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Encyclopedia > Bivalvia
Bivalves
Fossil range: Cambrian - Recent
"Acephala" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904
"Acephala" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Linnaeus, 1758
Subclasses

Anomalosdesmata
Cryptodonta
Heterodonta
Paleoheterodonta
Palaeotaxodonta
Pteriomorphia
and see text For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2323x3280, 2134 KB) Summary The 55th plate from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), depicting organisms classified as Acephala (= Class Bivalvia). ... Ernst Haeckel. ... The 8th print, Discomedusae. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontidae The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar animals well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... In object-oriented programming, subclass is a class that is derived from another class or classes. ... Families See text. ... Orders †Praecardioida Solemyoida Cryptodonta is a subclass of the bivalves. ... Orders †Cycloconchidae Hippuritoida †Lyrodesmatidae Myoida †Redoniidae Veneroida Heterodonta is a mollusc subclass in the class Bivalvia and contains the orders †Cycloconchidae, Hippuritoida, †Lyrodesmatidae, Myoida, †Redoniidae, and Veneroida (cockles). ... Orders †Trigonioida Unionoida Paleoheterodonta is a mollusc subclass of the Bivalvia. ... Families Lametilidae Malletiidae H. and A. Adams, 1858 Neilonellidae Schileyko, 1989 Nuculanidae Meek, 1864 Nuculidae Gray, 1824 Praenuculidae Mcalester, 1969 Pristiglomidae Sanders and Allen, 1973 Siliculidae Allen and Sanders, 1973 Tindariidae Verrill and Bush, 1897 Yoldiidae Habe, 1977 Nuculoida is an order of bivalves. ... Orders Arcoida †Cyrtodontoida Mytiloida Ostreoida †Praecardioida Pterioida Pteriomorphia is a mollusc subclass of the Bivalvia. ...

Mussels in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England.
Fossil gastropod and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic limestone bedding plane in southern Israel.
Aviculopecten subcardiformis; an extinct pectenoid bivalve from the Logan Formation (Lower Carboniferous) of Wooster, Ohio (external mold).

Bivalves are mollusks belonging to the class Bivalvia. They typically have two-part shells, with both valves being symmetrical along the hinge line. The class has 30,000 species, including scallops, clams, oysters and mussels. Other names for the class include Bivalva, Pelecypoda, and Lamellibranchia. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1875 pixel, file size: 777 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1875 pixel, file size: 777 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1314 pixel, file size: 639 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1314 pixel, file size: 639 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Wayne County courthouse in downtown Wooster Wooster (IPA ) first syllable pronounced puss--like the cat--with a w is a city in Wayne County, Ohio, United States. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Genera See text. ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ...


Bivalves are exclusively aquatic; they include both marine and freshwater forms.


Bivalves lack a radula and feed by siphoning and filtering large particles from water. Some bivalves are epifaunal: that is, they attach themselves to surfaces in the water, by means of a byssus or organic cementation. Others are infaunal: they bury themselves in sand or other sediments. These forms typically have a strong digging foot. Some bivalves, such as scallops, can swim. Transverse view of the buccal cavity with the radula Radula types chart. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... The term byssus (sometimes byssal thread, or byssus thread) denotes strong threads secreted by mussels to attach to rocks and large, generally heavy objects in the intertidal zone. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... Genera See text. ...

Contents

Systematics

The systematic layout presented here is according to Newell's 1965 classification based on hinge teeth morphology. There exists no robust phylogeny, and due to the plethora of fossil lineages, DNA sequence data is only of limited use should the subclasses turn out to be paraphyletic. The monophyly of the Anomalosdesmata is especially disputed, but this is of less consequence as that group does not include higher-level prehistoric taxa. For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... In object-oriented programming, subclass is a class that is derived from another class or classes. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one race) if it consists of an inferred common ancestor and all its descendants. ... A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ...


Subclass Palaeotaxodonta Families Lametilidae Malletiidae H. and A. Adams, 1858 Neilonellidae Schileyko, 1989 Nuculanidae Meek, 1864 Nuculidae Gray, 1824 Praenuculidae Mcalester, 1969 Pristiglomidae Sanders and Allen, 1973 Siliculidae Allen and Sanders, 1973 Tindariidae Verrill and Bush, 1897 Yoldiidae Habe, 1977 Nuculoida is an order of bivalves. ...

Subclass Cryptodonta In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Families Lametilidae Malletiidae H. and A. Adams, 1858 Neilonellidae Schileyko, 1989 Nuculanidae Meek, 1864 Nuculidae Gray, 1824 Praenuculidae Mcalester, 1969 Pristiglomidae Sanders and Allen, 1973 Siliculidae Allen and Sanders, 1973 Tindariidae Verrill and Bush, 1897 Yoldiidae Habe, 1977 Nuculoida is an order of bivalves. ... Orders †Praecardioida Solemyoida Cryptodonta is a subclass of the bivalves. ...

  • †Praecardioida
  • Solemyoida

Subclass Pteriomorphia (oysters, mussels, etc) Genera See text. ... Orders Arcoida †Cyrtodontoida Mytiloida Ostreoida †Praecardioida Pterioida Pteriomorphia is a mollusc subclass of the Bivalvia. ...

Subclass Paleoheterodonta Families Arcidae Cucullaeidae Glycymerididae Limopsidae Noetiidae Parallelodontidae Philobryidae The Arcoida are an order (biology) of bivalve molluscs. ... Families Mytilidae Mytiloida is an order of molluscs in the Subclass Pteriomorpha. ... Families Isognomonidae Malleidae Pinnidae Pteriidae Pulvinidae Pterioida is an order of bivalves. ... Orders †Trigonioida Unionoida Paleoheterodonta is a mollusc subclass of the Bivalvia. ...

  • †Trigonioida
  • Unionoida (typical freshwater mussels)
  • †Modiomorpha

Subclass Heterodonta (typical clams, cockles, rudists, etc) Families Trigoniidae Myophoriidae The superfamily Trigoniacea are medium-sized saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks. ... The Unionoida is a taxonomic category, an order within the class Bivalvia. ... Orders †Cycloconchidae Hippuritoida †Lyrodesmatidae Myoida †Redoniidae Veneroida Heterodonta is a mollusc subclass in the class Bivalvia and contains the orders †Cycloconchidae, Hippuritoida, †Lyrodesmatidae, Myoida, †Redoniidae, and Veneroida (cockles). ... For other uses, see Clam (disambiguation). ... The word cockle may refer to: Cockle (bivalve), the common name for bivalve mollusks. ...

  • †Cycloconchidae
  • †Hippuritoida
  • †Lyrodesmatidae
  • Myoida
  • †Redoniidae
  • Veneroida

Subclass Anomalosdesmata Genera Many, including: Chiapasella Hippurites Rudists are a group of bizarrely shaped marine heterodont bivalves that arose during the Jurassic, and became so diverse during the Cretaceous that they were major reef-building organisms in the Tethys Ocean. ... Superfamilies and Families See text. ... Families Arcticidae Astartidae Cardiidae Donacidae Kelliidae Lasaeidae Leptonidae Lucinidae Mactridae Montacutidae Petricolidae Pharidae Psammobiidae Scrobiculariidae Semelidae Solecurtidae Solenidae Tellinidae Thyasiridae Turtoniidae Ungulinidae Veneridae The Veneroida or veneroids are an order of bivalve molluscs. ... Families See text. ...

  • Pholadomyoida

There also exists an alternative systematic scheme according to gill morphology (Franc 1960). This distinguishes between Protobranchia, Filibranchia, and Eulamellibranchia. The first corresponds to Newell's Palaeotaxodonta + Cryptodonta, the second to his Pteriomorphia, and the last contains all other groups. In addition, Franc separated the Septibranchia from his eulamellibranchs, but this would seem to make the latter paraphyletic. Families See text. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ...


Anatomy

Giant clam, Tridacna gigas.
Giant clam, Tridacna gigas.

The shapes of bivalve shells vary greatly - some are rounded and globular, others are flattened and plate-like, while still others, have become greatly elongated in order to aid burrowing. The shipworms of the family Teredinidae have greatly elongated bodies, but the shell valves are much reduced and restricted to the anterior end of the body, where they function as burrowing organs, allowing the animal to dig tunnels through wood.[1] Giant clam or Tridacna gigas. ... Giant clam or Tridacna gigas. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The giant clam (Tridacna gigas) or traditionally, pa’ua, is the largest living bivalve mollusc. ... Genera Kuphus Bactronophorus Neoteredo Dicyathifer Teredothyra Teredora Psiloteredo Uperotus Lyrodus Teredo Nototeredo Spathoteredo Nausitoria Bankia … Shipworms are not in fact worms at all, but rather a group of marine mollusc (Eulamellibranchiata) in the family Teredinidae. ...


Nervous system

The sedentary habit of the bivalves has led to the development of a simpler nervous system than in other molluscs. In all but the simplest forms the neural ganglia are united into two cerebropleural ganglia either side of the oesophagus. The pedal ganglia, controlling the foot, are at its base, and the visceral ganglia (which can be quite large in swimming bivalves) under the posterior adductor muscle.[2] These ganglia are both connected to the cerebropleural ganglia by nerve fibres. There may also be siphonal ganglia in bivalves with a long siphon. The Human Nervous System. ... GÃ…NGLÃŽÃ… is a 1 man electronic grindcore band from Los Angeles California that began in August of 1999. ... The esophagus, oe/œsophagus*, or gullet is the muscular tube in vertebrates through which ingested food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ... Not to be confused with Psiphon. ...


Senses

The sensory organs of bivalves are not well developed, and are largely a function of the posterior mantle margins. the organs are usually tentacles, and most typically are mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors. A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. ... A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. ...


Scallops have complex eyes with a lens and retina, but most other bivalves have much simpler eyes, if any. There are also light-sensitive cells in all bivalves, that can detect shadows falling on the animal.[3] Genera See text. ... Look up lens in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ...


In the septibranchs the inhalant siphon is surrounded by vibration-sensitive tentacles for detecting prey.[4]


Statocysts within the organism help the bivalve to sense its orientation, which then be corrected if need be.[5] The statocyst is a balance organ present in some aquatic invertebrates (Cnidarians, Ctenophores, Bilaterians). ...


Muscles

The muscular system is comprised of the posterior and anterior adductor muscles, although the anterior may be reduced or even lost in some species. In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ...


The paired anterior and posterior pedal retractor muscles operate the animal's foot. In some bivalves, such as oysters and scallops, these retractors are absent. For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Genera See text. ...


Mantle and shell

In bivalves the mantle, a thin membrane surrounding the body, secretes the main shell valves, ligament and hinge teeth, the mantle lobes secreting the valves and the mantle crest the other parts. The mantle is attached to the shell by the mantle retractor muscles at the pallial line. It has been suggested that Net flux be merged into this article or section. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ...


The shell is composed of two calcareous valves, which are made of either calcite (as with, e.g. oysters) or both calcite and aragonite, usually with the aragonite forming an inner layer, as with the pterioida. The outermost layer is the periostracum, composed of a horny organic substance. This forms the familiar coloured layer on the shell.[6] The shell is added to in two ways - at the open edge, and by a gradual thickening throughout the animal's life. Calcareous formed from or containing a high proportion of Calcium carbonate. ... These water valves are operated by handles. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ... Families Isognomonidae Malleidae Pinnidae Pteriidae Pulvinidae Pterioida is an order of bivalves. ... The periostracum is a thin organic coating forming the outer-most layer of the shell of many mollusks. ...


Reproduction

The sexes are usually separate, but some hermaphroditism is known. Bivalves practice external fertilisation. An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... External fertilization is a form of fertilization in which a sperm cell is united with an egg cell external to the body of the female. ...

Behaviour

The radical structure of the bivalves affects their behaviour in several ways. the most significant is the use of the closely-fitting valves as a defence against predation and, in intertidal species such as mussels, drying out. The entire animal can be contained within the shell, which is held shut by the powerful adductor muscles. This defence is difficult to overcome except by specialist predators such as the Starfish and Oystercatcher. A rock, seen at low tide, exhibiting typical intertidal zonation. ... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ... Species Magellanic Oystercatcher Blackish Oystercatcher American Black Oystercatcher American Oystercatcher Canarian Black Oystercatcher African Black Oystercatcher Eurasian Oystercatcher Australian Pies Oystercatcher Chatham Islands Oystercatcher Variable Oystercatcher Sooty Oystercatcher The Oystercatchers are a group of waders; they form the family Haematopodidae, which has a single genus, Haematopus. ...


Feeding

Bivalves are filter-feeders which extract organic matter from the water in which they live. They have an open circulatory system that bathes the organs in hemolymph. Nephridia remove the waste material. Buried bivalves feed by extending a siphon to the surface (indicated by the presence of a palial sinus, the size of which is proportional to the burrowing depth, and represented by their hinge teeth). For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Hemolymph (or haemolymph) is the blood analogue used by all arthropods and most mollusks that have an open circulatory system. ... A paired organ found in nearly all segments of the earthworms body; filters wastes from the coelomic fluid ... Not to be confused with Psiphon. ...


Movement

Razor shells (Ensis spp.) can dig themselves into the sand with great speed to escape predation. Scallops can swim to escape an enemy, clapping their valves together to create a jet of water. Cockles can use their foot to leap from danger. However these methods can quickly exhaust the animal. In the razor shells the siphons can break off only to grow back later. Species Ensis arcuatus The Razor shell (Ensis arcuatus), also called razor clam or Razor fish, is a bivalve of the family Solenidae. ... Species See text. ...


Defensive secretions

The file shells (Limidae) can produce a noxious secretion when threatened, and the fan shells of the same family have a unique, acid-producing organ. Genera See text. ...


Comparison to Brachiopods

Bivalves are laterally combined and have a shell composed of two valves. The valved shell makes them superficially similar to brachiopods, but the construction of the shell is completely different in the two groups: in brachiopods, the two valves are on the upper and lower surfaces of the body, while in bivalves, they are on the left and right sides. Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin brachium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a phylum of animals. ...


Bivalves appeared late in the Cambrian explosion and came to dominate over brachiopods during the Palaeozoic; indeed, by the end-Permian extinction, bivalves were undergoing a huge radiation in numbers while brachiopods (along with around 95% of all species) were devastated. The Cambrian explosion is the geologically kukko sudden appearance in the fossil record of the ancestors of familiar animals, starting about 542 million years ago (Mya). ... Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin brachium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a phylum of animals. ... The Palaeozoic is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ...


Bivalves appear to be better adapted to aquatic life than the Brachiopods were. Far more sophisticated than the brachiopods, bivalves use an energetically-efficient ligament-muscle system for opening valves, and thus require less food to subsist.


References

  1. ^ "Description" in [1]
  2. ^ [http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/zebra/zmis/zmishelp4/nervous_system_and_sense_organs.htm
  3. ^ [http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/zebra/zmis/zmishelp4/nervous_system_and_sense_organs.htm
  4. ^ In "an analysis of the evolution of the septibranch condition"
  5. ^ "a statocyst..." in [2]
  6. ^ "The shell of bivalve molluscs" in [3]
  • Franc, A. (1960): Classe de Bivalves. In: Grassé, Pierre-Paul: Traite de Zoologie 5/II.
  • Newell, N.D. (1969): [Bivalvia systematics]. In: Moore, R.C.: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part N.
  • Jay A. Schneider (Nov 2001). "Bivalve Systematics During the 20th Century" 75 (6): 1119–1127. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2001)075%3C1119:BSDTC%3E2.0.CO;2. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

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Bivalvia

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