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Encyclopedia > Bit rate
Bit rates
Decimal prefixes (SI)
Name Symbol Multiple
kilobit per second kbit/s 103
megabit per second Mbit/s 106
gigabit per second Gbit/s 109
terabit per second Tbit/s 1012
Binary prefixes
(IEC 60027-2)
kibibit per second Kibit/s 210
mebibit per second Mibit/s 220
gibibit per second Gibit/s 230
tebibit per second Tibit/s 240

The bit rate is quantified using the 'bits per second' (bit/s or bps) unit, often in conjunction with a SI prefix such as kilo- (kbit/s or kbps), mega- (Mbit/s or Mbps), giga- (Gbit/s or Gbps) or tera- (Tbit/s or Tbps). An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ... Kilo (symbol: k) is a prefix in the SI system denoting 103 or 1,000. ... Mega (symbol M) is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 106, i. ... Look up giga- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tera (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ...

In digital communication systems, the gross bitrate, raw bitrate, data signaling rate or line rate is the total number of physically transferred bits per second over a communication link, including useful data as well as protocol overhead. The gross bit rate is related to, but should not be confused with, the baud rate in symbols/s. In telecommunication, data signaling rate (DSR) is the aggregate rate at which data pass a point in the transmission path of a data transmission system. ... The line rate of a communications link is the data rate of its raw bitstream, including all framing bits and other physical layer overhead. ... In telecommunications and electronics, baud (pronouced /bɔːd/) is a measure of the signaling rate which is the number of changes to the transmission media per second in a modulated signal. ...

The net bitrate, useful bit rate or data transfer rate of a digital communication link is the capacity excluding the physical layer protocol overhead, typically redundant forward error correction and other channel coding. The relationship between the gross bit rate and net bit rate is affected by the forward error correction code rate according to the following. In telecommunications, data transfer rate or just transfer rate is the average number of bits, characters, or blocks per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In telecommunication, forward error correction (FEC) is a system of error control for data transmission, whereby the sender adds redundant data to its messages, which allows the receiver to detect and correct errors (within some bound) without the need to ask the sender for additional data. ... In digital telecommunications, channel coding is a pre-transmission mapping applied to a digital signal or data file, usually designed to make error-correction possible. ... The code rate or information rate of a forward error correction (FEC) code, for example a convolutional code, states what portion of the total amount of information that is useful (non redundant). ...

Gross bit rate · code rate ≥ Net bit rate

The Connection speed of a network access technology or communication device typically refers to the physical layer net bit rate in accordance with the above definition. For example, the bit rate of 100 Mbit/s of an Ethernet 100Base-TX physical layer, the downlink bit rate of 56000 bit/s of a V.92 modem, the bit rate 64000 bit/s of one ISDN B channel, and the bit rate of between 6 and 54 Mbit/s of a 802.11a wireless network, all refer to the net bit rate. The code rate or information rate of a forward error correction (FEC) code, for example a convolutional code, states what portion of the total amount of information that is useful (non redundant). ...

The channel capacity is a theoretical upper bound for the maximum net bitrate, exclusive of forward error correction coding, that is possible without bit errors for a certain physical point-to-point communication channel. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Communications channel (or channel for short), models the medium through which information is transmitted from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver. ...

Channel capacity ≥ Net bit rate

The term throughput or digital bandwidth consumption denotes the achieved bit rate in a computer network over a logical or physical communication link or through a network node, typically measured at a reference point below the network layer and above the physical layer. In communication networks, throughput is the amount of digital data per time unit that is delivered over a physical or logical link, or that is passing through a certain network node. ... The network layer is third layer out of seven in OSI model and it is the third layer out of five in TCP/IP model. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Goodput refers to the achieved net bit rate that is delivered to the application layer, exclusive of all protocol overhead, data packets retransmissions, etc. For example, in the case of file transfer, the goodput corresponds to the achieved file transfer rate. The file transfer rate in bit/s can be calculated as the file size (in byte), divided by the file transfer time (in seconds), and multiplied by eight. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The application layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model. ...

Net bit rate ≥ Maximum throughput ≥ Throughput ≥ Goodput

In digital multimedia, bit rate often refers to the number of bits used per unit of playback time to represent a continuous medium such as audio or video after source coding (data compression). The size of a multimedia file in byte is the product of the bit rate (in bit/s) and the length of the recording (in seconds), divided by eight. In case of streaming multimedia, this bit rate measure is the goodput that is required to avoid interrupts. Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Entropy encoding. ... For the computer industry magazine, see Byte (magazine). ... Streaming media is media that is consumed (heard or viewed) while it is being delivered. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Required goodput ≥ Goodput

The formal abbreviation for "bits per second" is "bit/s" (not "bits/s"). In less formal contexts the abbreviations "b/s" or "bps" are often used, though this risks confusion with "bytes per second" ("B/s", "Bps"). Even less formally, it is common to drop the "per second", and simply refer to "a 128 kilobit audio stream" or "a 100 megabit network". For the computer industry magazine, see Byte (magazine). ...

Gross bit rate is sometimes used interchangeably with "baud rate", which is correct only when each modulation transition of a data transmission system carries exactly one bit of data (something not true for modern modem modulation systems, for example). For the town in France, see Baud, Morbihan. ... In telecommunications, transmission is the act of transmitting electrical messages (and the associated phenomena of radiant energy that passes through media). ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ...

While often referred to as "speed", bitrate does not measure distance/time but quantity/time, and should be distinguished from the "propagation speed" (which depends on the transmission medium and has the usual physical meaning). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Velocity of Propagation (VoP) is a parameter that characterizes the speed at which an electrical or radio signal passes through a medium. ...

## Prefixes

For large bitrates, SI prefixes are used: An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ...

 1,000 bit/s date=1 kbit/s (one kilobit or one thousand bits per second) 1,000,000 bit/s date=1 Mbit/s (one megabit or one million bits per second) 1,000,000,000 bit/s date=1 Gbit/s (one gigabit or one billion bits per second)

When describing bitrates, binary prefixes have almost never been used and SI prefixes are almost always used with the standard, decimal meanings, not the old computer-oriented binary meanings. Binary usage may occasionally be seen when the unit is the byte/s, and is not typical for telecommunication links. Sometimes it is necessary to seek clarification of the units used in a particular context. In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... A kilobit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated kbit or sometimes kb. ... For the techno single by Moby, see Thousand (single). ... A megabit per second (mbps or mbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000 bits per second. ... The Megabit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated Mbit or sometimes Mb. ... Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A gigabit per second (gbps or gbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 megabits per second or 1,000,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000,000 bits per second. ... A gigabit is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated Gbit or sometimes Gb. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... // In computing, binary prefixes can be used to quantify large numbers where powers of two are more useful than powers of ten (such as computer memory sizes). ... An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ...

## Progress trends

Proposed standards and first devices :

WAN LAN WLAN
• 1972: Acoustic coupler 300 baud
• 1985: 1200 baud
• 1990: increasing Modem speed: 2400 / 4800 / 9600 / 19200 bit/s
• 1995: v.34 modems with 28.8 kbit/s, v.90 modems with 56 kbit/s
• 1996: ISDN with two 64 kbit/s channels
• 1998: ADSL from 128 kbit/s to 8 Mbit/s, ADSL2 up to 12 Mbit/s, ADSL2+ up to 24 Mbit/s
• 1972: IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 2.94 Mbit/s
• 1985: 10b2 10 Mbit/s coax thinwire
• 1990: 10bT 10 Mbit/s
• 1995: 100bT 100 Mbit/s
• 1999: 1000bT (Gigabit) 1 Gbit/s
• 2003: 10GBASE 10 Gbit/s

The Novation CAT acoustically coupled modem In telecommunications, the term acoustic coupler has the following meanings: An interface device for coupling electrical signals by acoustical means--usually into and out of a telephone instrument. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... V.34 is: The communication protocol from ITU for 28. ... V.90 is an ITU-T recommendation for a modem, allowing 56 kbit/s download and 33. ... ISDN is also short for isosorbide dinitrate Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital (as opposed to analog) transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds, than available with analog... Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide. ... IEEE 802. ... 10BASE-T cable 10BASE-T plug 10BASE-T is an implementation of Ethernet which allows stations to be attached via twisted pair cable. ... IEEE 802. ... IEEE 802. ... IEEE 802. ... IEEE 802. ... IEEE 802. ... IEEE 802. ...

## Bitrates in multimedia

In digital multimedia, bitrate represents the amount of information, or detail, that is stored per unit of time of a recording. The bitrate depends on several factors:

• the original material may be sampled at different frequencies
• the samples may use different numbers of bits
• the data may be encoded by different schemes
• the information may be digitally compressed by different algorithms or to different degrees

Generally, choices are made about the above factors in order to achieve the desired trade-off between minimizing the bitrate and maximizing the quality of the material when it is played. Source coding redirects here. ...

If lossy data compression is used on audio or visual data, differences from the original signal will be introduced; if the compression is substantial, or lossy data is decompressed and recompressed, this may become noticeable in the form of compression artifacts. Whether these affect the perceived quality, and if so how much, depends on the compression scheme, encoder power, the characteristics of the input data, the listener’s perceptions, the listener's familiarity with artifacts, and the listening or viewing environment. A lossy data compression method is one where compressing data and then decompressing it retrieves data that may well be different from the original, but is close enough to be useful in some way. ... A compression artifact is a particular type of data error that is typically the result of quantization in lossy data compression. ...

The bitrates in this section are approximately the minimum that the average listener in a typical listening or viewing environment, when using the best available compression, would perceive as not significantly worse than the reference standard:

### Audio (MP3)

• 32 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality
• 96 kbit/s — FM quality
• 128–160 kbit/s — Standard Bitrate quality; difference can sometimes be obvious (e.g. bass quality)
• 192 kbit/s — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. Quickly becoming the new 'standard' bitrate for MP3 music; difference can be heard by few people.
• 224–320 kbit/s — Near CD quality. Sound is nearly indistinguishable from most CDs.

### Other audio

FS-1015 is a secure telephony speech encoding standard developed by the United States Department of Defense and later by NATO. It is also known as LPC-10 and STANAG 4198. ... Speech coding is the compression of speech (into a code) for transmission with speech codecs that use audio signal processing and speech processing techniques. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Lossless data compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the exact original data to be reconstructed from the compressed data. ... FLAC, an acronym for Free Lossless Audio Codec, is a popular file format for audio data compression. ... WavPack is a free, open source lossless audio compression format developed by David Bryant. ... Monkeyâ€™s Audio is a file format for audio data compression. ... PCM is an initialism which can have different meanings: Phase Change Material Pulse-code modulation, a way to digitally encode signals representing sound and their video counterparts Potential Cancer Marker Communist Party of Mexico Plug Compatible Manufacturer Power-train control module, a computer in a car which controls the car... CD redirects here. ...

### Video (MPEG2)

• 16 kbit/s — videophone quality (minimum necessary for a consumer-acceptable "talking head" picture)
• 128 – 384 kbit/s — business-oriented videoconferencing system quality
• 1.25 Mbit/s — VCD quality
• 5 Mbit/s — DVD quality
• 15 Mbit/s — HDTV quality
• 36 Mbit/s — HD DVD quality
• 54 Mbit/s — Blu-ray Disc quality

It has been suggested that Visiophone be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that H.331 be merged into this article or section. ... VCD can stand for: Video CD Voice command device Value Change Dump (IEEE 1364 Verilog) Value-Centered Design This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page â€” a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ...

### Notes

For technical reasons (hardware/software protocols, overheads, encoding schemes, etc.) the actual bitrates used by some of the compared-to devices may be significantly higher than what is listed above. For example:

• Telephone circuits using µlaw or A-law companding (pulse code modulation) — 64 kbit/s
• CDs using CDDA — 1.4 Mbit/s

Graph of Î¼-law & A-law algorithms The mu-law algorithm (Î¼-law) is a companding algorithm, primarily used in the digital telecommunication systems of North America and Japan. ... Graph of Î¼-law & A-law algorithms An a-law algorithm is a standard companding algorithm, used in European digital communications systems to optimize, modify, the dynamic range of an analog signal for digitizing. ... A waveform before and after the compression stage of non-linear companding In telecommunication, signal processing, and thermodynamics, companding (occasionally called compansion) is a method of reducing the effects of a channel with limited dynamic range. ... Rainbow Books: Red Book (CD Digital Audio), Yellow Book (CD-ROM and CD-ROM XA), Orange Book (CD_R and CD-RW), White Book (Video CD), Blue Book (Enhanced Music CD, CD+G and CD-Plus), Beige Book (Photo CD), Green Book (CD-i). ...

Average bit rate refers to the average amount of data transferred per second. ... Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ... For the town in France, see Baud, Morbihan. ... The clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second (measured in hertz) at which a computer performs its most basic operations such as adding two numbers or transferring a value from one processor register to another. ... The code rate or information rate of a forward error correction (FEC) code, for example a convolutional code, states what portion of the total amount of information that is useful (non redundant). ... Constant bit rate (CBR) is a term used in telecommunications, relating to the quality of service. ... In telecommunication, data signaling rate (DSR) is the aggregate rate at which data pass a point in the transmission path of a data transmission system. ... In telecommunications, data transfer rate or just transfer rate is the average number of bits, characters, or blocks per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission system. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The line rate of a communications link is the data rate of its raw bitstream, including all framing bits and other physical layer overhead. ... This is a list of device bandwidths: the channel capacity (or, more informally, bandwidth) of some computer devices employing methods of data transport is listed by bit/s, kilobit/s (kbit/s), megabit/s (Mbit/s), or gigabit/s (Gbit/s) as appropriate and also MB/s or megabytes per... People are often concerned about measuring the maximum data throughput rate of a communications link or network access. ... Spectral efficiency or spectrum efficiency refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific digital communication system. ... In communication networks, throughput is the amount of digital data per time unit that is delivered over a physical or logical link, or that is passing through a certain network node. ... Variable bitrate (VBR), or less commonly variable bit rate, is a term used in telecommunications and computing that relates to the bitrate used in sound or video encoding. ...

## References

Maximum PC - Do Higher MP3 Bit Rates Pay Off?

This article contains material from the Federal Standard 1037C (in support of MIL-STD-188), which, as a work of the United States Government, is in the public domain. Federal Standard 1037C, entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a United States Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ... MIL-STD-188 is a series of U.S. military standards relating to telecommunications. ... A work of the United States government, as defined by United States copyright law, is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that persons official duties. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Bit rate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (754 words) In digital multimedia, bit rate is the number of bits used per unit of time to represent a continuous medium such as audio or video. While often referred to as "speed", bit rate does not measure distance/time but quantity/time, and thus should be distinguished from the "propagation speed" (which depends on the transmission medium and has the usual physical meaning). When describing bit rates, binary prefixes are almost never used and SI prefixes are almost always used with the standard, decimal meanings, not the computer-oriented binary meanings.
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