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Encyclopedia > Birth control

Birth control, sometimes synonymous with contraception, is a regimen of one or more actions, devices, or medications followed in order to deliberately prevent or reduce the likelihood of pregnancy or childbirth. Contraception may refer specifically to mechanisms which are intended to reduce the likelihood of the fertilization of an ovum by a spermatozoon. Birth control is commonly used as part of family planning. Birth control is a means of preventing pregnancy or birth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Parturition redirects here. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... Oral contraceptives. ...


The history of birth control began with the discovery of the connection between coitus and pregnancy. The oldest forms of birth control included coitus interruptus, pessaries, and the ingestion of herbs that were believed to be contraceptive or abortifacient. The earliest record of birth control use is instructions on creating a contraceptive pessary from Ancient Egypt. A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... Coitus interruptus, also known as withdrawal or the pull out method, is a method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the penis is removed from the vagina prior to ejaculation, primarily to avoid introducing semen into the vagina. ... A pessary is a small plastic or silicone medical device or form of pharmaceutical preparation which is inserted into the vagina or rectum and held in place by the pelvic floor musculature. ... Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ...


Different methods of birth control have varying characteristics. Condoms, for example, are the only method that provides significant protection from sexually transmitted diseases. Cultural and religious attitudes on birth control vary significantly. Different types of birth control methods have large differences in effectiveness, actions required of users, and side effects. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ...

Contents

History

A family planning facility in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
A family planning facility in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
"And the villain still pursues her." Humorous Victorian era postcard.
"And the villain still pursues her." Humorous Victorian era postcard.

Probably the oldest methods of contraception (aside from sexual abstinence) are coitus interruptus, lactational, certain barrier methods, and herbal methods (emmenagogues and abortifacients). Image File history File links Codrington, Stephen. ... Image File history File links Codrington, Stephen. ... Image File history File links VictorianPostcard. ... Image File history File links VictorianPostcard. ... Coitus interruptus, also known as withdrawal or the pull out method, is a method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the penis is removed from the vagina prior to ejaculation, primarily to avoid introducing semen into the vagina. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Emmenagogues are herbs which stimulate blood flow in the pelvic area and uterus. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Coitus interruptus (withdrawal of the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation) probably predates any other form of birth control. Once the relationship between the emission of semen into the vagina and pregnancy was known or suspected, some men began to use this technique. This is not a particularly reliable method of contraception, as few men have the self-control to correctly practice the method at every single act of sexual intercourse.[1] Although it is commonly believed that pre-ejaculate fluid can cause pregnancy, modern research has shown that pre-ejaculate fluid does not contain viable sperm.[2][3] The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... Ejaculation is the ejecting of semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... Pre-ejaculate on a human penis Pre-ejaculate, a more viscous higher flow variation Pre-ejaculate (also known as pre-ejaculatory fluid or Cowpers fluid, and colloquially as precum) is the clear, colorless, viscous fluid that is issued from the urethra of a mans penis when he is...


There are historic records of Egyptian women using a pessary (a vaginal suppository) made of various acidic substances and lubricated with honey or oil, which may have been somewhat effective at killing sperm.[4] However, it is important to note that the sperm cell was not discovered until Anton van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope in the late 17th century, so barrier methods employed prior to that time could not know of the details of conception. Asian women may have used oiled paper as a cervical cap, and Europeans may have used beeswax for this purpose. The condom appeared sometime in the 17th century, initially made of a length of animal intestine. It was not particularly popular, nor as effective as modern latex condoms, but was employed both as a means of contraception and in the hopes of avoiding syphilis, which was greatly feared and devastating prior to the discovery of antibiotic drugs. A pessary is a small plastic or silicone medical device or form of pharmaceutical preparation which is inserted into the vagina or rectum and held in place by the pelvic floor musculature. ... Suppository casting mould A suppository is a drug delivery system that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository) or urethra (urethral suppository) where it dissolves. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Anton van Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced Layewenhook) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The cervical cap is a cervical barrier type of birth control. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


Various abortifacients have been used throughout human history. Some of them were effective, some were not; those that were most effective also had major side effects. One abortifacient reported to have low levels of side effects — silphium — was harvested to extinction around the 1st century.[5] The ingestion of certain poisons by the female can disrupt the reproductive system; women have drunk solutions containing mercury, arsenic, or other toxic substances for this purpose. The Greek gynaecologist Soranus in the 2nd century suggested that women drink water that blacksmiths had used to cool metal. The herbs tansy and pennyroyal are well-known in folklore as abortive agents, but these also "work" by poisoning the woman. Levels of the active chemicals in these herbs that will induce a miscarriage are high enough to perilously damage the liver, kidneys, and other organs. However, in those times where risk of maternal death from postpartum complications was high, the risks and side effects of toxic medicines may have seemed less onerous. Some herbalists claim that black cohosh tea will also be effective in certain cases as an abortifacient.[6] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... Ancient silver coin from Cyrene depicting a stalk of Silphium. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... A pictorial illustration of the human female reproductive system. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Soranus, Greek physician, born at Ephesus, lived during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian (AD 98-138). ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Binomial name L. Illustration of a tansy Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) is a perennial herbaceous flowering plant of the aster family that is native to temperate Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name L. The herb Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium, family Lamiaceae), is a member of the mint genus; an essential oil extracted from it is used in aromatherapy. ... An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maternal health. ... Postnatal (Latin for after birth) is the period beginning immediately after the birth of a child and extending for about six weeks. ... The term Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... Binomial name Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. ...


Aside from abortifacients, herbal contraceptives in folklore have also included a few preventative measures. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, known in Ayurveda as a contraceptive, may have antiestrogenic properties.[7] Papaya seeds, rumored to be a male contraceptive, have recently been studied for their azoospermic effect on monkeys.[8] Binomial name Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Ref: ITIS 21611 The Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.; Family Malvaceae) is an evergreen shrub native to east Asia, also known as China rose and Shoe flower. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the fruit. ...


The fact that various effective methods of birth control were known in the ancient world sharply contrasts with a seeming ignorance of these methods in wide segments of the population of early modern Christian Europe. This ignorance continued far into the 20th century, and was paralleled by eminently high birth rates in European countries during the 18th and 19th centuries.[9] Some historians have attributed this to a series of coercive measures enacted by the emerging modern state, in an effort to repopulate Europe after the population catastrophe of the Black Death, starting in 1348. According to this view, the witch hunts were the first measure the modern state took in an attempt to eliminate knowledge about birth control within the population, and monopolize it in the hands of state-employed male medical specialists (gynecologists). Prior to the witch hunts, male specialists were unheard of, because birth control was naturally a female domain.[10] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ...


Presenters at a family planning conference told a tale of Arab traders inserting small stones into the uteruses of their camels in order to prevent pregnancy, a concept very similar to the modern IUD. Although the story has been repeated as truth, it has no basis in history and was meant only for entertainment purposes.[11] The first interuterine devices (which occupied both the vagina and the uterus) were first marketed around 1900. The first modern intrauterine device (contained entirely in the uterus) was described in a German publication in 1909, although the author appears to have never marketed his product.[12] For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... An intrauterine device (intra meaning within, and uterine meaning of the uterus) is a birth control device also known as an IUD or a coil( this colloquialism is based on the coil-shaped design of early IUDs). ...


The Rhythm Method (with a rather high method failure rate of ten percent per year) was developed in the early 20th century, as researchers discovered that a woman only ovulates once per menstrual cycle. Not until the 1950s, when scientists better understood the functioning of the menstrual cycle and the hormones that controlled it, were methods of hormonal contraception and modern methods of fertility awareness (also called natural family planning) developed. Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ... Menstrual cycle In the female reproductive system, the menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive age females of several mammals, including human beings and other apes. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... Fertility Awareness (FA) is the practice of observing one or more of a woman’s primary fertility signs to determine the fertile and infertile phases of her menstrual cycle. ...


Margaret Sanger was an American birth control activist and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). She was instrumental in opening the way to access to birth control. Margaret Higgins Sanger (September 14, 1879 – September 6, 1966) was an American birth control activist, an advocate of negative eugenics, and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). ... The American Birth Control League was founded by Margaret Sanger in 1921 at the First American Birth Control Conference in New York City. ... This article is about Planned Parenthood Federation of America. ...


The FDA approved the birth control pill in 1960. Until 1972, with the passage of the 26th Amendment, "the Pill" was only available to married women and single women older than 21. The Vietnam War mantra "Old enough to die, old enough to vote" drove the Amendment that lowered the age of majority to 18, which governed the availability of "the Pill" as well as the better known issue of the age to vote.[citation needed]


Methods

See also: Comparison of birth control methods

Different types of birth control methods have large differences in effectiveness, actions required of users, and side effects. ...

Physical methods

Physical methods may work in a variety of ways, among them: physically preventing sperm from entering the female reproductive tract; hormonally preventing ovulation from occuring; making the woman's reproductive tract inhospitable to sperm; or surgically altering the male or female reproductive tract to induce sterility. Some methods use more than one mechanism. Physical methods vary in simplicity, convenience and efficacy.


Barrier methods

Condom (rolled-up)
Condom (rolled-up)

Barrier methods place a physical impediment to the movement of sperm into the female reproductive tract. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


The most popular barrier method is the male condom, a latex or polyurethane sheath placed over the penis. The condom is also available in a female version, which is made of polyurethane. The female condom has a flexible ring at each end — one secures behind the pubic bone to hold the condom in place, while the other ring stays outside the vagina. This article is about the male contraceptive device. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... A female condom is a device that is used during sexual intercourse. ... The ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis -- called the pubic bone. ...


Cervical barriers are devices that are contained completely within the vagina. The contraceptive sponge has a depression to hold it in place over the cervix. The cervical cap is the smallest cervical barrier. Depending on the type of cap, it stays in place by suction to the cervix or to the vaginal walls.The diaphragm fits into place behind the woman's pubic bone and has a firm but flexible ring, which helps it press against the vaginal walls. The contraceptive sponge, marketed in the U.S. under the brand Today, combines barrier and spermicidal techniques to prevent conception. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... The cervical cap is a cervical barrier type of birth control. ... The diaphragm is a cervical barrier type of birth control. ...


Spermicide may be placed in the vagina before intercourse and creates a chemical barrier. Spermicide may be used alone, or in combination with a physical barrier. Spermicide is a substance that kills sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. ...


Hormonal methods

Ortho Tri-cyclen, a brand of oral contraceptive, in a dial dispenser.
Ortho Tri-cyclen, a brand of oral contraceptive, in a dial dispenser.

There are variety of delivery methods for hormonal contraception. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1552x1164, 319 KB) Summary Picture Of Ortho Tri-Cyclen oral contraceptives with Ortho Dialpak dispensers (photo taken by self) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1552x1164, 319 KB) Summary Picture Of Ortho Tri-Cyclen oral contraceptives with Ortho Dialpak dispensers (photo taken by self) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ...


Combinations of synthetic oestrogens and progestins (synthetic progestogens) are commonly used. These include the combined oral contraceptive pill ("The Pill"), the Patch, and the contraceptive vaginal ring ("NuvaRing"). Not currently available for sale in the United States is Lunelle, a monthly injection. Estrogens (or oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds that function as the primary female sex hormone. ... A progestin is a synthetic progestagen. ... Progestagens (also spelled progestogens or gestagens) are hormones similar in effect to progesterone, the only natural progestagen. ... The Pill redirects here. ... A contraceptive patch is a transdermal patch applied to the skin that releases synthetic estrogen and progestin hormones to prevent pregnancy. ... - This is a copy of manufacturers copyrighted patient information leaflet, rather than an encylopedic entry - please edit. ...


Other methods contain only a progestin (a synthetic progestogen). These include the progestin only pill (the POP or 'minipill'), the injectables Depo Provera (a depot formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate given as an intramuscular injection every three months) and Noristerat (Norethindrone acetate given as an intramuscular injection every 8 weeks), and contraceptive implants. The progestin-only pill must be taken at more precisely remembered times each day than combined pills. The first contraceptive implant, the original 6-capsule Norplant, was removed from the market in the United States in 1999, though a newer single-rod implant called Implanon was approved for sale in the United States on July 17, 2006. The various progestin-only methods may cause irregular bleeding during use. Progestogen Only Pills or Progestin Only Pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that only contain synthetic progestogens (progestins) and do not contain oestrogen. ... Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a progestogen-only hormonal contraceptive birth control drug which is injected every 3 months. ... An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. ... Medroxyprogesterone is a molecule used in hormonal contraceptives. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... A progestin is a synthetic progestagen. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... An implant is an artificial device made to replace and act as a missing biological structure. ... Norplant is a form of birth control released in 1991 by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, consisting of a set of six small, silicone capsules filled with levonorgestrel, a synthetic progestin used in many birth control pills. ... Implanon, made by Organon International, is a single-rod contraceptive subdermal implant that is inserted just under the skin of a womans upper arm. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ormeloxifene (Centchroman)

Ormeloxifene (Centchroman) is a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, or SERM. It causes ovulation to occur asynchronously with the formation of the uterine lining, preventing implantation of a zygote. It has been widely available as a birth control method in India since the early 1990s, marketed under the trade name Saheli. Centchroman is legally available only in India. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) is a class of medication that acts on the estrogen receptor. ...


Intrauterine methods

An intrauterine device.

These are contraceptive devices which are placed inside the uterus. They are usually shaped like a "T" — the arms of the T hold the device in place. There are two main types of intrauterine contraceptives: those that contain copper (which has a spermicidal effect), and those that release a progestogen (in the US the term progestin is used). Image File history File links IUDCPCopperT380A.gif Summary contraceptive method - Copper T 380A (brand name Paragard) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links IUDCPCopperT380A.gif Summary contraceptive method - Copper T 380A (brand name Paragard) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Progestagens (also spelled progestogens or gestagens) are hormones similar in effect to progesterone, the only natural progestagen. ... A progestin is a synthetic progestagen. ...


The terminology used for these devices differs in the United Kingdom and the United States. In the US, all devices which are placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy are referred to as intra-uterine devices (IUDs) or intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). In the UK, only copper-containing devices are called IUDs (or IUCDs), and hormonal intrauterine contraceptives are referred to with the term Intra-Uterine System (IUS). This may be because there are seven types of copper IUDs available in the UK, compared to only one in the US. This article is about non-hormonally-based intrauterine contraceptives. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... The IntraUterine System or IUS is an IntraUterine Device (IUD or coil) that has a coating of levonorgestrel (a progesterone) on its shaft, rather than the traditional copper wire. ...


Emergency contraception

See also: Emergency contraceptive availability by country

Some combined pills and POPs may be taken in high doses to prevent pregnancy after a birth control failure (such as a condom breaking) or after unprotected sex. Hormonal emergency contraception is also known as the "morning after pill," although it is licensed for use up to three days after intercourse. The following is a list of countries that allow access to dedicated-purpose emergency contraceptive pills. ... EBC redirects here. ...


Copper intrauterine devices may also be used as emergency contraception. For this use, they must be inserted within five days of the birth control failure or unprotected intercourse.


Emergency contraception appears to work by suppressing ovulation.[13][14] However, because it might prevent a fertilized egg from implanting, some people consider it a form of abortion. The details of the possible methods of action are still being studied.


Induced abortion

Abortion can be done with surgical methods, usually suction-aspiration abortion (in the first trimester) or dilation and evacuation (in the second trimester). Medical abortion uses drugs to end a pregnancy and is approved for pregnancies where the length of gestation has not exceeded 8 weeks. Suction-aspiration abortion is a form of abortion using aspiration. ... Dilation and evacuation literally refers to the dilation of the cervix and surgical evacuation of the contents of the uterus. ...


Some herbs are believed to cause abortion (abortifacients). The efficacy of these plants as such has never been studied in humans. Some animal studies have found them to be effective on other species.[15][6] The use of herbs to induce abortion is not recommended due to the risk of serious side effects. For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ...


Abortion is subject to ethical debate. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Sterilization

Surgical sterilization is available in the form of tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men. In women, the process may be referred to as "tying the tubes," but the fallopian tubes may be tied, cut, clamped, or blocked. This serves to prevent sperm from joining the unfertilized egg. The non-surgical sterilization procedure, Essure, is an example of a procedure that blocks the tubes. Sterilization should be considered permanent. Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ... Tubal ligation (informally known as getting ones tubes tied) is a permanent form of female sterilization, in which the fallopian tubes are severed and sealed or pinched shut, in order to prevent fertilization. ... Vasectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vasa deferentia of a male mammal are cut for the purpose of sterilization. ... Essure is a permanent sterilization procedure for women developed by Conceptus Inc and approved for use in the United States on November 4, 2002. ...


Behavioral methods

Behavioral methods involve regulating the timing or methods of intercourse to prevent the introduction of sperm into the female reproductive tract, either altogether or when an egg may be present.


Fertility awareness

Symptoms-based methods of fertility awareness involve a woman's observation and charting of her body's fertility signs, to determine the fertile and infertile phases of her cycle. Most methods track one or more of the three primary fertility signs:[16] changes in basal body temperature, in cervical mucus, and in cervical position. If a woman tracks both basal body temperature and another primary sign, the method is referred to as symptothermal. Some fertility monitoring devices use urinalysis to follow the levels of estrogen and luteinizing hormone throughout a woman's menstrual cycle. Other bodily cues such as mittelschmerz are considered secondary indicators. Fertility Awareness (FA) is the practice of observing one or more of a woman’s primary fertility signs to determine the fertile and infertile phases of her menstrual cycle. ... Basal body temperature is the body temperature measured immediately after awakening and before any physical activity has been undertaken. ... Estriol. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Mittelschmerz (German: middle pain) is a medical term for ovulation pain. Some women have mittelschmerz regularly and can time their ovulation by it, but many never experience it. ...


Calendar-based methods such as the Rhythm method and Standard Days Method are dissimilar from symptoms-based fertility awareness methods, in that they do not involve the observation or recording of bodily cues of fertility. Instead, statistical methods estimate the likelihood of fertility based on the length of past menstrual cycles. Statistical methods are less accurate than fertility awareness methods, and are considered by many fertility awareness teachers to have been obsolete for at least 20 years. Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ...


Charting of the menstrual cycle may be done by the woman on paper or with the assistance of software. The calendar-based methods may use a device such as CycleBeads. Symptoms-based methods may be assisted by fertility monitoring devices that accept and interpret temperature readings, information from home urinalysis tests, or both. To avoid pregnancy with fertility awareness, unprotected sex is restricted to the least fertile period. During the most fertile period, barrier methods may be availed, or she may abstain from intercourse. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... A urinalysis (or UA) is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. ...


The term natural family planning (NFP) is sometimes used to refer to any use of FA methods. However, this term specifically refers to the practices which are permitted by the Roman Catholic Churchbreastfeeding infertility, and periodic abstinence during fertile times. FA methods may be used by NFP users to identify these fertile times. Natural family planning (NFP) is a term referring to the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the practice of abstinence in general. ...


Coitus interruptus

Coitus interruptus (literally "interrupted sex"), also known as the withdrawal method, is the practice of ending sexual intercourse ("pulling out") before ejaculation. The main risk of coitus interruptus is that the man may not perform the maneuver correctly, or may not perform the maneuver in a timely manner. Although concern has been raised about the risk of pregnancy from sperm in pre-ejaculate, several small studies[2][3] have failed to find any viable sperm in the fluid. Coitus interruptus, also known as withdrawal or the pull out method, is a method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the penis is removed from the vagina prior to ejaculation, primarily to avoid introducing semen into the vagina. ... Pre-ejaculate on a human penis Pre-ejaculate, a more viscous higher flow variation Pre-ejaculate (also known as pre-ejaculatory fluid or Cowpers fluid, and colloquially as precum) is the clear, colorless, viscous fluid that is issued from the urethra of a mans penis when he is...


Avoiding vaginal intercourse

The risk of pregnancy from non-vaginal sex, such as outercourse (sex without penetration), anal sex, or oral sex is virtually zero. (A very small risk comes from the possibility of semen leaking onto the vulva (with anal sex) or coming into contact with an object, such as a hand, that later contacts the vulva.) It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Frottage. ... Sexual penetration (as opposed to outercourse) typically involves the insertion of the penis into a bodily orifice. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... The external genital organs of the female are collectively known as the vulva (plural vulvae or vulvas)[1]. In common speech, the term vagina is often used improperly to refer to the vulva or female genitals generally, even though, strictly speaking, the vagina is a specific internal structure, whereas the...


Abstinence

Sexual abstinence is the practice of refraining from all sexual activity. Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. ...


Lactational

Most breastfeeding women have a period of infertility after the birth of their child. The lactational amenorrhea method, or LAM, gives guidelines for determining the length of a woman's period of breastfeeding infertility. Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ...


Methods in development

For females

  • Praneem is a polyherbal vaginal tablet being studied as a spermicide, and a microbicide active against HIV.[17]
  • BufferGel is a spermicidal gel being studied as a microbicide active against HIV.[18]
  • Duet is a disposable diaphragm in development that will be pre-filled with BufferGel.[19] It is designed to deliver microbicide to both the cervix and vagina. Unlike currently available diaphragms, the Duet will be manufactured in only one size and will not require a prescription, fitting, or a visit to a doctor.[18]
  • The SILCS diaphragm is a silicone barrier which is still in clinical testing. It has a finger cup molded on one end for easy removal. Like the Duet, the SILCS is novel in that it will only be available in one size.
  • A vaginal ring is being developed that releases both estrogen and progesterone, and is effective for over 12 months.[20]
  • Two types of progestogen-only vaginal rings are being developed. Progestogen-only products may be particularly useful for women who are breastfeeding.[20] The rings may be used for four months at a time.[21]
  • A progesterone-only contraceptive is being developed that would be sprayed onto the skin once a day.[22]
  • Quinacrine sterilization and the Adiana procedure are two permanent methods of birth control being developed.[23]

Spermicide is a substance that kills sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. ... A microbicide is any compound or substance whose purpose is to reduce the infectivity of microbes, viruses or bacteria. ... A microbicide is any compound or substance whose purpose is to reduce the infectivity of microbes, viruses or bacteria. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Not to be confused with the element silicon. ... Vaginal rings (also known as intravaginal rings, or V-Rings) are doughnut-shaped polymeric drug delivery devices designed to provide controlled release of drugs to the vagina over extended periods of time. ... Quinacrine (trade name: Atabrine) is a drug with a number of different medical applications. ...

For males

Main article: Male contraceptive

Other than condoms and withdrawal, there are currently no available methods of reversible contraception which males can use or control. Several methods are in research and development: Male Contraceptive Male contraception refers to the process of inhibiting fertilization of the egg with the sperm using methods that deal solely (or primarily) with procedures applied to the male partner. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use...

  • RISUG (Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance), is an experimental injection into the vas deferens that coats the walls of the vas with a spermicidal substance. The method can potentially be reversed by washing out the vas deferens with a second injection.
  • Experiments in vas-occlusive contraception involve an implant placed in the vasa deferentia.
  • Experiments in heat-based contraception involve heating a man's testicles to a high temperature for a short period of time.

Adjudin (AF-2364), also 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide, is an analogue of indazole-carboxylic acid that is of interest in the investigation for male contraception. ... The Male pill is a colloquial term for a male oral contraceptive. ... RISUG RISUG stands for Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance. ... The vas deferens (plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens, (Latin: carrying-away vessel) is part of the male anatomy of some species, including humans. ... Vas-occlusive contraception is a contraceptive method for men that involves preventing sperm from traveling down the vasa deferentia. ... Male Anatomy The vas deferens, also called ductus deferens, (Latin: carrying-away vessel) is part of the human male anatomy. ... An experimental male contraceptive method involves heating the testicles so that they cannot produce sperm. ...

Misconceptions

Modern misconceptions and urban legends have given rise to a great deal of false claims: An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ...

  • The suggestion that douching with any substance immediately following intercourse works as a contraceptive is untrue. While it may seem like a sensible idea to try to wash the ejaculate out of the vagina, it is not likely to be effective. Due to the nature of the fluids and the structure of the female reproductive tract – if anything, douching spreads semen further towards the uterus. Some slight spermicidal effect may occur if the douche solution is particularly acidic, but overall it is not scientifically observed to be a reliably effective method.
  • It is a myth that a female cannot become pregnant as a result of the first time she engages in sexual intercourse.
  • While women are usually less fertile for the first few days of menstruation,[25] it is a myth that a woman absolutely cannot get pregnant if she has sex during her period.
  • Having sex in a hot tub does not prevent pregnancy, but may contribute to vaginal infections.
  • Although some sex positions may encourage pregnancy, no sexual positions prevent pregnancy. Having sex while standing up or with a woman on top will not keep the sperm from entering the uterus. The force of ejaculation, the contractions of the uterus caused by prostaglandins[citation needed] in the semen, as well as ability of sperm to swim overrides gravity.
  • Urinating after sex does not prevent pregnancy and is not a form of birth control, although it is often advised anyway to help prevent urinary tract infections.[26]
  • Toothpaste cannot be used as an effective contraceptive[27]

A douche (IPA: ) is a device used to introduce a stream of water into the body for medical or hygienic reasons, or the stream of water itself. ... Menstrual cycle In the female reproductive system, the menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive age females of several mammals, including human beings and other apes. ... This is a list of sex positions. ... A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. ...

Effectiveness

Poster released in the 1970s by the Family Planning Association of Victoria, Australia.
See also the table at: Comparison of birth control methods

Effectiveness is measured by how many women become pregnant using a particular birth control method in the first year of use. Thus, if 100 women use a method that has a 12 percent first-year failure rate, then sometime during the first year of use, 12 of the women should become pregnant. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x886, 54 KB) This image is of a historical political poster, button, flier or banner, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the creator of the poster or the artist who produced the poster/button/flier/banner... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x886, 54 KB) This image is of a historical political poster, button, flier or banner, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the creator of the poster or the artist who produced the poster/button/flier/banner... The Family Planning Association, also known as fpa, is a UK registered charity (number 250187) working to promote sexual health. ... VIC redirects here. ... Different types of birth control methods have large differences in effectiveness, actions required of users, and side effects. ...


The most effective methods in typical use are those that do not depend upon regular user action. Surgical sterilization, Depo-Provera, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) all have first-year failure rates of less than one percent for perfect use. Sterilization, implants, and IUDs also have typical failure rates under one percent. The typical failure rate of Depo-Provera is disagreed upon, with figures ranging from less than one percent up to three percent.[28][29]


Other methods may be highly effective if used consistently and correctly, but can have typical use first-year failure rates that are considerably higher due to incorrect or ineffective usage by the user. Hormonal contraceptive pills, patches or rings, fertility awareness methods, and the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), if used strictly, have first-year (or for LAM, first-6-month) failure rates of less than 1%.[30][31][32][33] In one survey, typical use first-year failure rates of hormonal contraceptive pills (and by extrapolation, patches or rings) were as high as five percent per year. Fertility awareness methods as a whole have typical use first-year failure rates as high as 25 percent per year; however, as stated above, perfect use of these methods reduces the first-year failure rate to less than 1%.[28]


Condoms and cervical barriers such as the diaphragm have similar typical use first-year failure rates (14 and 20 percent, respectively), but perfect usage of the condom is more effective (three percent first-year failure vs six percent) and condoms have the additional feature of helping to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as the HIV virus. The withdrawal method, if used consistently and correctly, has a first-year failure rate of four percent. Due to the difficulty of consistently using withdrawal correctly, it has a typical use first-year failure rate of 19 percent,[28] and is not recommended by some medical professionals.[34] A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ...


Protection against sexually transmitted infections

Not all methods of birth control offer protection against sexually transmitted infections. Abstinence from all forms of sexual behavior will protect against the sexual transmission of these infections. The male latex condom offers some protection against some of these diseases with correct and consistent use, as does the female condom, although the latter has only been approved for vaginal sex. The female condom may offer greater protection against sexually transmitted infections that pass through skin to skin contact, as the outer ring covers more exposed skin than the male condom, and can be used during anal sex to guard against sexually transmitted infections. However, the female condom can be difficult to use. Frequently a woman can improperly insert it, even if she believes she is using it correctly.[citation needed] This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Vaginal sex or vaginal intercourse is human sexual behavior involving the vagina, especially, but not limited to, the insertion of the erect penis into the vagina. ...


The remaining methods of birth control do not offer significant protection against the sexual transmission of these diseases.


However, so-called sexually transmitted infections may also be transmitted non-sexually, and therefore, abstinence from sexual behavior does not guarantee 100 percent protection against sexually transmitted infections. For example, HIV may be transmitted through contaminated needles which may be used in intravenous drug use, tattooing, body piercing, or injections. Health-care workers have acquired HIV through occupational exposure to accidental injuries with needles.[35] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. ...


Religious and cultural attitudes

Religious views on birth control

Religions vary widely in their views of the ethics of birth control. In Christianity, the Roman Catholic Church accepts only Natural Family Planning,[36] while Protestants maintain a wide range of views from allowing none to very lenient.[37] Views in Judaism range from the stricter Orthodox sect to the more relaxed Reformed sect.[38] In Islam, contraceptives are allowed if they do not threaten health or lead to sterility, although their use is discouraged.[39] Hindus may use both natural and artificial contraceptives.[40] Religious adherents vary widely in their views on birth control. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Natural family planning (NFP) is a term referring to the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Quiverfull is a movement among conservative evangelical Protestant Christian couples chiefly in the United States, but with some adherents in Canada,[1] and with claims of adherent also in Australia, New Zealand, England, and elsewhere. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Birth control education

Many teenagers, most commonly in developed countries, receive some form of sex education in school. What information should be provided in such programs is hotly contested, especially in the United States and Great Britain. Possible topics include reproductive anatomy, human sexual behavior, information on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), social aspects of sexual interaction, negotiating skills intended to help teens follow through with a decision to remain abstinent or to use birth control during sex, and information on birth control methods. An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ...


One type of sex education program used mainly in the United States is called abstinence-only education, and it promotes sexual abstinence until marriage. The program does not provide information on birth control, or it heavily overstates failure rates and teaches strategies for avoiding intimate situations. Advocates of abstinence-only education believe that the programs will result in decreased rates of teenage pregnancy and STD infection. In a non-random, Internet survey of 1,400 women who found and completed a 10-minute multiple-choice online questionnaire listed in one of several popular search engines, women who received sex education from schools providing primarily abstinence information, or contraception and abstinence information equally, reported fewer unplanned pregnancies than those who received primarily contraceptive information, who in turn reported fewer unplanned pregnancies than those who received no information.[41] However, randomized controlled trials demonstrate that abstinence-only sex education programs increase the rates of pregnancy and STDs in the teenage population.[42][43] Professional medical organizations, including the AMA, AAP, ACOG, APHA, and Society for Adolescent Medicine, support comprehensive sex education (providing abstinence and contraceptive information) and oppose the sole use of abstinence-only sex education.[44][45] Abstinence-only sex education is a form of sex education that emphasizes abstinence from sex to the exclusion of all other types of sexual and reproductive health education, particularly regarding birth control and safe sex. ... Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Multiple choice (MCQ) questions or items are a form of assessment item for which respondents are asked to select one or more of the choices from a list. ... With the increasing use of the Internet, online questionnaires have become a popular way of collecting information. ... A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an organization of pediatricians, physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. ... The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) is a professional association of medical doctors specializing in obstetrics and gynecology in the United States. ... The American Public Health Association (APHA) is a professional organization for public health professionals in the United States. ... Adolescent medicine is a medical subspecialty that focuses on care of patients who are in the adolescent period of development. ...


See also

Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ... The phrase one-child policy is commonly used in English to refer to the population control policy (or Planned Birth policy) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Within the framework of WHOs definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. ...

References

  1. ^ Kippley, John; Sheila Kippley (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning, 4th addition, Cincinnati, OH: The Couple to Couple League, p.146. ISBN 0-926412-13-2. , which cites:
    Guttmacher Institute (1992). "Choice of Contraceptives". The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics 34: 111-114. 
    Hatcher, RA; Trussel J, Stewart F, et al (1994). Contraceptive Technology, Sixteenth Revised Edition, New York: Irvington Publishers. ISBN 0-8290-3171-5. 
  2. ^ a b "Researchers find no sperm in pre-ejaculate fluid" (October 1993). Contraceptive Technology Update 14 (10): 154-156. PMID 12286905. 
  3. ^ a b Zukerman, Z.; Weiss D.B. Orvieto R. (April 2003). "Short Communication: Does Preejaculatory Penile Secretion Originating from Cowper's Gland Contain Sperm?". Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 20 (4): 157-159. PMID 12762415. 
  4. ^ Ancient Egyptian Midwifery and Childbirth. Minnesota State University. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  5. ^ Tatman, John. Silphium: Ancient Wonder Drug? Accessed December 21, 2005
  6. ^ a b Riddle, John M. (1999). Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West. Harvard MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-27026-6. 
  7. ^ Vasudeva. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots. Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
  8. ^ Lohiya, N. K.; B. Manivannan, P. K. Mishra, N. Pathak, S. Sriram, S. S. Bhande, and S. Panneerdoss (March 2002). "Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey". Asian Journal of Andrology 4: 17–26. Retrieved on 2006-11-18. 
  9. ^ see John M. Riddle: "Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West", Princeton: Harvard University Press 1999, ISBN-10: 0674270266,esp. Chapter 6: "The Broken Chain of Knowledge"
  10. ^ see Gunnar Heinsohn/Otto Steiger: "Witchcraft, Population Catastrophe and Economic Crisis in Renaissance Europe: An Alternative Macroeconomic Explanation.", University of Bremen 2004(download)PDF (448 KiB); John M. Riddle: "The Great Witch-Hunt and the Suppression of Birth Control: Heinsohn and Steiger's Theory from the Perspective of an Historian", Appendix to: Gunnar Heinsohn/Otto Steiger: "Witchcraft, Population Catastrophe and Economic Crisis in Renaissance Europe: An Alternative Macroeconomic Explanation.", University of Bremen 2004[1]PDF (448 KiB); also see John M. Riddle: "Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West", Princeton: Harvard University Press 1999, ISBN-10: 0674270266, Chapters 5-7
  11. ^ A History of Birth Control Methods. Planned Parenthood (June 2002). Retrieved on 2006-09-02., which cites:
    Thomas, Patricia. (1988). Contraceptives, Medical World News, 29(5) (14 March), 48
  12. ^ "Evolution and Revolution: The Past, Present, and Future of Contraception" (February 2000). Contraception Online (Baylor College of Medicine) 10 (6). 
  13. ^ FDA (December 14, 2006). Plan B: Questions and Answers, August 24, 2006, updated December 14, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
  14. ^ Duramed Pharmaceuticals (September 2006). Plan B Patient Pamphlet p. 3. Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
  15. ^ Riddle, John M. (1992). Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  16. ^ Weschler, Toni (2002). Taking Charge of Your Fertility, Revised Edition, New York: HarperCollins, p.52. ISBN 0-06-093764-5. 
  17. ^ Joshi S, Katti U, Godbole S, Bharucha K, B K, Kulkarni S, Risbud A, Mehendale S (2005). "Phase I safety study of Praneem polyherbal vaginal tablet use among HIV-uninfected women in Pune, India.". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99 (10): 769-74. PMID 16084547. 
  18. ^ a b BufferGel. ReProtect Inc. (2006-10-24). Retrieved on [[2007-05-19]].
  19. ^ Diaphragms. Cervical Barrier Advancement Society (2000). Retrieved on 2006-10-18.
  20. ^ a b "New Contraceptive Choices" (April 2005). Population Reports, INFO Project, Center for Communication Programs M (19). The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Retrieved on 2006-07-14.  Chapter 2: Vaginal Rings
  21. ^ Massai R, Quinteros E, Reyes MV, Caviedes R, Zepeda A, Montero JC, Croxatto HB (2005). "Extended use of a progesterone-releasing vaginal ring in nursing women: a phase II clinical trial". Contraception 72 (5): 352-7. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2005.05.004. PMID 16246661. 
  22. ^ New Contraceptive Choices. Chapter 3: Transdermal contraception
  23. ^ Chapter 10: Transcervical sterilization.
  24. ^ Robert Finn. "Male Contraceptive Methods Are in the Pipeline". Ob.Gyn. News 42:28, May 1, 2007.  Full text PDFPDF (114 KiB)
  25. ^ Kippley, John; Sheila Kippley (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning, 4th addition, Cincinnati, OH: The Couple to Couple League, 108-111,148. ISBN 0-926412-13-2. , which cites:
    Wade ME, McCarthy P, Braunstein GD, et al (October 1981). "A randomized prospective study of the use-effectiveness of two methods of natural family planning". American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 141 (4): 368-376. PMID 7025639. 
    Barbato M, Bertolotti G (1988). "Natural methods for fertility control: A prospective study — first part". International Journal of Fertility 33 Suppl: 48-51. PMID 2902027. 
    Roetzer, J (1979). "Sympto-thermal method — Ten years of change". Linacre Quarterly 45: 358-374. PMID 12309198. 
  26. ^ Rosenthal, M. Sara (2003). Urinary Tract Health. The Gynecological Sourcebook. WebMD. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  27. ^ Sex & the Holy City (htm). Foreign Correspondent. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  28. ^ a b c Trussell, James (1998). "Contraceptive Efficacy", in Hatcher, Robert A. et al. (eds.): Contraceptive Technology, 17th ed., New York: Ardent Media. ISBN 0-966-49020-7. 
  29. ^ FDA (2005). Depo-Provera U.S. Prescribing Information. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  30. ^ Ecochard, R.; Pinguet, F.; Ecochard, I.; De Gouvello, R.; Guy, M.; and Huy, F. (1998) "Analysis of natural family planning failures. In 7007 cycles of use", Fertilite Contraception Sexualite 26(4):291-6
  31. ^ Hilgers T.W. and Stanford J.B. (1998) "Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology for avoiding pregnancy. Use effectiveness", Journal of Reproductive Medicine 43(6):495-502
  32. ^ Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Natural Fertility Regulation Programme in China: Shao-Zhen Qian, et al. Reproduction and Contraception (English edition), in press 2000.
  33. ^ Howard, M.P. and Stanford, J.B. (1999) "Pregnancy probabilities during use of the Creighton Model Fertility Care System", Archives of Family Medicine 8(5):391-402
  34. ^ Skouby, SO. The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care (2004) "Contraceptive use and behavior in the 21st century: a comprehensive study across five European countries." 9(2):57-68
  35. ^ Do AN, Ciesielski CA, Metler RP, Hammett TA, Li J, Fleming PL (2003). "Occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: national case surveillance data during 20 years of the HIV epidemic in the United States". Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24 (2): 86-96. PMID 12602690. 
  36. ^ Humanae Vitae: Encyclical of Pope Paul VI on the Regulation of Birth, July 25, 1968 (html). The Vatican. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
  37. ^ Dennis Rainey (2002). "The Value of Children" (11 July 2002 FamilyLife Today Radio Broadcast) (Transcript of radio broadcast). FamilyLife Today. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  38. ^ Feldman, David M. (1998). Birth Control in Jewish Law. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson. ISBN 0-7657-6058-4. 
  39. ^ Khalid Farooq Akbar. ""Family Planning and Islam: A Review"". Hamdard Islamicus XVII (No. 3). 
  40. ^ "Hindu Beliefs and Practices Affecting Health Care" (html). University of Virginia Health System. Retrieved on 2006-10-06.
  41. ^ Williams MT, Bonner L (2006). "Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes Among North American Women". Adolescence 41 (161): 1-14. PMID 16689438. 
  42. ^ DiCenso A, Guyatt G, Willan A, Griffith L (2002). "Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised controlled trials.". BMJ 324 (7351): 1426. PMID 12065267. 
  43. ^ American Psychological Association (February 23, 2005). "Based on the research, comprehensive sex education is more effective at stopping the spread of HIV infection, says APA committee". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  44. ^ Kaplan, David W. (2002). Prepared Statement. Hearing on Welfare Reform: A Review of Abstinence Education and Transitional Medical Assistance. U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Health. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  45. ^ Santelli J, Ott MA, Lyon M, Rogers J, Summers D (2006). "Abstinence-only education policies and programs: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine". J Adolesc Health 38 (1): 83-7. PMID 16387257. 

The Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System (MnSCU) comprises 32 state-supported technical colleges, community colleges and state universities in Minnesota. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Barr Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Ingenious: an archive of historical images related to obstetrics, gynaecology, and contraception.
  • Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers USAID, WHO, Johns Hopkins INFO Project, 2007

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse) is sexual activity without vaginal, anal, and possibly oral penetration, as opposed to intercourse. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ... Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. ... Fertility Awareness (FA) is the practice of observing one or more of a woman’s primary fertility signs to determine the fertile and infertile phases of her menstrual cycle. ... Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ... Coitus interruptus, also known as withdrawal or the pull out method, is a method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the penis is removed from the vagina prior to ejaculation, primarily to avoid introducing semen into the vagina. ... Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ... A female condom is a device that is used during sexual intercourse. ... The diaphragm is a cervical barrier type of birth control. ... The cervical cap is a cervical barrier type of birth control. ... Leas Shield (Canda Brand, in US: Lea Contraceptive, in Europe: LEA contraceptivum) is a female barrier method of contraception. ... Spermicide is a substance that kills sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. ... The contraceptive sponge, marketed in the U.S. under the brand Today, combines barrier and spermicidal techniques to prevent conception. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... The Pill redirects here. ... A contraceptive patch is a transdermal patch applied to the skin that releases synthetic estrogen and progestin hormones to prevent pregnancy. ... - This is a copy of manufacturers copyrighted patient information leaflet, rather than an encylopedic entry - please edit. ... Progestogen Only Pills or Progestin Only Pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that only contain synthetic progestogens (progestins) and do not contain oestrogen. ... This article is about the contraceptive injection. ... Norplant is a form of birth control released in 1991 by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, consisting of a set of six small, silicone capsules filled with levonorgestrel, a synthetic progestin used in many birth control pills. ... Implanon, made by Organon International, is a single-rod contraceptive subdermal implant that is inserted just under the skin of a womans upper arm. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about non-hormonally-based intrauterine contraceptives. ... The IntraUterine System or IUS is an IntraUterine Device (IUD or coil) that has a coating of levonorgestrel (a progesterone) on its shaft, rather than the traditional copper wire. ... EBC redirects here. ... An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. ... Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ... Vasectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vasa deferentia of a male mammal are cut for the purpose of sterilization. ... Tubal ligation (informally known as getting ones tubes tied) is a permanent form of female sterilization, in which the fallopian tubes are severed and sealed or pinched shut, in order to prevent fertilization. ... Essure is a permanent sterilization procedure for women developed by Conceptus Inc and approved for use in the United States on November 4, 2002. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Air Pollution#Control devices. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... Ecoforestry is forestry that emphasizes holistic practices which strive to protect and restore ecosystems1 instead of traditional forestry that maximizes economic productivity. ... For battery powered passenger automobiles, see battery electric vehicle. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Higher electricity use per capita correlates with a higher score on the Human Development Index(1997). ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is an assessment of the likely influence a project may have on the environment. ... Envirnonmental preservation is the strict setting aside of natural resources to prevent the use or contact by humans or by human intervention. ... This article is about green building construction. ... Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Industrial ecology is the shifting of industrial process from open loop systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes. ... Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by mans industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use. ... Natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. ... The international recycling symbol. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... Generally, remediation means providing a remedy, so environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the general protection of human health and the environment or from a brownfield site intended for redevelopment. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Sustainable architecture applies techniques of sustainable design to architecture. ... This article is about a concept related to renewable energy, of which sustainable energy is a superset. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... The following page consist of a list of waste water treatment technologies: Activated sludge Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic lagoon Cesspit Combined sewer overflow Composting toilet Constructed wetland Imhoff tank Floculation Reed bed Septic tank Sequencing batch reactor UASB Aerobic Granular Reactor This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This list of sex positions includes descriptions of various forms of sexual intercourse and other sexual acts between people. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... Anal-oral sex, also referred to or described as anal-oral contact, rimming, rimjob, salad tossing, butt/ass licking, eating ass, or anilingus (from anus + -lingus), is a form of oral sex involving contact between the anus or perineum of one person and the mouth (lips) or tongue of another. ... Peter Fendi, 1835 Group sex is sexual behaviour involving more than two participants at the same time. ... Sexual sublimation, also known as sexual transmutation, is a method used to reportedly transform the sexual energy into higher creative outlets in order to faciliate spiritual awakening. ... Bareback is a term that originated in gay slang to describe acts of unprotected sex, especially anal sex. ... Saucy Postcard 1905 - 1915 Dirty talk is a dysphemism for a lovers practice of using graphic word imagery to heighten sexual pleasure before and during the sex act. ... In a sexual context, a facial or facial cumshot is the slang term for the sexual activity in which one person directs an ejaculation of semen onto the face of another person, often following oral sex, intercourse, or other stimulation. ... For other uses, see Fingering (disambiguation). ... Fisting or fist fucking (FF) is a sexual activity that involves inserting the hand and forearm into the vagina or anus. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ... Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse) is sexual activity without vaginal, anal, and possibly oral penetration, as opposed to intercourse. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Intercrural sex. ... Adult entertainment is entertainment restricted from people under a specified age in by a community, religious group, or government. ... An artificial vagina is a device designed to simulate the female sex organ. ... A 7-inch silicone dildo A dildo (or dildoe, a rare alternate spelling) is a sex toy, often explicitly phallic in appearance, intended for bodily interaction during masturbation or sexual intercourse. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Personal lubricants are specialized lubricants which serve to reduce friction with the vagina, the anus, or other body parts. ... A spanking paddle is a usually wooden instrument with a long, flat face and narrow neck, so called because it is roughly shaped like the homonymous piece of sports equipment, but existing in more varied sizes and dimensions, (length, width and thickness) used to administer a spanking to the buttocks... Porn redirects here. ... Sex dolls should not be confused with anatomically precise dolls. ... A sex toy is a term for any object or device that is primarily used in facilitating human sexual pleasure. ... Front window of a Tokyo sex shop advertising adult toys A sex shop is a shop that sells products such as sex toys, pornography, erotic lingerie, erotic books, and safer sex products such as condoms and dental dams. ... Adult video games are video games which have significant sexual content (like adult movies), and are therefore intended for an adult audience. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Satyriasis redirects here. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Roman oil lamp depicting coitus more ferarum Erotic depictions include paintings, sculpture, photographs, dramatic arts, music and writings that show scenes of a sexual nature. ... For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... Sexual identity is a term that, like sex, has two distinctively different meanings. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any... Obscenity in Latin obscenus, meaning foul, repulsive, detestable, (possibly derived from ob caenum, literally from filth). The term is most often used in a legal context to describe expressions (words, images, actions) that offend the prevalent sexual morality of the time. ... Sexual assault is any physical contact of a sexual nature without voluntary consent. ... Bad Touch redirects here. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... Ejaculation is the ejecting of semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm. ... This article is about human physiological erection. ... Insemination is the introduction of semen into the genital tract of a female. ... // An orgasm (sexual climax) is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and is experienced by both males and females. ... Turn on redirects here. ... Collars are a commonly used symbol of BDSM and can be ornamental or functional. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Look up paraphilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Whore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Religion and sexuality (disambiguation). ... Romance is a general term that refers to an intimate and often sexual relationship between two people. ... In a species that reproduces sexually, sexual attraction is an attraction to other members of the same species for sexual or erotic activity. ... Sexual ethics is a sub-category of ethics that pertain to acts falling within the broad spectrum of human sexual behavior, sexual intercourse in particular. ... A sex surrogate is a member of a sex therapy team who will engage in intimate physical and often sexual relations with a client. ... Sex tourism is travel to engage in sexual intercourse or sexual activity with prostitutes, and is typically undertaken internationally by tourists from wealthier countries. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... Sexual slang is any slang term which makes reference to sex, the sexual organs, or matters closely related to them. ...


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Birth Control Pill - Information on Birth Control Pill - Birth Control Pill Home (491 words)
The birth control pill is an oral contraceptive that is taken by mouth to prevent an unwanted pregnancy.
Initially, the birth control pill was not available to all women and it wasn’t until 1972 that it was.
When you decide to give the birth control pill a try, you can then conclude, after you have experienced the side effects and have weighed the benefits and costs, whether the birth control pill is right for you and your body.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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