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Encyclopedia > Bithynia

Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...

Bithynia as a province of the Roman Empire, 120 AD
Bithynia as a province of the Roman Empire, 120 AD

Contents

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

Description

Several major cities sat on the fertile shores of the Propontis (which is now known as Sea of Marmara): Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius and Apamea. Bithynia also contained Nicaea, most famous for being the birthplace of the Nicene Creed. Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Nicomedia (modern İzmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Üsküdar). ... Kios (also known as Cius) was an ancient Greek town bordering the Propontis (now known as the Sea of Marmara), and had as such a long history, being mentioned by Homer, Aristoteles and Strabo. ... Apamea Myrlea or Apamea Myrleon – Greek: Απάμεια Μυρλεανός, also transliterated as Apameia Myrleanos; formerly Brylleion and Myrlea (Greek: Μύρλεια, also transliterated as Murleia or Myrleia); Latin: Colonia Iulia Concordia; and also recorded as Apamena – was an ancient city on the Sea of Marmara, in Bithynia, Anatolia; the ruins are now found a few... Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne İznik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ...


According to Strabo Bithynia was bounded on the east by the river Sangarius (modern Sakarya river), but the more commonly received division extended it to the Parthenius, which separated it from Paphlagonia, thus comprising the district inhabited by the Mariandyni. On the west and southwest it was separated from Mysia by the river Rhyndacus; and on the south it adjoined Phrygia, Epictetus and Galatia. The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Sakarya (Greek Σαγγάριος, Latinized as Sangarius) is a river in Asia Minor. ... Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. ... Mysia. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... Epictetus (Greek: Επίκτητος; ca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


It is occupied by mountains and forests, but has valleys and coastal districts of great fertility. The most important mountain range is the (so-called) "Mysian" Olympus (7600 ft., 2300 m), which towers above Bursa and is clearly visible as far away as Istanbul (70 miles, 113 km). Its summits are covered with snow for a great part of the year. Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...

Photo of a 15th Century map showing Bithynia.
Photo of a 15th Century map showing Bithynia.

East of this the range extends for more than 100 miles (160 km), from the Sakarya to Paphlagonia. Both of these ranges are part of the border of mountains which bounds the great tableland of Anatolia,Turkey. The broad tract which projects towards the west as far as the shores of the Bosporus, though hilly and covered with forests - the Turkish Ağaç Denizi, or "The Ocean of Trees" - is not traversed by any mountain chain. The west coast is indented by two deep inlets, the northernmost, the Gulf of İzmit (ancient Gulf of Astacus), penetrating between 40 and 50 miles (65-80 km) into the interior as far as İzmit (ancient Nicomedia), separated by an isthmus of only about 25 miles (40 km) from the Black Sea; and the Gulf of Mudanya or Gemlik (Gulf of Cius), about 25 miles (40 km) long. At its extremity is situated the small town of Gemlik (ancient Cius) at the mouth of a valley, communicating with the lake of Iznik, on which was situated Nicaea. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 883 KB) Picture of a map of the region of what is now Turkey from the 15th Century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 883 KB) Picture of a map of the region of what is now Turkey from the 15th Century. ... The Sakarya (Greek Σαγγάριος, Latinized as Sangarius) is a river in Asia Minor. ... Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Ä°zmit (ancient Nicomedia) is a city in [[Turkey], administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality . ... Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... For other uses, see Isthmus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Mudanya (Mudania) (the site of ancient Apamea Myrlea), is a town of Bursa Province, Turkey, on the Gulf of Mudania, part of the south coast of the Sea of Marmara. ... Gemlik (Kios, Cius gr. ... Kios (also known as Cius) was an ancient Greek town bordering the Propontis (now known as the Sea of Marmara), and had as such a long history, being mentioned by Homer, Aristoteles and Strabo. ... Iznik ceramic pitcher with flower decoration from ca. ...


The principal rivers are the Sakarya which traverses the province from south to north; the Rhyndacus, which separated it from Mysia; and the Billaeus (Filiyas), which rises in the Aladağ, about 50 miles (80 km) from the sea, and after flowing by modern Bolu (ancient Bithynion-Claudiopolis) falls into the Euxine, close to the ruins of the ancient Tium, about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Heraclea Pontica (the modern Karadeniz Ereğli), having a course of more than 100 miles (160 km). The Parthenius (modern Bartın), the eastern boundary of the province, is a much less considerable stream. The Sakarya (Greek Σαγγάριος, Latinized as Sangarius) is a river in Asia Minor. ... Bolu (Greek: Βιθύνιον /Vithinion, Latin Bithynium or Claudiopolis) is a town in Turkey, and administrative center of the Bolu Province. ... Claudiopolis is the Ancient name of a number of cities named after a Claudius, notably: Bithynion, in Bithynia (presently in Anatolia) a site in Cappadocia, now Mut, Mersin, in Cataonia Ninica Cluj-Napoca in present Romania See also Neoclaudiopolis Category: ... Heraclea Pontica (Greek: Ηράκλεια Ποντική; modern day Karadeniz EreÄŸli, in the Zonguldak Province of Turkey, on the Black Sea), an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus. ... Karadeniz EreÄŸli is a city in Zonguldak Province in Turkey on the Black Sea. ... Bartın is the provincial capital of Turkeys Bartın Province. ...


The valleys towards the Black Sea abound in fruit trees of all kinds, such as oranges, while the valley of the Sangarius and the plains near Bursa and Iznik (Nicaea) are fertile and well cultivated. Extensive plantations of mulberry trees supply the silk for which Bursa has long been celebrated, and which is manufactured there on a large scale. For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ...


History

According to ancient authors (Herodotus,[1] Xenophon, Strabo, etc.), the Bithynians were an immigrant Thracian tribe. The existence of a tribe called Thyni in Thrace is well attested, and the two cognate tribes of the Thyni and Bithyni appear to have settled simultaneously in the adjoining parts of Asia, where they expelled or subdued the Mysians, Caucones and other minor tribes, the Mariandyni alone maintaining themselves in the northeast. Herodotus mentions the Thyni and Bithyni as existing side by side; but ultimately the latter must have become the more important, as they gave their name to the country. They were incorporated by king Croesus within the Lydian monarchy, with which they fell under the dominion of Persia (546 BC), and were included in the satrapy of Phrygia, which comprised all the countries up to the Hellespont and Bosporus. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... The Thyni were a Thracian tribe who, along with the Bithyni, migrated to the lands that would later be known as Thynia and Bithynia in Anatolia. ... Mysia is a region in the northwest of Asia Minor. ... According to brief mentions by Herodotus and some other classical writers, the Caucones (or Kaukones) were an indigenous (autochthonous) tribe of Anatolia (modern-day Turkey), who were displaced or absorbed by the immigant Bithynians, who were a group of clans from Thrace that spoke an Indo_European language. ... The Bithyni were a Thracian tribe who, along with the Thyni, migrated to Bithynia in Anatolia - a region which they gave their name to. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Persia redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ... Satrap (Greek σατράπης satrápēs, from Old Persian xšaθrapā(van), i. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ...


But even before the conquest by Alexander the Bithynians appear to have asserted their independence, and successfully maintained it under two native princes, Bas and Zipoites, the latter of whom assumed the title of king (basileus) in 297 BC. His son and succeeder, Nicomedes I, founded Nicomedia, which soon rose to great prosperity, and during his long reign (c.278 - c.255 BC), as well as those of his successors, Prusias I, Prusias II and Nicomedes II (149 - 91 BC), the kingdom of Bithynia held a considerable place among the minor monarchies of Anatolia. But the last king, Nicomedes IV, was unable to maintain himself against Mithridates VI of Pontus, and, after being restored to his throne by the Roman Senate, he bequeathed his kingdom by will to the Roman republic (74 BC). For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Bas (in Greek Bας; ruled 376–326 BC), first indipendent ruler of Bithynia, governed fifty years, from 376 to 326 BC, and died at the age of 71. ... Zipoites I (in Greek Zιπoιτης or Zιβoιτης; ruled c. ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC 296 BC 295 BC 294... Nicomedes I (in Greek Nικoμηδης; 279–c. ... Nicomedia (modern İzmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC - 278 BC - 277 BC 276 BC 275... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 260 BC 259 BC 258 BC 257 BC 256 BC - 255 BC - 254 BC 253 BC... Prusias I Chlorus (c. ... Prusias II Cynegus (c. ... Nicomedes II, Epiphanes, was the king of Bithynia, from 149 to 91 BC. He was fourth in descent from Nicomedes I and was the son of Prusias II. He was so popular with the people that his father sent him to Rome to limit his influence. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC 150 BC - 149 BC - 148 BC 147 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC - 91 BC - 90 BC 89 BC 88... This page lists Kings of Bithynia, an ancient kingdom in northwestern Anatolia. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Nicomedes IV, known as Philopator, was the king of Bithynia, from c. ... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC - 74 BC - 73 BC 72 BC 71...


As a Roman province, the boundaries of Bithynia frequently varied, and it was commonly united for administrative purposes with the province of Pontus. This was the state of things in the time of Trajan, when Pliny the Younger was appointed governor of the combined provinces (103-105), a circumstance to which we are indebted for valuable information concerning the Roman provincial administration. Under the Byzantine Empire Bithynia was again divided into two provinces, separated by the Sangarius, to the west of which the name of Bithynia was restricted. Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... For other uses, see number 103. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Bithynia appears to have attracted so much attention because of its roads and its strategic position between the frontiers of the Danube in the north and the Euphrates in the southeast. Troops frequently wintered at Nicomedia. This article is about the Danube River. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


The most important cities were Nicomedia and Nicaea, which disputed with one another the rank of capital. Both of these were founded after Alexander the Great; but at a much earlier period the Greeks had established on the coast the colonies of Cius (afterwards Prusias, modern Gemlik); Chalcedon (modern Kadıköy), at the entrance of the Bosporus, nearly opposite Constantinople; and Heraclea Pontica (modern Karadeniz Ereğli), on the Euxine, about 120 miles (190 km) east of the Bosporus. All these rose to be flourishing places of trade, as did Prusa. Other places of importance at the present day are İzmit and Scutari (modern Üsküdar). Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne Ä°znik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ... The historic Haldun Taner Theatre on the harbour of Kadıköy Kadıköy Municipality on the harbour Nostalgic tram running between Kadıköys centrum and the neighbourhood of Moda, with the Catholic Eglise de LAssomption seen in the background Historic buildings in YeldeÄŸirmeni Historic... Heraclea Pontica (Greek: Ηράκλεια Ποντική; modern day Karadeniz EreÄŸli, in the Zonguldak Province of Turkey, on the Black Sea), an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus. ... Üsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ... Ãœsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ...


Notable people

Theodosius of Bithynia (ca. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...

See also

The Bithyni were a Thracian tribe who, along with the Thyni, migrated to Bithynia in Anatolia - a region which they gave their name to. ... This page lists Kings of Bithynia, an ancient kingdom in northwestern Anatolia. ... In the ancient world, Thynia was a region of Asia Minor adjacent to Bithynia. ... The Thyni were a Thracian tribe who, along with the Bithyni, migrated to the lands that would later be known as Thynia and Bithynia in Anatolia. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Herodot, VII. 75

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Further reading

  • Storey, Stanley Jonathon [1998] (1999). Bithynia: history and administration to the time of Pliny the Younger (PDF), Ottawa: National Library of Canada. ISBN 0-612-34324-3. Retrieved on 2007-05-21. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bithynia - LoveToKnow 1911 (965 words)
BITHYNIA (BtOvvia), an ancient district in the N.W. of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine.
According to Strabo it was bounded on the E. by the river Sangarius; but the more commonly received division extended it to the Parthenius, which separated it from Paphlagonia, thus comprising the district inhabited by the Mariandyni.
Under the Byzantine empire Bithynia was again divided into two provinces, separated by the Sangarius, to the west of which the name of Bithynia was restricted.
Bithynia and Galatia - All About Turkey (601 words)
Since the wooded mountains of the north remained outside the dominion of Alexander the Great and his successors, Bithynia under the Seleucids was able to develop more or less independently and by the 2nd c.
The Greek colony founded on the Bosphorus around 675 BC., where the Istanbul suburb of Kadikoy stands today, became the Romans' capital and in the Byzantine era, when it was the seat of the archbishopric, provided the venue for the fourth ecumenical council in 451.
In the 11th c Bithynia was ruled by the Seljuks.
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