown into prison, nonetheless, more and more black South Africans agreed on the importance of black leadership and active resistance. Partly as a result, the difficult goal of unity in struggle became more and more realized through the late nineteen-seventies and nineteen-eighties.


Biko and the legacy of the Black Consciousness movement helped give the resistance a culture of fearlessness. And its emphasis on individual psychological pride helped ordinary people realize they could not wait for distant leaders (who were often exiled or in prison) to liberate them. As the ANC's formal armed wing Umkhonto weSizwe struggled to make gains, this new fearlessness became the basis of a new battle in the streets, in which larger and larger groups of ordinary and often unarmed people confronted the police and the army more and more aggressively. If the ANC could not defeat the white government's massive army with small bands of professional guerrilla fighters, it was able to eventually win power through ordinary black peoples' determination to make South Africa ungovernable by a white government. What could not be achieved by men with guns was accomplished by teenagers throwing stones. While much of this later phase of the struggle was not undertaken under the formal direction of Black Consciousness groups per se, it was certainly fueled by the spirit of Black Consciousness. Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) (Spear of the Nation) was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ...


Even after the end of apartheid, Black Consciousness politics live on in community development projects and "acts of dissent" staged both to bring about change and to further develop a distinct black identity. [12] For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ...


Controversies and criticism

A balanced analysis of the results and legacy of the Black Consciousness Movement would no doubt find a variety of perspectives. A list of research resources is listed at the end of this section including Columbia University's Project on Black Consciousness and Biko's Legacy.


Criticisms of the Movement sometimes mirror similar observations of the Black Consciousness Movement in the United States. (See reference to Fredrickson's comparative work below). On one side, it was argued that the Movement would stagnate into black racialism, aggravate racial tensions and attract repression by the apartheid regime. Other detractors thought the Movement based heavily on student idealism, but with little grassroots support among the masses, and few consistent links to the mass trade-union movement. (See Columbia reference below)


Assessments of the movement (See Gerhard references below) note that it failed to achieve several of its key objectives. It did not bring down the apartheid regime, nor did its appeal to other non-white groups as "people of color" gain much traction. Its focus on blackness as the major organizing principle was very much downplayed by Nelson Mandela and his successors who to the contrary emphasized the multi-racial balance needed for the post-apartheid nation. The community programs fostered by the movement were very small in scope and were subordinated to the demands of protest and indoctrination. It's leadership and structure was essentially liquidated, and it failed to bridge the tribal gap in any *large-scale* way, although certainly small groups and individuals collaborated across tribes.


After much blood shed and property destroyed, critics charged that the Movement did nothing more than raise 'awareness' of some issues, while accomplishing little in the way of sustained mass organization, or of practical benefit for the masses. Some detractors also assert that Black consciousness ideas are out-dated, hindering the new multi-racial South Africa. (See Gerhard reference 1997 below).


Defenses of the Black Consciousness Movement

Defenders of the BCM by contrast held that charges of impracticality failed to grasp the universal power of an idea - the idea of freedom and liberation for blacks. This was Biko's reply to many of the Movement's critics. Indeed Biko rejected the "practicality" charge as an example of the compromises that hindered and delayed black liberation, saying in 1977: "We have been successful to the extent that we have diminished the element of fear in the minds of black people." See Columbia reference below.


Defenders of the movement argued that blackness was the best, most energetic organizing principle that was available at the time, in contrast to laborious legal, non-violent and petition based integrationist approach used by white dominated moderate groups. A similar type of conflict played out in the United States with Black Power militants and prominent dissidents like Muslim Leader Malcolm X dismissing the gradualist, integrationist approach of Martin Luther King as naive and ineffectual. See Taylor Branch's "At Caanan's Edge" on Martin Luther King Jr. below. ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Biko made no bones about the 'consciousness' aspect of the movement and in this limited respect he is similar to Huey P. Newton of the Black Panthers in the United States. What was important to Biko and other leaders, was not creating yet another political party or group squabbling over local spoils, but a fundamental mobilization and change in attitude and outlook of the black oppressed and destitute. Some contemporary BCM leaders claim that its principles are currently relevant and decry what they see as evidence of 'sellout' in the new South Africa. (See AZAPO reference below). Huey Newton Dr. Huey Percy Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989), was co-founder and inspirational leader of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, a black internationalist/racial equality organization that began in October 1966. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a revolutionary Black nationalist organization in the United States that formed in the late 1960s and grew to national prominence before falling apart due to factional rivalries stirred up by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ...


Black Consciousness in literature

In comparison with the Black Power movement in the United States, the Black Consciousness movement felt little need to reconstruct any sort of golden cultural heritage. African linguistic and cultural traditions were alive and well in the country. Short stories published predominantly in Drum magazine had led to the 1950s being called the Drum decade, and future Nobel Prize winner Nadine Gordimer was beginning to become active. The fallout from the Sharpeville massacre led to many of those artists entering exile, but the political oppression of the resistance itself led to a new growth of black South African Literature. In the 1970s, Staffrider magazine became the dominant forum for the publication of BC literature, mostly in the form of poetry and short stories. Book clubs, youth associations, and clandestine street-to-street exchange became popular. Various authors explored the Soweto riots in novels, including Miriam Tlali, Mothobi Mutloatse and Mbulelo Mzamane. But the most compelling force in Black Consciousness prose was the short story, now adapted to teach political morals. Mtutuzeli Matshoba famously wrote, "Do not say to me that I am a man." An important theme of Black Consciousness literature was the rediscovery of the ordinary, which can be used to describe the work of Njabulo Ndebele. [13] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Map showing principal South African languages by municipality. ... There is no single Culture of South Africa. ... Drum is a South African family magazine mainly aimed at black readers and contains market news, entertainment and feature articles. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Nadine Gordimer (born 20 November 1923) is a South African novelist and writer, winner of the 1991 Nobel Prize in literature and 1974 Booker Prize. ... Fatally-wounded Hector Pieterson (13), one of the first fatalities, is carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo on June 16, 1976, with Antoinette Pieterson (17) running alongside. ... Miriam Tlali (born 1933, Johannesburg) is a South African novelist. ... Professor Njabulo S Ndebele is Vice-Chancellor and Principal of the University of Cape Town. ...


However, it was in poetry that the Black Consciousness Movement first found its voice. In a sense, this was a modern update of an old tradition, since several of South Africa's African languages had long traditions of performed poetry. Sipho Sempala, Mongane Serote, and Mafika Gwala led the way, although Sempala turned to prose after Soweto. Serote wrote from exile of his internalization of the struggles, while Gwala's work was informed and inspired by the difficulty of life in his home township of Mpumalanga near Durban. These forerunners inspired a myriad of followers, most notably poet-performance artist Ingoapele Madingoane. Dr. Mongane Wally Serote Mongane Wally Serote (1944-) is a South African poet and writer. ... Mafika Pascal Gwala (born 1946) is a contemporary South African poet and editor, writing in English and Zulu. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ...


James Mathews was a part of the Drum decade who was especially influential to the Black Consciousness Movement. This poem gives an idea of the frustrations that blacks felt under apartheid: James Mathews (Australia) was a rugby league footballer in the New South Wales Rugby League(NSWRL) competition. ...

Freedom's child
You have been denied too long
Fill your lungs and cry rage
Step forward and take your rightful place
You are not going to grow up knocking at the back door....

This poem by an unknown author has a rather confrontational look:

Black man, Black nation
Arise, arise from the slumber
Prepare yourself for war!
We are about to start

Mandlenkosi Langa's poem: "Banned for Blackness" also calls for black resistance :

Look up, black man, quit stuttering and shuffling
Look up, black man, quit whining and stooping
...raise up your black fist in anger and vengeance.

A main tenet of the Black Consciousness Movement itself was the development of black culture, and thus black literature. The cleavages in South African society were real, and the poets and writers of the BCM saw themselves as spokespersons for blacks in the country. They refused to be beholden to proper grammar and style, searching for black aesthetics and black literary values.7 The attempt to awaken a black cultural identity was thus inextricably tied up with the development of black literature.


Important figures in the movement

Steve Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ... Bennie Khoapa was a social worker in South Africa during the 1960s and 1970s involved in the resistance to apartheid. ... Nyameko Barney Pityana is a lawyer and theologian in South Africa. ... Mamphela Aletta Ramphele (28 December 1947 - ) is a South African academic, businesswoman and medical doctor and was an anti-apartheid activist. ... Malusi Mpumlwana (often written Mpumluana) is a Bishop of the Ethiopian Episcopal Church. ... Mthuli ka Shezi (1943-1968) was a South African play write and political activist. ... Thamsanga (Thami) Mnyele (sometimes spelled Thamsanqa) (1948 - June 14, 1985) was a South African artist associated with the anti-apartheid politics of the African National Congress and the Black Consciousness Movement. ... The Market Theatre in Johannesburg, South Africa was established in 1976 as an independent non-racial theatre under Apartheid South Africa. ...

Related groups

The Azanian Peoples Organisation, or AZAPO is a South African political organisation. ... The Black Peoples Convention (BPC) was founded at the end of 1972 as the Nationalist Liberatory Flagship of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM). ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... The Neo Black Movement of Africa is a socio-cultural organisation that seek to revive, retain and modify where necessary those aspects of African culture that would provide vehicles of progress for Africa and her peoples. ... 2004 election poster of the Socialist Party of Azania, featuring party president Lybon Mabasa The Socialist Party of Azania (SOPA) is a political party in South Africa. ... The South African Students Organisation (SASO) was a body of South African students who resisted apartheid through political action. ...

External links

  • The BCM in South African literature
  • Interview with Mamphela Ramphele

References

  1. ^  Biko, Steve. I Write what I Like University of Chicago Press (2002). The roots of conflicting consciousness is discussed in the introduction to this collection of Biko's writings as written by Lewis R. Gordon (see page ix), as well as in Chapter 11, Steve Biko's essay Black Racism and White Consciousness (pages 61-72), of that volume. Mamphela Ramphele describes Biko's referencing of Négritude writers on page 55 of her autobiography, Acros Boundaries (1999) The feminist Press at CUNY.
  2. ^  Companion to African Philosophy. edited by Kwasi Wiredu, William E. Abraham, Abiola Irele, Ifeanyi A. Menkiti. Blackwell Publishing (2003) p. 213
  3. ^  Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. edited by Kwame Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates. Basic Civitas Books (1999)p. 250
  4. ^  Michael Lobban. White Man's Justice: South African Political Trials in the Black Consciousness Era. New York: Oxford University Press (1996)
  5. ^  John Brewer, After Soweto: An Unfinished Journey. Oxford: Clarendon Press, (1986) ch. 4
  6. ^  Nigel Gibson. Black Consciousness 1977-1987; The Dialectics of Liberation in South Africa Accessed on December 1, 2005. [14]
  7. ^  Power of Development. ed. Jonathan Crush. Routledge (UK) (1995) p. 252
  8. ^ a  Doug Killam. The Companion to African Literatures. Indiana University Press (2001) (Section titled Apartheid ) pgs. 29-47
  • Columbia University research page on the BCM: http://socialjustice.ccnmtl.columbia.edu/index.php/Biko's_Legacy
  • Black Power in South Africa: The Evolution of an Ideology (1979) by Gail M. Gerhart
  • From Protest to Challenge Nadir and Resurgence 1964 1979 (From Protest to Challenge: a Documentary History of African Politics in South Africa, 1882-1990) (1997) by Thomas G. Karis, Gail M. Gerhart
  • White Supremacy : A Comparative Study of American and South African History (1981) by George M. Fredrickson
  • At Canaan's Edge : America in the King Years, 1965-68 (2006) by Taylor Branch
  • The Black Consciousness Movement in South African Literature, By Amatoritsero (Godwin) Ede
  • Columbia University research page on the BCM: [15]
  • Black Power in South Africa: The Evolution of an Ideology (1979) by Gail M. Gerhart
  • From Protest to Challenge Nadir and Resurgence 1964 1979 (From Protest to Challenge: a Documentary History of African Politics in South Africa, 1882-1990) (1997) by Thomas G. Karis, Gail M. Gerhart
  • White Supremacy : A Comparative Study of American and South African History (1981) by George M. Fredrickson
  • At Canaan's Edge : America in the King Years, 1965-68 (2006) by Taylor Branch
  • The Black Consciousness Movement in South African Literature, By Amatoritsero (Godwin) Ede
  • AZAPO speech reasserting relevance of black consciousness
  • Article on Black Consciousness in South Africa by Fanon scholar Nigel Gibson
  • Fanon scholar Lewis Gordon's new introduction to Biko's I Write What I Like

  Results from FactBites:
 
Black People's Convention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (594 words)
Black in the context of BCM is an inclusive concept of historically oppressed peoples (Africans, Coloureds and (Asian) Indians) in then aprtheid South Africa.
The BPC was to the South African Student Organization ((SASO)) South Africa's Black Consciousness Movement the same role that the Black Panther Party (BPP) was to SNCC and the Black Power Movement.
In exile from 1974 onwards BCM activists and organizers re-built the movement as the Black Consciousness Movement of Azania (BCMA) and in 1980, became the external wing of AZAPO, with an interim executive leadership committee.
Black Consciousness Movement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4375 words)
The Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) is a grassroots anti-Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960’s out of the political vacuum created by the decimation of the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress leadership, by jailing and banning, after the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960.
The Black Consciousness Movement heavily supported the protests against the policies of the apartheid regime which led to the Soweto riots in June of 1976.
And as the influence of the Black Consciousness Movement itself waned, the ANC was returning to its role as the clearly leading force in the resistance to white rule.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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