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Encyclopedia > Bitrate
Bit rates
Decimal prefixes (SI)
Name Symbol Multiple
kilobit per second kbit/s 103
megabit per second Mbit/s 106
gigabit per second Gbit/s 109
terabit per second Tbit/s 1012
Binary prefixes
(IEC 60027-2)
kibibit per second Kibit/s 210
mebibit per second Mibit/s 220
gibibit per second Gibit/s 230
tebibit per second Tibit/s 240

In telecommunications and computing, bitrate (sometimes written bit rate, data rate or as a variable Rbit) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. Bit rate is often used as synonym to the terms connection speed, transfer rate, channel capacity, maximum throughput and digital bandwidth capacity of a communication system. In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... An SI prefix is a prefix that can be applied to an SI unit to form a decimal multiple (supramultiple or submultiple). ... Cover of brochure The International System of Units. ... ... Cardinal 1000 one thousand Ordinal 1000th Numeral system Factorization Prime Divisor(s) Roman numeral Unicode symbol(s) , , Greek Prefix chilia Latin Prefix milli Binary 1111101000 Octal 1750 Duodecimal 6B4 Hexadecimal 3E8 1000 (one thousand) is the natural number following 999 and preceding 1001. ... A megabit per second (Mbps or Mbit/s or Mb/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,024 kilobits per second or 1048576 bits per second. ... (Redirected from 1 E6) One million (1000000), one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999999 and preceding 1000001. ... A gigabit per second (Gbps or Gbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 megabits per second or 1,000,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000,000 bits per second. ... To help compare orders of magnitude this page lists dimensionless numbers between 109 and 1012. ... A terabit per second (Tbps or Tbit/s) is a unit of data transfer equal to 1,000 gigabits per second, 1,000,000 megabits per second, 1,000,000,000 kilobits per second, or 1,000,000,000,000 bits per second. ... To help compare orders of magnitude this page lists dimensionless numbers between 1012 and 1015: See also Orders of magnitude (numbers) Categories: Stub | Orders of magnitude (numbers) ... In computing, binary prefixes can be used to quantify large numbers where powers of two are more useful than powers of ten. ... In information technology there is sometimes confusion about measurement of bits and bytes. ... A kibibit per second (Kibps or Kibit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,024 bits per second. ... A mebibit per second (Mibps or Mibit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,024 kibibits per second or 1,048,576 bits per second. ... A gibibit per second (Gibps or Gibit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,024 mebibits per second or 1,048,576 kibibits per second or 1,073,741,824 bits per second. ... A tebibit per second (Tibps or Tibit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,024 tebibits per second, 1,048,576 mebibits per second, 1,073,741,824 kibibits per second, or 1,099,511,627,776 bits per second. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Originally, the word computing was synonymous with counting and calculating, and a science and technology that deals with the original sense of computing mathematical calculations. ... In computer science and mathematics, a variable (sometimes called a pronumeral) is a symbol denoting a quantity or symbolic representation. ... A bit (binary digit) refers to a digit in the binary numeral system, which consists of base 2 digits (ie. ... Channel capacity, is the amount of discrete information that can be reliably transmitted over a channel. ... In communication networks, throughput is the amount of digital data per time unit that is physically delivered to a certain terminal in a network, from a network node, or from one node to another, for example via a communication link. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In digital multimedia, bitrate is the number of bits used per unit of time to represent a continuous medium such as audio or video after source coding (data compression). In this sense it corresponds to the term digital bandwidth consumption, or goodput. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images which represent scenes in motion. ... In computer science, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits, or information units, thanks to specific encoding schemes. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The bit rate is quantified using the 'bit per second' (bit/s or bps) unit, often in conjunction with a SI prefix such as kilo (kbit/s or kbps), Mega (Mbit/s or Mbps), Giga (Gbit/s or Gbps) or Tera (Tbit/s or Tbps). An SI prefix is a prefix that can be applied to an SI unit to form a decimal multiple (supramultiple or submultiple). ...


While often referred to as "speed", bitrate does not measure distance/time but quantity/time, and thus should be distinguished from the "propagation speed" (which depends on the transmission medium and has the usual physical meaning). Velocity of Propagation (VoP) is a parameter that characterizes the speed at which an electrical or radio signal passes through a medium. ...


Gross bitrate or raw bitrate is the total number of physically transferred bits per second, including both useful payload data and protocol overhead. The net bitrate or useful bit rate is measured at some reference point above the physical layer, and excludes lower layer protocol overhead, for example redundant channel coding (forward error correction). The physical layer is level one in the seven level OSI model of computer networking as well as in the five layer TCP/IP reference model. ... In digital telecommunications, channel coding is a pre-transmission mapping applied to a digital signal or data file, usually designed to make error-correction possible. ...

Contents

Usage notes

The formal abbreviation for "bit per second" is "bit/s" (not "bits/s"). In less formal contexts the abbreviations "b/s" or "bps" are often used, though this risks confusion with "bytes per second" ("B/s", "Bps"). Even less formally, it is common to drop the "per second", and simply refer to "a 128 kilobit audio stream" or "a 100 megabit network". A byte is commonly used as a unit of storage measurement in computers, regardless of the type of data being stored. ...


"Bitrate" is sometimes used interchangeably with "baud rate", which is correct only when each modulation transition of a data transmission system carries exactly one bit of data (something not true for modern modem modulation systems, for example). Similarly, hertz, the SI unit of frequency, is not precise without some context, such as the number of bits carried per cycle. In telecommunications and electronics, baud (pronounced , unit symbol Bd) is a measure of the symbol rate, that is the number of distinct symbolic changes (signalling event) made to the transmission medium per second in a digitally modulated signal. ... In telecommunications, transmission is the act of transmitting electrical messages (and the associated phenomena of radiant energy that passes through media). ... A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI unit of frequency. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Système International dUnités) is the most widely used system of units. ...


For large bitrates, SI prefixes are used: An SI prefix is a prefix that can be applied to an SI unit to form a decimal multiple (supramultiple or submultiple). ...

1,000 bit/s = 1 kbit/s (one kilobit or one thousand bits per second)
1,000,000 bit/s = 1 Mbit/s (one megabit or one million bits per second)
1,000,000,000 bit/s = 1 Gbit/s (one gigabit or one billion bits per second)

When describing bitrates, binary prefixes are almost never used and SI prefixes are almost always used with the standard, decimal meanings, not the old computer-oriented binary meanings. Binary usage is more often seen when the unit is the byte/s, and is not typical for telecommunication links. Sometimes it is necessary to seek clarification of the units used in a particular context. In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... A kilobit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated kbit or sometimes kb. ... For the techno single by Moby, see Thousand (single). ... A megabit per second (mbps or mbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000 bits per second. ... The megabit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated Mbit or sometimes Mb. ... One million (1000000), one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999999 and preceding 1000001. ... A gigabit per second (gbps or gbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 megabits per second or 1,000,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000,000 bits per second. ... A gigabit is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated Gbit or sometimes Gb. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... In computing, binary prefixes can be used to quantify large numbers where powers of two are more useful than powers of ten. ... An SI prefix is a prefix that can be applied to an SI unit to form a decimal multiple (supramultiple or submultiple). ...


Progress

Looking at the development of transmission speeds, Moore's Law may be applied not only to transistor densities, but as well to transmission speeds: bitrates doubled about every 18 months. Moores law is an empirical observation stating, in effect, that at our rate of technological development and advances in the semiconductor industry, the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every 18 months. ...

improvement in applied bitrates
year WAN LAN WLAN
2005 16 M 1 G 100 M
2000 2 M 100 M 10 M
1995 128 k 10 M 1 M
1990 19 k 1 M
1985 1 k
1970  ?
Proposed standards and first devices
  • WAN:
  • LAN:
    • 1972: IEEE_802.3 802.3 Ethernet 2.94 Mbit/s
    • 1985: 10b2 10 Mbit/s coax thinwire
    • 1990: 10bT 10 Mbit/s
    • 1995: 100bT 100 Mbit/s
    • 1999: 1000bT (Gigabit) 1 Gbit/s
    • 2003: 10GBASE 10 Gbit/s
  • WLAN:
    • 1999: 802.11b 11 Mbit/s
    • 2003: 802.11g 54 Mbit/s
    • 2005: 108 Mbit/s
    • 2007: 540 Mbit/s

1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Acoustically coupled modem In telecommunications, the term acoustic coupler has the following meanings: An interface device for coupling electrical signals by acoustical means--usually into and out of a telephone instrument. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... V.34 is: The communication protocol from ITU for 28. ... V.90 is an ITU-T recommendation for a modem, allowing 56 kbit/s download and 33. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... ISDN is also short for isosorbide dinitrate Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital (as opposed to analog) transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds, than available with analog... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... 10BASE-T cable 10BASE-T cable and jackll 10BASE-T is an implementation of Ethernet which allows stations to be attached via twisted pair cable. ... IEEE 802. ...

Bitrates in multimedia

In digital multimedia, bitrate represents the amount of information, or detail, that is stored per unit of time of a recording. The bitrate depends on several factors:

  • the original material may be sampled at different frequencies
  • the samples may use different numbers of bits
  • the data may be encoded by different schemes
  • the information may be digitally compressed by different algorithms or to different degrees

Generally, choices are made about the above factors in order to achieve the desired trade-off between minimizing the bitrate and maximizing the quality of the material when it is played. In computer science and information theory, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits (or other information-bearing units) than an unencoded representation would use through use of specific encoding schemes. ...


If lossy data compression is used on audio or visual data, differences from the original signal will be introduced; if the compression is substantial, or lossy data is decompressed and recompressed, this may become noticeable in the form of compression artifacts. Whether these affect the perceived quality, and if so how much, depends on the compression scheme, encoder power, the characteristics of the input data, the listener’s perceptions, the listener's familiarity with artifacts, and the listening or viewing environment. A lossy data compression method is one where compressing data and then decompressing it retrieves data that may well be different from the original, but is close enough to be useful in some way. ... A compression artifact is a particular type of data error that is typically the result of quantization in lossy data compression. ...


Experts and audiophiles may detect artifacts in many cases in which the average listener would not. Some musicians enjoy the distinct artifacts of low bitrate (sub-FM quality) encoding and there is a growing scene of net labels distributing stylized low bitrate music. An audiophile, most generally, is a lover of sound or music, but the word is more commonly used about someone who cares about hi-fi playback of sound recordings, rather than live performances. ... A netlabel, also called online label, web label or MP3 label, distributes its music in digital audio formats (mainly MP3 or Ogg) online. ... Low bit (short for low bitrate, also known as lobit) is a musical aesthetic characterized by lossy data compression artifacts caused by encoding songs at low bitrates. ...


The bitrates in this section are approximately the minimum that the average listener in a typical listening or viewing environment, when using the best available compression, would perceive as not significantly worse than the reference standard:


Audio (MP3)

  • 32 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality
  • 96 kbit/s — FM quality
  • 128 - 160 kbit - Considered OK, but still bad quality and difference heard by most, if not all.
  • 192 kbit/s — Typical "acceptable" quality, may be considered low-end-med by those with discerning ears
  • 224 - 320 kbit/s — Medium-high quality to near audio CD quality

Mediumwave radio transmissions serves as the most common band for broadcasting. ... AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting using Amplitude Modulation. ... FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Other audio

Speech coding is the compression of speech (into a code) for transmission with speech codecs that use audio signal processing and speech processing techniques. ... Look up Telephone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lossless data compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the exact original data to be reconstructed from the compressed data. ... FLAC, an acronym for Free Lossless Audio Codec, is a popular file format for audio data compression. ... WavPack is a free, open source lossless audio compression format developed by David Bryant. ... Monkey’s Audio is a lossless audio compression codec. ... PCM is an initialism which can have different meanings: Phase Change Material Pulse-code modulation, a way to digitally encode signals representing sound and their video counterparts Potential Cancer Marker Communist Party of Mexico Plug Compatible Manufacturer Power-train control module, a computer in a car which controls the car... CD redirects here; see Cd for other meanings of CD. Image of a compact disc (pencil included for scale) A compact disc (or CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ...

Video (MPEG2)

  • 16 kbit/s — videophone quality (minimum necessary for a consumer-acceptable "talking head" picture)
  • 128 – 384 kbit/s — business-oriented videoconferencing system quality
  • 1 Mbit/s — VHS quality
  • 5 Mbit/s — DVD quality
  • 15 Mbit/s — HDTV quality

It has been suggested that Visiophone be merged into this article or section. ... A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. ... Top view of VHS cassette with U.S. 25c coin for scale Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard for analog video cassette... DVD (sometimes called Digital Versatile Disc, or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ...

Notes

For technical reasons (hardware/software protocols, overheads, encoding schemes, etc.) the actual bitrates used by some of the compared-to devices may be significantly higher than what is listed above. For example:

  • Telephone circuits using µlaw or A-law companding (pulse code modulation) — 64 kbit/s
  • CDs using CDDA — 1.4 Mbit/s

In telecommunication, a mu-law algorithm (μ-law) is a standard analog signal compression or companding algorithm, used in digital communications systems of the North American and Japanese digital hierarchies, to optimize (in other words, modify) the dynamic range of an audio analog signal prior to digitizing. ... Graph of μ-law & A-law algorithms An a-law algorithm is a standard companding algorithm, used in European digital communications systems to optimize, modify, the dynamic range of an analog signal for digitizing. ... A waveform before and after the compression stage of non-linear companding In telecommunication, signal processing, and thermodynamics, companding (occasionally called compansion) is a method of reducing the effects of a channel with limited dynamic range. ... Rainbow Books: Red Book (CD Digital Audio), Yellow Book (CD-ROM and CD-ROM XA), Orange Book (CD_R and CD-RW), White Book (Video CD), Blue Book (Enhanced Music CD, CD+G and CD-Plus), Beige Book (Photo CD), Green Book (CD-i). ...

References

This article contains material from the Federal Standard 1037C (in support of MIL-STD-188), which, as a work of the United States Government, is in the public domain.

Federal Standard 1037C entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a U.S. Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ... MIL-STD-188 is a series of U.S. military standards relating to telecommunications. ... A work of the United States Government is, as defined by United States copyright law, a work prepared by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that persons official duties. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

See also

In telecommunications, data transfer rate or just transfer rate is the average number of bits, characters, or blocks per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Clock signal. ... In information technology, throughput is the rate at which a computer or network sends or receives data. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... People are often concerned about measuring the maximum data throughput rate of a communications link or network access. ... Spectral efficiency or Spectrum efficiency is the amount of useful information that can be transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific digital communication system. ... Constant bit rate (CBR) is a term used in telecommunications, relating to the quality of service. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Average bit rate refers to the average amount of data transferred per second. ... This is a list of device bandwidths: the channel capacity (or, more informally, bandwidth) of some computer devices employing methods of data transport is listed by bit/s, kilobit/s (kbit/s), megabit/s (Mbit/s), or gigabit/s (Gbit/s) as appropriate and also MB/s or megabytes per... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... In telecommunications and electronics, baud (pronouced /bɔːd/) is a measure of the signaling rate which is the number of changes to the transmission media per second in a modulated signal. ... Copy of the original phone of Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ...

External links

Bandwidth conversion

Allow easy conversion from kbit/s to MB/h to GB/day to TB/month to ...

Bandwidth calculator online

  • VoIP Bandwidth Calculator - Given a codec type and sample period calculate the actual IP and Ethernet bandwidth.
  • VoIP Bandwidth Calculation White Paper - Companion paper to the above calculator explaining how Voice becomes Voice over IP.
  • StreamingMarketplace.com( Calculate streaming bandwidth and storage)

Bitrates of DVB-S TV and radio channels

  • Linowsat - daily updated audio and video bitrates of European satellites.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Appendix >> Online Help >> Bitrate (257 words)
Bitrate is defined as the number of data points used to approximate the true wave form.
If the bitrate is low, the irrelevancy and redundancy criteria will be measured harshly, and more subtlety will be stripped out, resulting in a lower-quality product.
If the bitrate is high, the codec will be applied with leniency, and the end result will sound better.
Bitrate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (964 words)
In digital multimedia, bitrate is the number of bits used per unit of time to represent a continuous medium such as audio or video.
While often referred to as "speed", bitrate does not measure distance/time but quantity/time, and thus should be distinguished from the "propagation speed" (which depends on the transmission medium and has the usual physical meaning).
When describing bitrates, binary prefixes are almost never used and SI prefixes are almost always used with the standard, decimal meanings, not the computer-oriented binary meanings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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