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Encyclopedia > Biskupin
Gate to the reconstructed settlement
Gate to the reconstructed settlement

Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement (gród) in Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. It belongs to the Biskupin group of the Lusatian culture. The excavation and the reconstruction of the prehistoric settlement have played an important part in Polish historical consciousness. Gate to the reconstructed ancient Slavic settlement of Biskupin. ... Gate to the reconstructed ancient Slavic settlement of Biskupin. ... Importance and applicability Archaeology is the study of human nature and attempts to illuminate the question of what it means to be human. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Ancient Slavs were known for their art of building wooden fortified settlements. ... Kujavian-Pomeranian voivodship since 1999 The Kujavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (in Polish województwo kujawsko-pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in central-northern Poland. ... The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300-500 BC) in eastern Germany, most of Poland, parts of Czech Republic and Slovakia (in older articles described also as Czechoslovakia) and parts of Ukraine. ...


The Museum is situated on a marshy peninsula in the Lake Biskupin, ca. 90 km northeast of Poznań, 8 km south of the small town of Żnin. It is part of the state archaeological museum in Warsaw. The Poznan is also a breed of horse. ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ...

Contents


History of the excavations

View of the central row of reconstructed houses at Biskupin
View of the central row of reconstructed houses at Biskupin

The site was excavated from 1934 onwards by a team from Poznań university, led by the archaeologists Józef Kostrzewski (1885-1969) and Zdzislaw Rajewski (1907-1974). The first report was published in 1936. By the beginning of 1939, ca. 2500 m² had been excavated. The settlement soon became famous in Poland, officials of the Piłsudski regime, members of the military and high churchmen, like the primate of Poland visited the site. The excavation soon became part of Polish national consciousness, a symbol of the achievements of the Slavonic forebears in prehistoric times. The site was called the "Polish Pompeii" or "Polish Herculaneum". The existence of a prehistoric fortress, 70 km away from the border to the aggressive German neighbour was taken to show that the prehistoric "Poles" had held their own against foreign invaders and plunderers already in the Iron age. Biskupin featured in paintings and popular novels. Biskupin, Poland. ... Biskupin, Poland. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The University of Poznan ( Polish Uniwersytet im. ... Józef Kostrzewski (1885–1969) was a Polish archaeologist. ... Term of Office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political Party none, see Sanacja for details First Lady Maria Piłsudska Date of Birth December 5, 1867 Place of Birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of Death May 12, 1935 Place of Death... Ruins in Pompeii The city of Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many smaller places around the Bay of Naples, were Roman municipalities destroyed during an eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE. The eruption was described by Pliny the Younger (see below), whose uncle Pliny the Elder died... Herculaneum (modern Italian Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town of the Italian region of Campania. ...


When the Germans occupied parts of Poland in the autumn of 1939, Biskupin became part of the Warthegau, an area that German Nationalist claimed to have been "Germanic" since at least the Iron age (G. Kossinna, Das Weichselland, ein uralter Heimatboden der Germanen, Leipzig, Kabitzsch 1919). 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen) was the name given by Nazis to the territory of Greater Poland which was occupied, annexed and directly incorporated into the German Reich after defeating the Polish army in 1939 (as opposed to the General Government, GG). ...


Biskupin was renamed "Urstädt". In 1940, excavations were resumed under the patronage of Heinrich Himmler by the SS-Ahnenerbe under the supervision of Hauptsturmführer Hans Schleiff, a classical archaeologist who was to excavate in Olympia, Greece as well. Schleiff published only two short popular accounts that describe how Germanic tribes overran the 'small Lusatian settlement'. The excavations were continued till 1942. When the Germans retreated, the site was flooded, which ironically led to the good preservation of the ancient timbers. Excavations were resumed by Polish archaeologists after the war and lasted till 1974. Heinrich Himmler Heinrich Himmler (October 7, 1900 – May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Olympia (Greek: Ολυμπία Olympía or Ολύμπια Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a city of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ...


The site

Wooden rampart, Biskupin
Wooden rampart, Biskupin

There are two settlement periods at Biskupin that follow each other without hiatus. Both settlements were laid out on a rectangular grid with eleven streets that are three meters wide. The older settlement consisted of ca. 100 oak and pine log-houses that are of absolutely similar layout and measure ca. 8 x 10 m each. They consisted of two chambers and an open entrance-area. An open hearth was located in the centre of the biggest room. There are no larger houses that could indicate social stratification. wooden rampart at the lusation settlement of Biskupin, Poland File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... wooden rampart at the lusation settlement of Biskupin, Poland File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


The settlement was surrounded by a fortification that is 3,5 m wide. It is made up of oak trunks that form boxes filled with earth. The rampart is more than 450 m long and accompanied by a wooden breakwater in the lake. 6000-8000 m³ of wood have been used in the construction of the rampart.


There is a migration period (200-400 AD) settlement and a medieval stronghold on the peninsula as well. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ...


Dating

The settlement at Biskupin belongs to the Hallstatt C and D periods (early Iron age). There are four Radiocarbon dates from Biskupin (all B.C.E.): Hallstatt is a village in the Austrian Salzkammergut where a large prehistoric cemetery of 1045 graves was discovered by Ramsauer in 1846 and excavated during the second half of the 19th century. ... Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ...

  • first settlement: 720±150 (Gif 494)
  • later settlement: 560±150 (Gif 495)
  • rampart: 620 ±150 (Gif 492)
  • A2 4C, VII: 620±150 (Gif 493)

The model

In 1936, the first lifesize model (open air museum) was built on the peninsula, inspired by the Unteruhldingen-pile dwellings in Germany. After the war, the ramparts and one street with houses on both sides were added. An open air museum is a distinct type of museum exhibiting its collections out-of-doors. ... Unteruhldingen is a small village on the Lake Constance, Germany. ... Pile dwelling on Sumatra, Indonesia Pile dwellings are houses raised over the surface of the soil or a body of water. ...


In the 2000's, a film prop "medieval" timber castle has been constructed on a part of the original site.


External link

  • http://www.biskupin.pl/eng/index.php

Further reading

  • Danuta Piotrowska, Biskupin 1933-1996: archaeology, politics and nationalism. Archaeologia Polona 35-36, 1997/98, 255-285, ISSN 0066-5924

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biskupin - definition of Biskupin in Encyclopedia (606 words)
Biskupin is an archaeological site and a life-size model of an Iron Age fortified settlement (gród) in Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship.
When the Germans occupied parts of Poland in the autumn of 1939, Biskupin became part of the Warthegau, an area that German Nationalist claimed to have been "Germanic" since at least the Iron age (G. Kossinna, Das Weichselland, ein uralter Heimatboden der Germanen, Leipzig, Kabitzsch 1919).
The settlement at Biskupin belongs to the Hallstatt C and D periods (early Iron age).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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