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Encyclopedia > Bitter orange
?Citrus aurantium

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. aurantium
Binomial name
Citrus aurantium

The bitter orange, refers to a citrus tree (Citrus aurantium) and its fruit. Many varieties of bitter oranges are used for their essential oil, which is used in perfume and as a flavoring. They are also used in herbal medicine. Other names include sour orange, bigarade orange and Seville orange. Image File history File links Koeh-042. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are a major group of land plants. ... Young castor oil plant showing its prominent two embryonic leaves (cotyledons), that differ from the adult leaves An example of a trimerous and non-eudicot flower: Magnolia Dicotyledons or dicots are a group of flowering plants whose seed typically contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Orders See text The botanical Sub-class Rosidae is a large dicotyledonous flowering plant taxon, containing over 58,000 species grouped within 108 families. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... Genera About 160 genera; selected important genera: Amyris - West Indian Sandalwood Choisya - Mexican orange Citrus - Citrus Dictamnus - Burning-bush Fortunella - Kumquat Melicope - Corkwood, Alani Murraya - Curry tree Phellodendron - Cork-trees Poncirus - Trifoliate orange Ptelea - Hoptree Ruta - Rue Skimmia - Skimmia Tetradium (Euodia) - Euodias Zanthoxylum - Toothache trees Rutaceae is a family of... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus maxima- Pomelo Citrus medica- Citron Citrus reticulata- Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus × sinensis- Sweet Orange Citrus × aurantium- Bitter Orange Citrus × paradisi- Grapefruit Citrus × limon- Lemon Citrus × latifolia- Persian lime Citrus × aurantifolia- Key lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus is a common term... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus maxima- Pomelo Citrus medica- Citron Citrus reticulata- Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus × sinensis- Sweet Orange Citrus × aurantium- Bitter Orange Citrus × paradisi- Grapefruit Citrus × limon- Lemon Citrus × latifolia- Persian lime Citrus × aurantifolia- Key lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus is a common term... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds extracted from plants. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... Flavouring (or flavoring) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ... The term Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ...


  • Citrus aurantium subsp. amara is a spiny evergreen tree native to southern Vietnam but widely cultivated. It is used as grafting stock for citrus trees, in marmalade, and in the liqueurs Triple sec and Curaçao. It is also cultivated for the essential oil expressed from the fruit, and for neroli oil and orange flower water, which are distilled from the flowers.
  • Seville orange (or bigarade) is a widely-known, extremely tart orange now grown throughout the Mediterranean region. It has a thick, dimpled skin and is prized for making marmalade, being higher in pectin than the sweet orange, and therefore giving a better set and a higher yield. It is also used in compotes, for orange-flavored liqueurs and in Canard à l'orange (Duck in orange sauce).
  • Bergamot orange, C. aurantium subsp. bergamia is cultivated in Italy for the production of bergamot oil, a component of many brands of perfume and tea.
  • Chinotto, from the myrtle-leaved orange tree, C. aurantium var. myrtifolia, native to Italy
  • Daidai, C. aurantium var. daidai, used in Chinese medicine and Japanese New Year celebrations.

Grafted apple tree Grafting is a method of plant propagation widely used in horticulture, where the tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of another. ... Marmalade is a sweet conserve made from fruit, sugar, and (usually) a gelling agent. ... Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... Triple sec is a colourless, orange-flavoured liqueur used in thousands of mixed drinks and recipes as a sweetening and flavouring agent. ... Curaçao is a liqueur flavoured with the dried peels of Larahas, bitter relatives of oranges, grown on the island of Curaçao. ... Neroli oil is a plant oil similar to bergamot produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree ( or Bigaradia). ... An essential oil is a water-immiscible material produced by distillation from some plant material. ... Strathisla whisky distillery in Keith, Scotland Distillation is a method of separation of substances based on differences in their volatilities. ... Marmalade is a sweet conserve made from fruit, sugar, and (usually) a gelling agent. ... Pectin is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of plants. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: orange Orange has several meanings. ... A compote is a sweet cooked preparation of whole or cut fruit (such as apples, pears, cherries, strawberries, plums) and sugar, usually more liquid in consistency than jams, jellies or preserves. ... Trinomial name Citrus aurantium subsp. ... The Chinotto (pronounced keen-AWT-toh) is a small bitter citrus fruit from the chinotto, or myrtle-leaved orange tree (). The tree grows to a height of 3m and can be found in Liguria, Tuscany, Sicily and Calabria regions of Italy. ... The myrtle-leaved orange ( (Ker-Gawl)) is a variety of Citrus aurantium with foliage similar to that of the common myrtle. ... Binomial name Citrus aurantium L. var daidai (Makino) The daidai (Japanese:橙、臭橙; Chinese:代代花; Korean:광귤), is an Asian variety of bitter orange. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... In ancient times, the Japanese New Year (正月 shōgatsu) followed the same lunisolar calendar as the Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese New Year (at the beginning of spring). ...

Health supplement status

The extract of bitter orange (and bitter orange peel) has been used in dietary supplements as an aid to fat loss and as an appetite suppressant, although it is highly dangerous. Bitter orange contains synephrine, a drug similar to ephedrine, acting as a stimulant (β3 agonist) with a possible risk of ischemic stroke and heart problems. In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ... In the United States, a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 as a product taken by the mouth that contains a dietary ingredient that is intended as a supplement to the diet. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anorectics, anorexigenics or appetite suppressants, are substances which reduce the desire to eat (anorectic, from the Greek an- = not and oreg- = extend, reach). Used on a short term basis clinically to treat obesity, some appetite suppressants are also available over the counter. ... Synephrine Synephrine is a dietary supplement aimed at encouraging fat loss. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine almost identical in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G-protein coupled receptors that is the target of catecholamines. ... This article is about stroke as medical term. ...

External link

  • Medications, supplements and illicit drugs that can raise your blood pressure

  Results from FactBites:
Orange (fruit) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1261 words)
Oranges are widely grown in warm climates worldwide, and the flavors of orange vary from sweet to sour.
Orange blossom honey, or actually citrus honey, is produced by putting beehives in the citrus groves during bloom, which also pollinates seeded citrus varieties.
The Valencia or Murcia orange is one of the sweet oranges used for juice extraction.
Bitter Orange (952 words)
The bitter orange tree is indigenous to eastern Africa, Arabia, and Syria, and cultivated in Spain, Italy, and North America.
Bitter orange continues to be widely used for insomnia and indigestion in many parts of the world.
Bitter orange has a complex chemical makeup, though it is perhaps most known for the volatile oil in the peel.
  More results at FactBites »



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