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Encyclopedia > Bit stuffing

In data transmission and telecommunication, bit stuffing (also known -- uncommonly -- as positive justification) is the insertion of noninformation bits into data. Stuffed bits should not be confused with overhead bits. Data transmission is the conveyance of any kind of information from one space to another. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... This article is about the unit of information, see Bit (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ...


Bit stuffing is used for various purposes, such as for bringing bit streams that do not necessarily have the same or rationally related bit rates up to a common rate, or to fill buffers or frames. The location of the stuffing bits is communicated to the receiving end of the data link, where these extra bits are removed to return the bit streams to their original bit rates or form. Bit stuffing may be used to synchronize several channels before multiplexing or to rate-match two single channels to each other. A bitstream or bit stream is a time series of bits. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... In telecommunication, a buffer is a routine or storage medium used in telecommunications to compensate for a difference in rate of flow of data, or time of occurrence of events, when transferring data from one device to another. ... In telecommunications, a frame is a packet which has been encoded for transmission over a particular link. ... In telecommunication, the term data link has the following meanings: The means of connecting one location to another for the purpose of transmitting and receiving data. ... In telecommunications, multiplexing (also muxing or MUXing) is the combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission medium using hardware called a multiplexer or (MUX). ...


Applications include Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) is a technology used in telecommunications networks to transport large quantities of data over digital transport equipment such as fibre optic and microwave radio systems. ... Synchronous Optical Networking, commonly known as SONET, is a standard for communicating digital information over optical fiber. ...


Another use of bit stuffing is to limit the number of consecutive bits of the same value in the data to be transmitted. A bit of the opposite value is inserted after the maximum allowed number of consecutive bits. Since this is a general rule the receiver doesn't need extra information about the location of the stuffing bits in order to do the destuffing.


This is done to create additional signal transitions to ensure reliable transmission or to escape special reserved code words such as frame sync sequences when the data happens to contain them.


Applications include Controller Area Network. Controller Area Network (CAN) is a broadcast, differential serial bus standard, originally developed in the 1980s by Robert Bosch GmbH, for connecting electronic control units (ECUs). ...


Bit stuffing does not ensure that the payload is intact (i.e. not corrupted by transmission errors); it is merely a way of attempting to ensure that the transmission starts and ends at the correct places. CRCs and parity checks are used to check the frame for corruption after its delivery - in the case of corruption, the frame will be resent. A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a type of hash function used to produce a checksum – a small, fixed number of bits – against a block of data, such as a packet of network traffic or a block of a computer file. ... In telecommunication, a redundancy check is extra data added to a message for the purposes of error detection and error correction. ...


Zero-bit insertion

Zero-bit insertion is a particular type of bit stuffing (in the latter sense) used in some data transmission protocols, such as HDLC, to ensure that the Frame Sync Sequence (FSS) doesn't incidentally appear in a data frame. An FSS is used to indicate the beginning and/or end of a frame. Data transmission is the conveyance of any kind of information from one space to another. ... For other senses of this word, see protocol. ... It has been suggested that the section HDLC from the article Measuring_data_throughput be merged into this article or section. ... In telecommunications, a frame is a packet which has been encoded for transmission over a particular link. ...


The name relates to the insertion of only 0 bits. No 1 bits are inserted to limit sequences of 0 bits.


The bit sequence "01111110" is commonly used as an FSS, thus a sequence of 6 consecutive 1s may not be present in the frame data as it may be confused for the FSS. Zero-bit insertion is used to prevent such a sequence from occurring - if a series of five 1s is found by the sender a 0 is inserted after the fifth 1, thereby limiting the maximum possible run of 1s to five. At the receiver, if a series of five 1s is received, the subsequent 0 is removed to recover the original data.


When the receiver finds "0111111" two possible outcomes may occur. To determine which, the next bit is checked - if it is a 0 (i.e. "01111110") a valid FSS is assumed to have been received, but if it is a 1 (i.e. "01111111") then some corruption must have occurred during transmission as that data sequence cannot have been transmitted (a 0 would have been inserted after the fifth 1). Should corruption during transmission result in the FSS being received as part of the data, that will not be corrected and the frame will be truncated.


Source: from Federal Standard 1037C in support of MIL-STD-188 Federal Standard 1037C entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a U.S. Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ... MIL-STD-188 is a series of U.S. military standards relating to telecommunications. ...


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Bit stuffing is the insertion of one or more bits into a transmission unit as a way to provide signaling information to a receiver.
Bits with a value of 0 are represented by a no-voltage time slot.) If more than 15 bits in a row are sent with a 0 value, this "lull" in 1 bits that the system depends on for synchronization may be long enough for two end points to become out of synchronization.
Bit stuffing is defined by some to include bit padding, which is the addition of bits to a tranmission to make the transmission unit conform to a standard size, but is distinct from bit robbing, a type of in-band signaling.
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