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Encyclopedia > Birmingham
City of Birmingham
Birmingham's skyline viewed from the east
Official logo of City of Birmingham
Coat of Arms of the City Council
Nickname: "Brum", "Brummagem", "Second City", "Workshop of the World", "City of a Thousand Trades"
Motto: Forward
Birmingham shown within England and the West Midlands
Birmingham shown within England and the West Midlands
Coordinates: 52°28′59″N 1°53′37″W / 52.48306, -1.89361
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region West Midlands
Ceremonial county West Midlands
Admin HQ Birmingham City Centre
Founded 6th century
Municipal borough 1838
City 1889
Government
 - Type Metropolitan borough
 - Governing body Birmingham City Council
 - Lord Mayor Randal Brew
 - Council Leader Mike Whitby (C)
 - Council Control Conservative / Liberal Democrat
 - MPs Richard Burden (L)
Liam Byrne (L)
John Hemming (LD)
Dr Lynne Jones (L)
Khalid Mahmood (L)
Steve McCabe (L)
Andrew Mitchell (C)
Clare Short (IL)
Siôn Simon (L)
Gisela Stuart (L)
Area
 - Total 103.4 sq mi (267.77 km²)
Elevation 459 ft (140 m)
Population (2005 est.)
 - Total 1,006,500 (Ranked 1st)
 - Density 9,684/sq mi (3,739/km²)
 - Conurbation 2,284,093
 - Ethnicity
(2005 estimates[1])
67.8% White
3.1% Mixed
20.4% S.Asian
6.6% Black
1.1% Chinese
1.1% Other
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)
 - Summer (DST) British Summer Time (UTC+1)
Postcode B
Area code(s) 0121
ISO 3166-2 GB-BIR
ONS code 00CN
OS grid reference SP066868
NUTS 3 UKG31
Website: www.birmingham.gov.uk

Birmingham (pronunciation ; IPA /ˈbɜːmɪŋˌəm/; Burr-ming-um) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands county of England. Birmingham is the largest of England's core cities, and is often considered to be the second city of the United Kingdom.[2] The City of Birmingham has a population of 1,006,500 (2006 estimate).[3] It forms part of the larger West Midlands conurbation, which has a population of 2,284,093 (2001 census)[4] and includes several neighbouring towns and cities, such as Solihull, Wolverhampton and the towns of the Black Country. Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: , Country State Counties Jefferson, Shelby Incorporated December 19, 1871 Government  - Type Mayor - Council  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (Current) Larry Langford (Mayor-Elect) Area  - City 151. ... // Birmingham is a city in England. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Birm_1977_arms. ... Following the incorporation of Birmingham as a borough in 1838, the corporation approved the design of a seal comprising The Birmingham Arms, encircled with a wreath, with the motto Forward. The arms were those used circa 1413 - 1536 by the de Bermingham family, holders of the manor. ... // A nickname is a name of an entity or thing that is not its proper name. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links EnglandBirmingham. ... This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged, gives an overview of states around the world with information on the extent of their sovereignty. ... // Constituent country is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a historical, currently non-legally officially recognised country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... The West Midlands is an official Region of England, covering the western half of the Midlands. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a population of around 2,600,000 people. ... A borough is a political division originally used in England. ... Cathedral city redirects here. ... A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ... This page is about the Government of Birmingham, England. ... Mike Whitby is a Conservative Party politician and current leader of Birmingham City Council, a post he has held since June 2004. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... This is a list of MPs elected in the UK general election, 2005 to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the United Kingdom general election, 2005, arranged by constituency. ... Richard Haines Burden (born September 1, 1954) UK politician. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Liam Dominic Byrne (born 2 October 1970) is a British Labour Party politician. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... For other persons named John Hemming, see John Hemming (disambiguation). ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... Lynne Mary Jones (born 26 April 1951, Birmingham) is a British Labour Party politician and the Member of Parliament for the Birmingham Selly Oak constituency. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Khalid Mahmood (born 13 July 1961) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... For other persons named Steve McCabe, see Steve McCabe (disambiguation). ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Andrew John Bower Mitchell (born 23 March 1956) is a British Conservative politician and Member of Parliament for Sutton Coldfield. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Clare Short (born 15 February 1946) is a British politician and a member of the British Labour Party. ... Clare Short (born 15 February 1946) is a British politician and a member of the British Labour Party. ... Siôn Llewelyn Simon (born 23 December 1968) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Gisela Gschaider Stuart (born November 26, 1955 as Gisela Gschaider) is the member of Parliament for Birmingham Edgbaston in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The figures are mid-year estimates for 2005, unless otherwise stated, from the Office for National Statistics [1]. See also: List of towns and cities in England by population - List of English counties by population - List of ceremonial counties of England by population - List of English districts by area - List... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... The West Midlands conurbation is the name given to the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton, in the English West Midlands. ... This article is about the color. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caribbean British. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... GMT redirects here. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving British Summer Time (BST) is the changing of the clocks in effect in the United Kingdom and Irish Summer Time (IST) in Republic of Ireland between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October each... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... The B postcode area, also known as the Birmingham postcode area[2], covers the boroughs of Birmingham, Solihull and Sandwell and parts of Warwickshire, Worcestershire and Staffordshire in England. ... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... The ISO 3166-2 codes for the United Kingdom correspond to the nations administrative divisions. ... The Office for National Statistics coding system is a hierarchical code used in the United Kingdom for tabulating census and other statistical data. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... Cathedral city redirects here. ... A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a population of around 2,600,000 people. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The English Core Cities Group is an association of eight large regional cities in England: Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nottingham and Sheffield. ... Identifying the second city of the United Kingdom is a subject of some disagreement. ... The West Midlands conurbation is the name given to the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton, in the English West Midlands. ... , Solihull (IPA: , or ) is a large town in the West Midlands of England, with a population of 94,753. ... Wolverhampton is a city in the historic county of Staffordshire and metropolitan county of the West Midlands. ... The Black Country is a loosely defined area of the English West Midlands conurbation, to the north and west of Birmingham, and to the south and east of Wolverhampton, around the South Staffordshire coalfield. ...


The city's reputation was forged as a powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, a fact which led to Birmingham being known as "the workshop of the world" or the "city of a thousand trades".[5] Although Birmingham's industrial importance has declined, it has developed into a national commercial centre, being named as the third best place in the United Kingdom to locate a business, and the 21st best in Europe by Cushman & Wakefield in 2007.[6] It is also the fourth most visited city by foreign visitors in the UK.[7] In 1998, Birmingham hosted the G8 summit at the International Convention Centre, the birthplace of exhibitions in 1850 and remains a popular location for conventions today.[8] A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Cushman & Wakefield, Inc. ... G8 work session; July 20-22, 2001. ... The International Convention Centre is a major conference venue in central Birmingham, England. ... Bingley House 1830, demolished to build Bingley Hall in 1850 The Bingley Hall in Birmingham was the first purpose-built exhibition hall in Great Britain. ...


People from Birmingham are known as 'Brummies', a term derived from the city's nickname of Brum. This comes in turn from the city's dialect name, Brummagem,[9] which is derived from one of the city's earlier names, 'Bromwicham'. There is a distinctive Brummie dialect (distinct vocabulary and syntax) and accent, both of which differ from the adjacent Black Country. Brummie (sometimes Brummy) is a colloquial term for the inhabitants, accent and dialect of Birmingham, England, as well as being a general adjective used to denote a connection with the city, locally called Brum. ... Brummagem (and historically also Bromichan, Bremicham and many similar variants, all essentially Bromwich·ham) is a local dialect name for the city of Birmingham, UK. It gave rise to the terms Brum (a generally affectionate local term for the city) and Brummie (inhabitants of the city, their accent and dialect... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Black Country is a loosely defined area of the English West Midlands conurbation, to the north and west of Birmingham, and to the south and east of Wolverhampton, around the South Staffordshire coalfield. ...

Contents

History

Main articles: History of Birmingham, Economic history of Birmingham, and Timeline of Birmingham history
William Westley's 1731 map of Birmingham. The top of the map is orientated westwards.

In the 6th century, Birmingham was an Anglo-Saxon farming hamlet on the banks of the River Rea.[10] The name 'Birmingham' comes from "Beorma ingas ham", meaning "home of the people of Beorma."[11] Birmingham was first recorded in written documents by the Domesday Book of 1086 as a small village, worth only 20 shillings.[11] There were many variations on this name. Bermingeham is another version. St Martins Church and the Selfridges building This article is about the history of Birmingham in England. ... This article is intended to show a timeline of events in the History of Birmingham, England, with a particular focus on the events, people or places that are covered in Wikipedia articles. ... Image File history File links Street plan of Birmingham from 1731 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Street plan of Birmingham from 1731 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... A hamlet is (usually — see below) a small settlement, too small or unimportant to be considered a village. ... The River Rea is a small river which passes through Birmingham, England. ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... This article is about coinage. ...


In the 12th century, Birmingham was granted a royal charter to hold a market,[10] which in time became known as the Bull Ring, transforming Birmingham from a village to a market town. As early as the 16th century, Birmingham's access to supplies of iron ore and coal meant that metalworking industries became established.[12] Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Selfridges at the Bullring St Martins Church, with Selfridges in the background The interior of the Bullring The Bull Ring market has been an important feature of Birmingham since the Middle Ages. ... Fe redirects here. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This article is about metallic materials. ...


By the time of the English Civil War in the 17th century, Birmingham had become an important manufacturing town with a reputation for producing small arms. Arms manufacture in Birmingham became a staple trade and was concentrated in the area known as the Gun Quarter.[13] During the Industrial Revolution (from the mid-18th century onwards), Birmingham grew rapidly into a major industrial centre and the town prospered. During the 18th century, Birmingham was home to the Lunar Society, an important gathering of local thinkers and industrialists.[14] For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... The Gun Quarter is the name given to an area of the city of Birmingham, in England, traditionally (and still) associated with the manufacture of firearms and sporting guns. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The Lunar Society was a discussion club of prominent industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England. ...

The BCN Main Line canal of the Birmingham Canal Navigations at Brindleyplace.
The BCN Main Line canal of the Birmingham Canal Navigations at Brindleyplace.

By the 1820s, an extensive canal system had been constructed, giving greater access to natural resources to fuel to industries. Railways arrived in Birmingham in 1837 with the arrival of the Grand Junction Railway, and a year later, the London and Birmingham Railway. During the Victorian era, the population of Birmingham grew rapidly to well over half a million[15] and Birmingham became the second largest population centre in England. Birmingham was granted city status in 1889 by Queen Victoria.[16] The city established its own university in 1900.[17] Download high resolution version (1000x582, 209 KB)The canals at Brindleyplace in central Birmingham. ... Download high resolution version (1000x582, 209 KB)The canals at Brindleyplace in central Birmingham. ... The BCN Main Line, or Birmingham Canal Navigations Main Line describes the evolving route of the Birmingham Canal between Birmingham and Wolverhampton in England. ... Birmingham Canal Navigations (BCN) is a network of canals linking Birmingham, England to Wolverhampton and the Black Country. ... Brindleyplace Brindleyplace (often written Brindley Place) is a large mixed-use canalside development, near the centre of Birmingham, England. ... For canals of Northern Ireland see the Canals of Ireland article // History See History of the British canal system for a more detailed history. ... End of the single track, unelectrified line at Bad Radkersburg, Styria, Austria, quite close to the Slovenian border. ... The Grand Junction Railway (GJR) was an early railway company in the United Kingdom which existed between 1833 and 1846. ... The London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) was an early railway company in the United Kingdom from 1833 until 1846, at which date it became a constituent part of the London and North Western Railway. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Cathedral city redirects here. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Website http://www. ...

The Victorian New Street Station
The Victorian New Street Station

Birmingham was originally part of Warwickshire, but expanded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, absorbing parts of Worcestershire to the south and Staffordshire to the north and west. The city absorbed Sutton Coldfield in 1974. The people of Sutton Coldfield still consider themselves separate from Birmingham. At the same time Birmingham became a metropolitan borough in the new West Midlands county. Up until 1986, the West Midlands County Council was based in Birmingham City Centre. Image File history File links Newstreetold. ... Image File history File links Newstreetold. ... The tracks at the eastern end of Birmingham New Street station Class 390 no. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced // or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... For the condiment, see Worcestershire sauce. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... , Holy Trinity Church on Trinity Hill north of Sutton town centre. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a population of around 2,600,000 people. ... The West Midlands County Council (WMCC) was the former upper-tier administrative body for the West Midlands county, a metropolitan county in England. ...

Birmingham in 1886.

Birmingham suffered heavy bomb damage during World War II's "Birmingham Blitz", and the city was extensively redeveloped during the 1950s and 1960s.[18] This included the construction of large tower block estates, such as Castle Vale in Erdington. The Bull Ring reconstructed and New Street station was redeveloped. In recent years, Birmingham has been transformed, with the construction of new squares like Centenary Square and Millennium Place. Old streets, buildings and canals have been restored, the pedestrian subways have been removed, and the Bull Ring shopping centre[19] has been redeveloped further. Image File history File links Birmingham city centre in 1886 looking over Chamberlain Square with the Council House and art gallery (in the centre), the Town Hall (the building with pillars on the right) and the Chamberlain memorial which is at the bottom in the centre. ... Image File history File links Birmingham city centre in 1886 looking over Chamberlain Square with the Council House and art gallery (in the centre), the Town Hall (the building with pillars on the right) and the Chamberlain memorial which is at the bottom in the centre. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Birmingham Blitz was the heavy bombing of the city of Birmingham in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. ... Castle Vale is an area of the City of Birmingham, in England, originally created as an overspill housing estate in the 1960s. ... Erdington constituency shown within Birmingham Erdington is an area in north Birmingham, England. ... Selfridges at the Bullring St Martins Church, with Selfridges in the background The interior of the Bullring The Bull Ring market has been an important feature of Birmingham since the Middle Ages. ... The tracks at the eastern end of Birmingham New Street station Class 390 no. ... 2003 Bull Ring _ St Martins church and Selfridges The Bull Ring market has been an important feature of Birmingham since the Middle Ages. ...


In the decades following The Second World War, the population of Birmingham changed dramatically, with immigration from the Commonwealth of Nations and beyond.[20] The population peaked in 1951 at 1,113,000 residents.[15] German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


Geography

Birmingham is situated just to the west of the geographical centre of England on the Birmingham Plateau - an area of relatively high ground, ranging around 500 to 1,000 feet (150-300 m) above sea level and crossed by Britain's main north-south watershed between the basins of the Rivers Severn and Trent. To the south and west of the city lie the Lickey Hills,[21] Clent Hills and Walton Hill, which reach 1,033 feet (315 m) and have extensive views over the city. Birmingham is located in the centre of the West Midlands region of England. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Main European water divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ... Severn redirects here. ... For other uses see Trent River. ... The Lickey Hills are a range of hills in Worcestershire, England, eleven miles to the south-west of the centre of Birmingham near the villages of Lickey and Barnt Green. ... The Clent Hills lie 15 km southwest of Birmingham city centre in Worcestershire, England. ... At 316 metres, Walton Hill is the highest point in the range of hills in Worcestershire known as the Clent Hills. ... The West Midlands is a geographical term describing the western half of central England, based upon the Anglian Kingdom of Mercia, known today as The Midlands. ...


Geology

Geologically, Birmingham is dominated by the Birmingham Fault which runs diagonally through the city from the Lickey Hills in the south west, passing through Edgbaston, the Bull Ring and Erdington, to Sutton Coldfield in the north east.[22] To the south and east of the fault the ground is largely softer Keuper Marl, interspersed with beds of Bunter pebbles and crossed by the valleys of the Rivers Tame, Rea and Cole along with their tributaries.[23] Much of this would have been laid down during the Permian and Triassic eras.[22] To the north and west of the fault, varying from 150 to 600 feet (45-180 m) higher than the surrounding area and underlying much of the city centre, lies a long ridge of harder Keuper Sandstone.[24][25] Edgbaston constituency shown within Birmingham Edgbaston is an area and ward in the city of Birmingham in England. ... Selfridges at the Bullring St Martins Church, with Selfridges in the background The interior of the Bullring The Bull Ring market has been an important feature of Birmingham since the Middle Ages. ... Erdington constituency shown within Birmingham Erdington is an area in north Birmingham, England. ... , Holy Trinity Church on Trinity Hill north of Sutton town centre. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ... Bunter beds are sandstone deposits containing rounded pebbles, such as can notably be found in Warwickshire, Cheshire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire, Devon and Dorset in England. ... The River Tame flows from the Black Country, through north Birmingham, past Tamworth (which takes its name from the river), and into the River Trent near Alrewas. ... The River Rea is a small river which passes through Birmingham, England. ... The River Cole is a short river in the English Midlands. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about the geological formation. ...


Much of the area now occupied by the city was originally a northern reach of the ancient Forest of Arden, whose former presence can still be felt in the city's dense oak tree-cover and in the large number of districts such as Moseley, Saltley and Hockley with names ending in "-ley": an Anglo-Saxon word meaning "woodland clearing".[26] Arden is a district in Warwickshire, England, near Stratford-upon-Avon. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... Moseley village green Moseley is a suburb of Birmingham, England, located 2 miles to the south of the city centre. ... Saltley is an inner-city area of Birmingham, east of the city centre. ... Disambiguation: you may be looking for Hockley Heath, a place near Birmingham. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Climate

The climate in Birmingham is classified as a temperate maritime climate, like much of the British Isles, with average maximum temperatures in summer (July) being around 20°C (68°F); and in winter (January) is around 4.5°C (40°F). Extreme weather is rare but the city has been known to experience tornados - the most recent being in July 2005 in the south of the city, damaging homes and businesses in the area.[27] For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Tornado, see Tornado (disambiguation). ... Damage caused by the Birmingham tornado The Birmingham Tornado was one of the strongest tornadoes recorded in the United Kingdom in nearly 30 years, occurring on 28 July 2005 in the suburbs of Birmingham. ...


Occasional summer heatwaves, such as the one experienced in July 2006 have become more common in recent years, and winters have become milder since the 1990s with snow becoming much less frequent. Similar to most other large cities, Birmingham has a considerable 'urban heat island' effect.[28] During the coldest night recorded in Birmingham (14 January, 1982), for example, the temperature fell to -20.8°C (-5.4°F) at Birmingham International Airport on the city's eastern edge, but just -12.9°C (8.8°F) at Edgbaston, near the city centre.[29] Relative to other large UK conurbations, Birmingham is a snowy city, due to its inland location and comparatively high elevation.[29] Snow showers often pass through the city via the Cheshire gap on North Westerly airstreams, but can also come off the North sea from North Easterly airstreams.[29] Tokyo, a case of Urban Heat Island. ... For the Birmingham, Alabama, United States airport, see Birmingham International Airport (U.S.). Birmingham International Airport (IATA: BHX, ICAO: EGBB) is an international airport located 5. ...

Weather averages for Birmingham
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 6.0 (43) 6.2 (43) 8.9 (48) 11.9 (53) 15.3 (60) 18.8 (66) 20.6 (69) 20.1 (68) 17.6 (64) 13.8 (57) 9.2 (49) 7.1 (45)
Average low °C (°F) 0.3 (33) 0.1 (32) 1.5 (35) 3.3 (38) 6.0 (43) 9.2 (49) 11.1 (52) 10.8 (51) 8.8 (48) 6.2 (43) 2.9 (37) 1.3 (34)
Precipitation mm (inches) 56 (2.2) 48 (1.9) 52 (2) 48 (1.9) 55 (2.2) 57 (2.2) 47 (1.9) 67 (2.6) 54 (2.1) 53 (2.1) 59 (2.3) 66 (2.6)
Source: United Nations World Meteorological Organization[30] 2007-08-26
Weather averages for Birmingham
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 7 (45) 8 (46) 10 (50) 13 (55) 17 (63) 19 (66) 21 (70) 22 (72) 19 (66) 14 (57) 10 (50) 7 (45)
Average low °C (°F) 3 (37) 3 (37) 4 (39) 5 (41) 8 (46) 10 (50) 12 (54) 12 (54) 11 (52) 8 (46) 5 (41) 3 (37)
Precipitation mm (inches) 67.8 (2.7) 46.8 (1.8) 43.9 (1.7) 64.6 (2.5) 40.6 (1.6) 62.0 (2.4) 44.8 (1.8) 65.3 (2.6) 64.6 (2.5) 121.0 (4.8) 70.2 (2.8) 70.6 (2.8)
Source: Msn weather 2008-06-08

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Towns
Villages

See also: The Black Country. For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Litchfield. ... Wolverhampton is a city in the historic county of Staffordshire and metropolitan county of the West Midlands. ... The city of Worcester (pronounced Wuh-ster) is the county town of Worcestershire in England; the river Severn runs through the middle, with the citys large Worcester Cathedral overlooking the river. ... Aldridge is a town in the West Midlands, England, in the borough of Walsall, although historically it was part of the county of Staffordshire. ... , Atherstone is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... , Bedworth is a market town in the Nuneaton and Bedworth district of Warwickshire, England. ... , Bromsgrove is a town in Worcestershire, West Midlands, England. ... , Cannock is a town in Staffordshire, England, just north of the West Midlands conurbation. ... , Coleshill is a market town in the North Warwickshire district of Warwickshire, England, taking its name from the River Cole. ... Droitwich Spa is a town in northern Worcestershire, England. ... Map sources for Dudley at grid reference SO9390 Dudley is a town in the West Midlands, England. ... Halesowen is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, in the West Midlands, England. ... Hinckley is a town in south-west Leicestershire, England. ... Statistics Population: 22,582 (2001) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SP295715 Administration District: Warwick Shire county: Warwickshire Region: West Midlands Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Warwickshire Services Police force: Warwickshire Police Ambulance service: West Midlands Post office and telephone Post town: Kenilworth Postal district: CV8... , Kidderminster is a town in the Wyre Forest district of Worcestershire, England. ... , Nuneaton is the largest town in the English county of Warwickshire, and the borough of Nuneaton and Bedworth. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Redditch is a town and local government district in north-east Worcestershire, England. ... The Royal Pump Rooms and Baths Royal Leamington Spa, usually shortened to Leamington Spa or Leamington (pronounced Lemington) is a spa town in central Warwickshire, in England. ... Rugby is a market town in the county of Warwickshire in the West Midlands of England, on the River Avon. ... , Solihull (IPA: , or ) is a large town in the West Midlands of England, with a population of 94,753. ... , Stafford is the county town of Staffordshire in England. ... , Stourbridge is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, in the West Midlands of England. ... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... For other places named Tamworth, see Tamworth (disambiguation). ... , This article is about the town of Telford, Shropshire. ... Warwick (pronounced or War-ick (silent w in middle)) is the historic county town of Warwickshire in England and has a population of 25,434 (2001 census). ... , Walsall is a large industrial town in the West Midlands of England. ... The Public by Will Alsop. ... Little Aston is an affluent area of the district of Lichfield, Staffordshire, England, but is separated from the city of Lichfield by open country. ... Streetly is an area in the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall, England. ... The Black Country is a loosely defined area of the English West Midlands conurbation, to the north and west of Birmingham, and to the south and east of Wolverhampton, around the South Staffordshire coalfield. ...


Demographics

Religion Percentage of
population
Buddhist 0.3%
Christian 59.1%
Hindu 2%
Jewish 0.2%
Muslim 14.3%
Sikh 2.9%
No religion 12.4%
No answer 8.4%

Birmingham is an ethnically and culturally diverse city. In 2005 the ONS estimated that 67.8% of the population was White (including 2.7% Irish & 2.1% Other White), 20.4% Asian or Asian British, 6.6% Black or Black British, 1.1% Chinese, 3.1% of mixed race and 1.1% of other ethnic heritage.[31] 57% of primary and 52% of secondary pupils are from non-white British families.[32] 16.5% of the population was born outside the United Kingdom. Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... The 18th-century French author Baron dHolbach was one of the first self-described atheists. ... Birmingham, England is an ethnically and culturally diverse city. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... White British is an ethnic classification used in the United Kingdom Census 2001, 92. ... White Other is a term used in the UK census to describe white persons of non-British descent. ... Asian may refer to: Asian people - The people from Asia. ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caribbean British. ... See also: British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British, British Asian,Britsh Mixed Black British is term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political label. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ...


The population density is 9,451 inhabitants per square mile (3,649/km²) compared to the 976.9 inhabitants per square mile (377.2/km²) for England. Females represented 51.6% of the population whilst men represented 48.4%. More women were 70 or over.[33] 60.4% of the population was aged between 16 and 74, compared to 66.7% in England as a whole.[34]


60.3% of households were found to be owner occupied and 27.7% were rented from either the city council, housing association or other registered social landlord. The remaining 11.8% of households were rented privately or lived rent free.[34] The Department of Social Security (DSS) was until 2001 a department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ...


Places of interest

See also: Places of interest in Birmingham[35]

The Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery is the main art gallery and museum in Birmingham. It has renowned displays of artwork that include a leading collection of work by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the world's largest collection of works by Edward Burne-Jones. The group also owns other museums in the city such as Aston Hall, Blakesley Hall, the Museum of the Jewellery Quarter and Sarehole Mill, a popular attraction for fans of J. R. R. Tolkien. Thinktank in the Eastside is one of the newest museums in the city. The Birmingham Back to Backs are the last surviving court of back-to-back houses in the city.[36] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 649 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 649 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Barber Institute of Fine Arts is an art gallery in the English city of Birmingham, situated in purpose built premises on the campus of the University of Birmingham. ... Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery Opened in 1885, Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery (BM&AG), in Birmingham, England, has a collection of international importance covering fine art, ceramics, metalwork, jewellery, archaeology, ethnography, local and industrial history. ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... Love Among the Ruins, by Edward Burne-Jones. ... Aston Hall, after the coming of the railways, in 1851 Aston Hall is a Jacobean-style mansion in Aston, Birmingham, England, completed in 1635. ... Blakesley Hall is a Tudor hall on Blakesley Road in Yardley, Birmingham. ... The workshop at the Museum of the Jewellery Quarter. ... Sarehole Mill Sarehole Mill Sarehole Mill (grid reference SP099818) is a Grade II listed water mill (in an area once called Sarehole) on the River Cole in Hall Green, Birmingham, England. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Thinktank is a science museum in Birmingham, England. ... The Back to Backs are a court of houses in Birmingham, England, now operated as a museum by the National Trust. ...


The Barber Institute of Fine Arts is both an art gallery and concert hall. It also has one of the world's most detailed and largest coin collections.[37] Cadbury World is a museum showing visitors the stages and steps of chocolate production and the history of chocolate and the company. The Barber Institute of Fine Arts is an art gallery in the English city of Birmingham, situated in purpose built premises on the campus of the University of Birmingham. ... Cadbury Schweppes plc (Cadbury Trebor Bassett), (NYSE: CSG) is a confectionery and beverage company with its headquarters in London. ...

Victoria Square at night
Victoria Square at night

There are over 8,000 acres (3,200 ha) of parkland open spaces in Birmingham.[38] The largest of the parks is Sutton Park covering 2,400 acres (970 ha) making it the largest urban nature reserve in Europe.[39] Birmingham Botanical Gardens are a Victorian creation, with a conservatory and bandstand, close to the city centre. The Winterbourne Botanic Garden, maintained by the University of Birmingham, is also located close to the city centre. Woodgate Valley Country Park is in Bartley Green and Quinton. A view of Victoria Square Iron : Man, an Queen Victoria Antony Gormley statue in the square Victoria Square is an important public square in Birmingham, England. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... Sutton Park, in Sutton Coldfield, United Kingdom, is one of the largest urban parks in Europe; it is smaller than Richmond Park in London,[1] but larger than the Phoenix Park in Dublin which both claim to be the largest in the continent. ... The Birmingham Botanical Gardens in Birmingham, England were designed in 1829 and opened in 1832. ... Winterbourne Botanic Garden is the botanical garden of the University of Birmingham, located in Edgbaston, Birmingham. ... Website http://www. ...


The city centre consists of numerous public squares including Centenary Square, Chamberlain Square and Victoria Square. The historic Old Square is located on Corporation Street. Rotunda Square and St Martin's Square are two of the newest squares in Birmingham, being located within the Bullring Shopping Centre. Brindleyplace also consists of three squares. A town square is an open area commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. ... The Square as seen from above Centenary Square is a public square in central Birmingham, named in celebration of the centenary of Birmingham achieving city status (in 1889). ... Chamberlain Square is a public open space in central Birmingham, England, named after Joseph Chamberlain. ... A view of Victoria Square Iron : Man, an Queen Victoria Antony Gormley statue in the square Victoria Square is an important public square in Birmingham, England. ... The memorial dedicated to Tony Hancock. ... Corporation Street is a main shopping street in central Birmingham, England. ... Brindleyplace Brindleyplace (often written Brindley Place) is a large mixed-use canalside development, near the centre of Birmingham, England. ...

St Philip's Cathedral from the rear
St Philip's Cathedral from the rear

Due to Birmingham's diverse population, there is a diverse variety of religious buildings in the city. St Philip's was upgraded from church to cathedral status in 1905. Another cathedral in the city is St Chad's, which is the seat of the Roman Catholic Province of Birmingham. St Martin in the Bull Ring is a Grade II* listed church. There is also a variety of non-Christian religions in the city. In the 1960s, Birmingham Central Mosque, one of the largest mosques in Europe, was constructed for the Muslim community of the city.[40] However, during the late 1990s a mosque in the Sparkhill area close to the city centre was re-developed in partnership with the Birmingham City Council to supersede the Birmingham Central Mosque as the largest Mosque in the city. It holds a larger capacity and a fully functional segregated women's section. As its centrepiece is a dome. The new mosque is generally home to the Kashmiri-Pakistani population which made Birmingham its home during the late 1960s. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x813, 287 KB)St Philips Cathedral in Birmingham. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x813, 287 KB)St Philips Cathedral in Birmingham. ... St Philips Cathedral St Philips Cathedral is a Church of England cathedral, in Colmore Row, Birmingham, England, dedicated to St Philip. ... RC Cathedral of St Chad, Birmingham Saint Chads Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Province of Birmingham, England, a province of the Catholic Church in Great Britain. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... St Martin in the Bull Ring, Birmingham, next to the modern Selfridges shop Alternate view The church of St Martin in the Bull Ring (Grid reference SP073866) in Birmingham, England is the original parish church of Birmingham. ... The Forth Bridge, designed by Sir Benjamin Baker and Sir John Fowler, opened in 1890, and now owned by Network Rail, is designated as a Category A listed building by Historic Scotland. ... Birmingham Central Mosque Birmingham Central Mosque, is a mosque in the Highgate area of Birmingham, England, run by the Birmingham Mosque Trust, and is one of the largest Muslim centres in Europe. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


See also: Religion in Birmingham. Modern-day Birminghams cultural diversity is reflected in the wide variety of religious beliefs of its citizens. ...


Economy

Colmore Row in Birmingham's Business District.
Colmore Row in Birmingham's Business District.
Main article: Economy of Birmingham

Although Birmingham grew to prominence as a manufacturing and engineering centre, its economy today is dominated by the service sector, which in 2003 accounted for 78% of the city's economic output and 97% of its economic growth.[41] The city of Birmingham, in England, is an important manufacturing and engineering centre, employing over 100,000 people in the industry and contributing billions to the national economy. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ...


Two of Britain's "big four" banks were founded in Birmingham - Lloyds Bank (now Lloyds TSB) in 1765[42] and the Midland Bank (now HSBC Bank plc) in 1836[43] - and today the city employs 108,000 in banking, finance and insurance.[44] In 2007, Cushman & Wakefield stated that Birmingham was the third best place in the United Kingdom to locate a business, and the 21st best in Europe.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lloyds TSB Group plc is a group of financial services companies, based in the United Kingdom, with the registered office in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Lloyds TSB Group plc is a group of financial services companies, based in the United Kingdom, which was created in 1995 following the merger of the TSB Group and the Lloyds Bank Group. ... The Midland Bank (now part of HSBC) opened as the Birmingham and Midland Bank in Union Street, Birmingham, England in August 1836. ... HSBC Bank plc is a Clearing Bank in the United Kingdom, and is one of the Big 4 high street banks. ... Cushman & Wakefield, Inc. ...


Tourism is also an increasingly important part of the local economy. With major facilities such as the International Convention Centre and National Exhibition Centre the Birmingham area accounts for 42% of the UK conference and exhibition trade.[8] The city's sporting and cultural venues attract large numbers of visitors. The International Convention Centre is a major conference venue in central Birmingham, England. ... Atrium entrance 2 at the NEC The interior of a section of the atrium The National Exhibition Centre (NEC) is the seventh largest exhibition centre in Europe, located in Solihull, near Birmingham, England. ...

With an annual turnover of £2.2bn, Birmingham city centre is the UK's second largest retail centre,[45] with the country's busiest shopping centre - the Bullring[46] - and the largest department store outside London - House of Fraser on Corporation Street.[47] The City also has one of only four Selfridges department stores, and the second largest branch of Debenhams in the country.[46] The Jaguar XF is an all-new car which will replace the S-Type. ... For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... Castle Bromwich Assembly in Birmingham, England is a Jaguar Cars factory. ... For the traditional meaning of the word mall, see pedestrian street or promenade. ... Selfridges at the Bullring St Martins Church, with Selfridges in the background The interior of the Bullring The Bull Ring market has been an important feature of Birmingham since the Middle Ages. ... The interior of a typical Macy*s department store. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... House of Fraser is a British department store group with 61 stores (July 2007) across the UK and Ireland. ... Corporation Street is a main shopping street in central Birmingham, England. ... Selfridges in Birmingham. ... Debenhams plc (LSE: DEB) is a retailer with a chain of department stores based in the United Kingdom, and franchised stores in a number of other countries. ...


Despite the decline of manufacturing in the city several significant industrial plants remain, including Jaguar Cars in Castle Bromwich and Cadbury Trebor Bassett in Bournville. For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... Castle Bromwich is a large village situated within the northern part of the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull in the English West Midlands area. ... Cadbury Trebor Bassett is a British confectionery company, associated with several famous types of confectionery including liquorice allsorts, jelly babies, flumps and Dolly Mix. ... Bournville is an area on the south side of Birmingham, best known for its connections with the Cadbury family and chocolate - including a dark chocolate bar branded Bournville. It is also home to a campus of the Birmingham Institute of Art and Design. ...


Although the city has seen economic growth greater than the national average in the 21st century[48] the benefits have been uneven, with commuters from the surrounding area obtaining many of the more skilled jobs. The two parliamentary constituencies with the highest unemployment rates in the UK - Ladywood and Sparkbrook and Small Heath - are both in inner-city Birmingham.[49] Growth has also added to stresses on the city's transport. Many major roads and the central New Street railway station operate over capacity at peak times. Commuting is the process of travelling from a place of residence to a place of work. ... Birmingham Ladywood is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Birmingham Sparkbrook and Small Heath is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The tracks at the eastern end of Birmingham New Street station Class 390 no. ...


Politics

Birmingham City Council is the largest local authority in the UK and the largest council in Europe.[50] It has 120 councillors representing 40 wards.[51] No single party is in overall control and the council is run by a Conservative/ Liberal Democrat coalition. Birmingham's eleven parliamentary constituencies are represented in the House of Commons by one Conservative, one Liberal Democrat, one Independent Labour and eight Labour MPs.[52] Birmingham City Council operates all aspects of the city's workings through it planning and leisure services. The council deals with all planning applications as well as adding designations for locally listed buildings.[53] This page is about the Government of Birmingham, England. ... Download high resolution version (530x700, 167 KB)In the background is the City of Birmingham Council House (built 1879) which is considered one of Birminghams finest Victorian buildings as seen from Victoria square in the city centre. ... Download high resolution version (530x700, 167 KB)In the background is the City of Birmingham Council House (built 1879) which is considered one of Birminghams finest Victorian buildings as seen from Victoria square in the city centre. ... The Council House as seen from Victoria Square The Council House is the home of Birmingham City Council in Birmingham England. ... This page is about the Government of Birmingham, England. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and other parts of the Commonwealth. ... A ward is an electoral district used in local politics, most notably in England, Scotland, and Wales, as well as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and many cities in the United States and the federal district of Washington, DC. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ... Clare Short (born 15 February 1946) is a British politician and a member of the British Labour Party. ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The Forth Bridge, designed by Sir Benjamin Baker and Sir John Fowler, opened in 1890, and now owned by Network Rail, is designated as a Category A listed building by Historic Scotland. ...


Law enforcement in Birmingham is carried out by West Midlands Police, fire and rescue by West Midlands Fire Service and emergency medical care by West Midlands Ambulance Service. Birmingham is also the seat of the Government Office for the West Midlands region.[54] West Midlands Police is the Home Office police force responsible for policing the metropolitan county of West Midlands in England. ... The West Midlands Fire Service is the statutory fire and rescue service responsible for fire protection, prevention, intervention and emergency rescue in the West Midlands county in England. ... Map of the West Midlands Ambulance Services coverage The West Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the authority responsible for providing NHS ambulance services in Herefordshire, Shropshire,Staffordshire, Telford and Wrekin, Warwickshire, West Midlands, and Worcestershire in the West Midlands region. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... The West Midlands is an official Region of England, covering the western half of the Midlands. ...


Transport

Due in part to its inland central location, Birmingham is a major transport hub on the motorway, rail, and canal networks.[55] The city is served by a number of major motorways and probably the best known motorway junction in the UK: Spaghetti Junction.[56] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 235 KB)The frontage of Curzon Street Station in Birmingham. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x750, 235 KB)The frontage of Curzon Street Station in Birmingham. ... The front of the station Curzon Street Station was a railway station in Birmingham in the 19th century and is the worlds oldest surviving piece of monumental railway architecture. ... Due in part to its location in central England, Birmingham is a major transport hub. ... Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ... railroads redirects here. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Gravelly Hill Interchange (unofficially known as Spaghetti Junction) is junction 6 of the M6 motorway where it meets the A38(M) Aston Expressway in Birmingham, England. ...


Over the coming months, National Express will be moving their UK headquarters to the city, alongside the newly developed Digbeth Coach Station, which forms the national hub of the company's coach network. National Express coach on route 561 National Express is the brand under which the majority of long distance bus and coach services in the United Kingdom are marketed, and also the company that manages this network and operates some of the services. ... The former entrance for coaches. ...


Birmingham International Airport, located in the Borough of Solihull to the east of Birmingham, is the UK's sixth largest airport, third largest for charter traffic and has the second highest proportion of business traffic, behind London Heathrow.[57] Birmingham International Airport (IATA: BHX, ICAO: EGBB) is a major airport located 5. ... The Metropolitan Borough of Solihull is a metropolitan borough in the county of West Midlands in England. ...


Local public transport is by bus, local train and tram. The number 11A and 11C outer circle bus routes are the longest urban bus routes in Europe, being 26 miles (42 km) long[58] with 272 bus stops.[59] Bus routes are mainly operated by National Express West Midlands, which accounts for over 80% of all bus journeys in Birmingham, however, there are around 50 other, smaller registered bus companies.[60] The extensive bus network allows passengers to travel to and from various districts of the city, while there are longer bus routes which take passengers to areas further afield such as Wolverhampton, Dudley, Walsall, West Bromwich, Halesowen, Stourbridge and the Merry Hill Shopping Centre. The only towns in the West Midlands conurbation that currently lack a direct public transport link with Birmingham are Tipton, Sedgley, Kingswinford, Wednesfield and Willenhall. Autobus redirects here. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Wolverhampton is a city in the historic county of Staffordshire and metropolitan county of the West Midlands. ... Map sources for Dudley at grid reference SO9390 Dudley is a town in the West Midlands, England. ... , Walsall is a large industrial town in the West Midlands of England. ... The Public by Will Alsop. ... Halesowen is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, in the West Midlands, England. ... , Stourbridge is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, in the West Midlands of England. ... The Merry Hill Shopping Centre is a shopping centre in Brierley Hill, West Midlands, England. ... The West Midlands conurbation is the name given to the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton, in the English West Midlands. ... The Tipton is also the name of a fictional hotel on The Suite Life of Zack and Cody, and a term to describe low-grade sportscards. ... Sedgley is a town in the West Midlands of England, but formerly in Staffordshire. ... Kingswinford is a suburban area (formerly a village) in the West Midlands county but previously in Staffordshire. ... Wednesfield (population about 35,000) is a town in Wolverhampton, West Midlands. ... Map sources for Willenhall at grid reference SO9698 Willenhall is a small town in the West Midlands of England, with a population of approximately 40,000. ...


The city's main railway station, Birmingham New Street, is at the centre of the national railway network. Birmingham Snow Hill station, another major railway station in the city centre, is also a terminus for the Midland Metro which operates between the station and Wolverhampton, also serving the nearby towns of Bilston, Wednesbury and West Bromwich.[61] There are plans to extend the Midland Metro route further into Birmingham city centre.[62] Birmingham has a large rail-based park and ride network that feeds the city centre. The tracks approaching the station Birmingham New Street is a major railway station located in the centre of the city of Birmingham, England. ... A Midland Metro tram at Snow Hill Birmingham Snow Hill is a railway station and tram stop in the centre of Birmingham, England on the site of a much larger station which was built by the former Great Western Railway (GWR). ... Midland Metro tram 05 approaching West Bromwich tram stop The Midland Metro is a light-rail or tram system in the West Midlands of England. ... Wolverhampton is a city in the historic county of Staffordshire and metropolitan county of the West Midlands. ... Bilston is a town in Englands West Midlands. ... , For the legal principle, see Wednesbury unreasonableness. ... The Public by Will Alsop. ...


Birmingham is also notable for its expansive canal system which fed the industry in the city during the Industrial Revolution. Canalside regeneration schemes such as Brindleyplace have turned the canals into tourist attractions. Due in part to its location in central England, Birmingham is a major transport hub. ... Brindleyplace Brindleyplace (often written Brindley Place) is a large mixed-use canalside development, near the centre of Birmingham, England. ...


Education

The city council is England's largest local education authority, directly or indirectly responsible for 25 nursery schools, 328 primary schools, 77 secondary schools[63] and 29 special schools.[64] It also runs the library service, with 4 million visitors annually,[65] and provides around 3,500 adult education courses throughout the year.[66] The main library is Central Library and there are 41 local libraries in Birmingham, plus a regular mobile library service.[67] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 103 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mauricio Jimenez Garcia, I took this picture durin theautumn 2003. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 103 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mauricio Jimenez Garcia, I took this picture durin theautumn 2003. ... Old Joe, the University Clock Tower The Joseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower (grid reference SP048835) is a 100 metres (328 ft) tall clock tower in the centre of Chancellors Court at the University of Birmingham, England and was built to commemorate Joseph Chamberlain, the first Chancellor of the University. ... Website http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 601 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 601 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Sir Aston Webb, portrait by Solomon Joseph Solomon, ca 1906 Sir Aston Webb (May 22, 1849 - August 21, 1930) was an English architect, active in the late 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Website http://www. ... This article is about education in Birmingham, England. ... A Local Education Authority (LEA) is the part of a council in England or Wales that is responsible for education within that councils jurisdiction. ... Child picking up book. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... A special school is a school catering to students who have special educational needs (SEN), for example, because of learning difficulties or physical disabilities. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... Libraries are useful resources for adult learners. ... Birmingham Central Library is the main library in Birmingham, England. ...


Most of Birmingham's state schools are community schools run directly by Birmingham City Council in its role as local education authority (LEA). However, there are a large number of voluntary aided schools within the state system. King Edward's School is perhaps the most prestigious independent school in the city. The seven schools of The King Edward VI Foundation are known nationally for setting very high academic standards and all the schools consistently achieve top positions in national league tables. Furthermore, Sutton Coldfield Grammar School for Girls is also a well known and high-achieving grammar school.[68] State school is an expression used in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom to distinguish schools provided by the government from privately run schools. ... A community school in Ireland is a type of secondary education school funded individually and directly by the state. ... Local Government History Most of Birmingham was historically a part of Warwickshire, though the modern city also includes villages and towns formerly in Staffordshire or Worcestershire. ... A Local Education Authority (LEA) is the part of a council in England or Wales that is responsible for education within that councils jurisdiction. ... In a voluntary aided school (many of which are church schools) the governing body, as opposed to the Local Education Authority, employs the staff, and decide admission arrangements but the school is nevertheless funded by the state and does not charge fees. ... King Edwards School (KES) (grid reference SP052836) is an independent secondary school in Birmingham, England, founded by King Edward VI in 1552. ... An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... Sutton Coldfield Grammar School for Girls is a state-funded selective grammar school and sixth form college for girls in Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham, West Midlands, England. ... A grammar school is a school that may, depending on regional usage as exemplified below, provide either secondary education or, a much less common usage, primary education (also known as elementary). Grammar schools trace their origins back to medieval Europe, as schools in which university preparatory subjects, such as Latin...

Matthew Boulton College of Further & Higher Education
Matthew Boulton College of Further & Higher Education


Sutton Coldfield College merged with North Birmingham College in 2003 and Josiah Mason College in 2006 to form one of the largest further education colleges in the country.[69] Matthew Boulton College is also located in the city and in 2005, the Eastside branch of the college was completed and opened. Joseph Chamberlain College is the only sixth form college in Birmingham and Solihull to have been awarded both Beacon Status and an overall OFSTED grade 1 (Outstanding).[70] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1618x1264, 340 KB) Matthew Boulton College of Further & Higher Education at its new site in Central Birmingham, England. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1618x1264, 340 KB) Matthew Boulton College of Further & Higher Education at its new site in Central Birmingham, England. ... Matthew Boulton College of Further & Higher Education Matthew Boulton College is a Further and Higher Education college situated in the Eastside of Birmingham, West Midlands. ... Sutton Coldfield College is an F.E. college in Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham, England. ... Matthew Boulton College of Further & Higher Education Matthew Boulton College is a Further and Higher Education college situated in the Eastside of Birmingham, West Midlands. ... Millennium Point Eastside is the eastern area of Birmingham city centre in England that is under going a large redevelopment project. ... A sixth form college is an educational institution in England, Wales or Northern Ireland where students aged 16 to 18 complete post-compulsary further education qualifications, such as A Levels. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) is a non-ministerial United Kingdom government department, established on 1st September 1992. ...



Birmingham is home to three universities and two university colleges: Aston University, the University of Birmingham, Birmingham City University, Newman University College[71] and University College Birmingham.[72] The Birmingham Conservatoire and Birmingham School of Acting, both now part of Birmingham City University, offer higher education in specific arts subjects. BCU opened the New Technology Institute facility in the Eastside area in 2006.[73] For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... University College can refer to several institutions: in Canada University College, University of Toronto University College of the North, The Pas, Manitoba University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, British Columbia, merged with British Columbia Open University and renamed Thompson Rivers University Kings University College (Edmonton), Alberta in England University... Aston University from the Aston Expressway Aston University is a plate glass campus university, situated on a 40-acre (0. ... Website http://www. ... Birmingham City University (formerly Birmingham Polytechnic and the University of Central England in Birmingham) is a University in the city of Birmingham, England. ... The University of Central England in Birmingham (UCE) is located in Birmingham, England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The New Technology Institute building. ... Millennium Point Eastside is the eastern area of Birmingham city centre in England that is under going a large redevelopment project. ...


Sport

Main article: Sport in Birmingham
The NIA has hosted many national and international sporting championships.
The NIA has hosted many national and international sporting championships.

The city has played an important part in the history of sport. It was the first city to be named National City of Sport by the Sports Council.[74] It is home to two of the country's oldest professional football teams: Aston Villa (1874) and Birmingham City (1875). Aston Villa won club football's most coveted prize, the European Cup, in 1982. The Birmingham derby is an event in which the two football clubs play against each other. Aston Villa have won 50 matches as opposed to Birmingham City's 38 match wins. Sport has always been important in Birmingham, England, from the hundreds of diverse grass-roots sports clubs to internationally famous teams, associations and venues. ... Image File history File linksMetadata NIA,_Birmingham. ... Image File history File linksMetadata NIA,_Birmingham. ... For other uses, see Villa Park (disambiguation). ... Aston Villa redirects here. ... UK Sport is the United Kingdoms organization for directing the development of sport within the home countries. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Aston Villa redirects here. ... Current season Birmingham City Football Club is an English professional football club based in the city of Birmingham. ... Champions League Logo The UEFA Champions League is an annual international inter-club football competition between Europes most successful clubs, regarded as the most prestigious club trophy in the sport. ... In English football, the Birmingham derby (better known as the Second City derby[1]) is the local derby between the two major clubs in the city of Birmingham – Aston Villa and Birmingham City. ...


Birmingham was the host for the first ever Cricket World Cup, a Women's Cricket World Cup in 1973. England beat Australia in the finals. The Womens Cricket World Cup is a Womens one-day international cricket competition. ...


Birmingham is home to Warwickshire County Cricket Club, whose Edgbaston ground also hosts test matches. The venue was the scene of the highest ever score by a batsman, when Brian Lara scored 501 not out for Warwickshire.[75] International track and field meetings take place at Alexander Stadium, the home of Birchfield Harriers which has many international athletes amongst its members. The National Indoor Arena (NIA), opened in 1991,[76] is a major indoor athletics venue, hosting the 2007 European Athletics Indoor Championships and 2003 IAAF World Indoor Championships as well as many WWE wrestling events. Warwickshire County Cricket Club is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English domestic cricket structure, representing the historic county of Warwickshire. ... Edgbaston Cricket Ground (sometimes called Edgbaston Stadium) is a cricket venue in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham, England. ... For the womens version of the game, see Womens Test cricket. ... Brian Charles Lara (born May 2, 1969) (nicknamed, The Prince of Port-of-Spain or simply The Prince) was a record-breaking cricketer, and considered to be one of the finest batsman in the game. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red urethane track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... The Alexander Stadium is the main athletics stadium in Birmingham, the largest city in the Midlands of England. ... Birchfield Harriers Athletics Club is an athletics club, founded in 1877. ... The NIA The National Indoor Arena (NIA) situated in Birmingham, England was opened in 1991. ... The 29th European Indoor Championships in Athletics are being held in the National Indoor Arena (NIA) in Birmingham, England, from Friday, 2 March to Sunday, 4 March 2007. ... The 9th IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics were held in the National Indoor Arena, Birmingham,UK between 14 March and 16 March 2003. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE, is a professional wrestling promotion, currently the largest in North America. ...


The first ever game of lawn tennis was played by Major Harry Gem and his friend Augurio Perera in Edgbaston between 1859 and 1865[77] and ATP international tennis is still played at Edgbaston's Priory Club.[78] Birmingham also has a professional Rugby Union side, Moseley RFC, who play at Billesley Common, and there is professional basketball team, Birmingham Panthers, as well as professional boxing, hockey, skateboarding, stock-car racing, greyhound racing and speedway in the city. This article is about the sport, tennis. ... Major Thomas Henry Gem (21 May 1819–4 November 1881), known as Harry Gem, was an English lawyer, soldier, writer and sportsman. ... Juan Bautista Augurio Perera was a Spanish-born, English-based merchant and sportsman, credited alongside his friend Major Harry Gem as the earliest inventor of the game of lawn tennis. ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Moseley Rugby Football Clubor Moseley RFC, or Moseley Rugby Club is a Rugby Union club based in south Birmingham, founded 1873. ... Billesley Common is in South Birmingham. ... This article is about the sport. ... The Birmingham Panthers, or to give them their official name Team Birmingham Panthers, is a professional basketball club in the British Basketball League. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... Skateboarders Skateboarding is the act of riding on and performing tricks with a skateboard. ... This article is about the sport of stock car racing. ... Several greyhounds before a race. ... Motorcycle speedway, normally referred to as Speedway, is a motorcycle sport that involves usually 4 and sometimes up to 6 riders competing over 4 laps of an oval circuit. ...


Food & drink

The Old Crown pub in Deritend.
The Old Crown pub in Deritend.

Birmingham based breweries included Ansells, Davenports and Mitchells & Butlers.[79] Aston Manor Brewery is currently the only brewery of any significant size. Many fine Victorian pubs and bars can still be found across the city. The oldest inn in Birmingham is the Old Crown in Deritend (circa 1450). The city has a plethora of nightclubs and bars, notably along Broad Street.[80] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... In the days of the Industrial Revolution many pubs and bars catered for the citys hungry workforce. ... Kettles in a modern Trappist brewery A brewery can be a building or place that produces beer, or a business (brewing company) whose trade is the production and sale of beer. ... Ansells was a brewery in the Aston area of Birmingham, England. ... Mitchells & Butlers plc run managed pubs, bars and restaurants in over 2,000 outlets. ... Aston Manor Brewery is a brewery and beer bottling company in Thimblemill Lane, Aston, Birmingham, in the United Kingdom. ... The Old Crown at 188 Digbeth High Street (A41), Digbeth, a inn, is the oldest secular building in Birmingham, England. ... Deritend is an historic area of Birmingham, England. ...


The Wing Yip food empire first began in the city and now has its headquarters in the Chinese Quarter.[81] The Balti was invented in the city, which has received much acclaim for the 'Balti Belt' or 'Balti Triangle'.[82] The city boasts two Michelin starred restaurants: Simpson's and Jessica's, both in Edgbaston.[83] Wing Yip is a Chinese supermarket chain in the United Kingdom. ... The Chinatown or Chinese Quarter in Birmingham, England is nestled between the gay village and city centre in the Deritend disrict of the city. ... Balti is the name for a style of food probably first devised and served in Birmingham, England. ... Balti houses originally clustered along and behind the main road between Sparkhill and Moseley, to the south of Birmingham city centre. ... New York City 2006 First Michelin Red Guide for North America The Michelin Guide (Le Guide Michelin) is a series of annual guide books published by Michelin for over a dozen countries. ... Edgbaston constituency shown within Birmingham Edgbaston is an area and ward in the city of Birmingham in England. ...


Culture and arts

Main article: Arts in Birmingham

This article is about culture and the arts in the city of Birmingham, England. ...

Arts

Black Sabbath, a pioneer band in heavy-metal music, was formed in Birmingham.
Black Sabbath, a pioneer band in heavy-metal music, was formed in Birmingham.

Birmingham has had a vibrant and varied musical history over the last century. In the 1960s, the "Brum Beat" era featured blues and early progressive rock bands. And in the 1980s the reggae boy band Musical youth lived in the Nechells part of Birmingham. The city is often described as the birthplace of heavy metal music,[84] with Judas Priest, Black Sabbath and two members of Led Zeppelin being local. Then later on during the 80's bands such as Napalm Death, joined the Birmingham heavy metal scene. In the 1970s, members of The Move and The Idle Race formed the Electric Light Orchestra and Wizzard. The 1970s also saw the rise of reggae and ska in the city with such bands as UB40. Seminal 1980s pop band Duran Duran are also from Birmingham. Birmingham was also home to the music family Woodroffe. Most bands in Birmingham shopped at Woodroffe's Musical Instruments, and Jezz Woodroffe played keyboards for Black Sabbath. Jon Woodroffe then started in 1997 Fat Man Studios, which soon became the No1 recording studio in Birmingham. Image File history File links Black_Sabbath_1999-12-16_Stuttgart. ... Image File history File links Black_Sabbath_1999-12-16_Stuttgart. ... For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). ... A big contrast: The building to the left is the space-age Selfridges building, part of the new Birmingham Bullring shopping centre in central Birmingham. ... A big contrast: The building to the left is the space-age Selfridges building, part of the new Birmingham Bullring shopping centre in central Birmingham. ... St Martin in the Bull Ring, Birmingham, next to the modern Selfridges shop Alternate view The church of St Martin in the Bull Ring (Grid reference SP073866) in Birmingham, England is the original parish church of Birmingham. ... Brum Beat is the name of a magazine about the music within Birmingham, United Kingdom. ... Blues music redirects here. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... For other uses, see Judas priest (curse). ... For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). ... For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... Napalm Death are a grindcore/death metal band from Birmingham, England. ... The Move were one of the leading British rock bands of the 1960s from Birmingham, England, and were among the most popular British bands to not find any success in the US. The Move were led by guitarist, singer and songwriter Roy Wood (although Chris Ace Kefford was their original... The Idle Race were an English cult rock group from Birmingham, in the late 1960s. ... ELO redirects here. ... This article refers to the 1970s rock and roll band. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... This article is about the genre. ... UB40 are a British dub band formed in 1978 in Birmingham. ... Duran Duran are an English rock band notable for a long series of popular singles and vivid music videos. ...


Jazz is popular in the city, and the annual Birmingham International Jazz Festival is the largest of its kind in the UK.[85] Venues for the festival are also located out of Birmingham in Solihull. It was first held in 1984.[86] For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... , Solihull (IPA: , or ) is a large town in the West Midlands of England, with a population of 94,753. ...


The internationally-renowned City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra's home venue is Symphony Hall. There is a City Organist; since 1834 only seven men have held this position. The current holder, Thomas Trotter, has been in post since 1983.[87] Weekly recitals have been given since the organ in Birmingham Town Hall was opened[88] but are now held in St. Philip's Cathedral, until the Town Hall organ opens in October 2007, following restoration. The Birmingham Royal Ballet[89] resides in the city as does the world's oldest vocational dance school, Elmhurst School for Dance.[90] The City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra (CBSO) is based in Birmingham, England. ... Symphony Hall is a concert venue located inside the International Convention Centre (ICC) in Birmingham, England. ... Thomas Trotter is a British organist. ... The Town Hall emerging after years of refurbishment. ... Banner advertising the Birmingham Royal Ballet at the Hippodrome The Birmingham Royal Ballet (BRB) is one of the UKs foremost ballet companies, based at the Birmingham Hippodrome in Birmingham, where it enjoys custom-built facilities such as the Jerwood Centre for the Prevention and Treatment of Dance Injuries and... Elmhurst School for Dance is the oldest and one of the most successful vocational dance Schools in the UK. After recently relocating from London to Edgbaston in Birmingham the school has teamed up with Birmingham Royal Ballet. ...


The Birmingham Triennial Music Festivals took place from 1784 to 1912. Music was specially composed, conducted or performed by Mendelssohn, Gounod, Sullivan, Dvořák, Bantock and Edward Elgar, who wrote four of his most famous choral pieces for Birmingham. Elgar's The Dream of Gerontius had its début performance there in 1900. Composers born in the city include Albert William Ketèlbey and Andrew Glover. The Birmingham Triennial Musical Festival is the longest-running classical music festival of its kind. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Charles Gounod. ... Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842 – November 22, 1900) was an English composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist W. S. Gilbert. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( , (often pronounced in English as ) ; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia. ... Sir Granville Bantock (August 7, 1868 - October 16, 1946), was a British composer of classical music. ... Sir Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... The Dream of Gerontius, popularly called just Gerontius, is an oratorio (Opus 38) in two parts composed by Edward Elgar in 1900, to text from the poem by Cardinal Newman. ... Albert William Ketèlbey (9 August 1875 - 26 November 1959) was a composer and musician from Aston, Birmingham, England, born to George Ketelbey [sic - no accent], an engraver, and Sarah Aston. ... Andrew Glover is a composer born 1962 in Birmingham, UK. He studied in Nottingham and gained his Doctorate in 1994 from Keele University after studying with Dr George Nicholson. ...


Birmingham's other city-centre music venues include The National Indoor Arena, which was opened in 1991, the CBSO Centre, opened in 1997, and the Adrian Boult Hall, which was built along with Paradise Forum and Birmingham Central Library, at Birmingham Conservatoire. The NIA The National Indoor Arena (NIA) situated in Birmingham, England was opened in 1991. ... The CBSO Centre The CBSO Centre is the administrative home and practice centre of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra and Birmingham Contemporary Music Group on the corner of Berkley Street and Holliday Street, in Birmingham, England. ... The Adrian Boult Hall of Birmingham Conservatoire The Adrian Boult Hall is the main concert hall of the UCE Birmingham Conservatoire in central Birmingham, England. ... Paradise Forum, containing the Library Paradise Forum in central Birmingham, England is a 1960s arena containing bars, restaurants, small shops and stalls, and forming the main pedestrian thoroughfare between Centenary Square and the central shopping and business area of Birmingham. ... Birmingham Central Library is the main library in Birmingham, England. ... The University of Central England in Birmingham (UCE) is located in Birmingham, England. ...

The Rep Theatre
The Rep Theatre

Among the many theatres in Birmingham, the largest are the Alexandra ("the Alex"), The Rep, the Hippodrome and the Old Rep. The Crescent Theatre and Old Joint Stock Theatre are other city centre theatres. Outside of the city centre are the Drum Arts Centre (on the site of the former Aston Hippodrome) and mac.[91] The Fierce! festival collaborates with The Rep to present an annual series of performances from local and national companies. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (2240 × 1488 pixel, file size: 482 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (2240 × 1488 pixel, file size: 482 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Alexandra Theatre, commonly known as The Alex is a theatre on Suffolk Street in Birmingham, England. ... Birmingham Rep (formerly Birmingham Repertory Theatre) is a theatre in Birmingham, England. ... The Birmingham Hippodrome is a theatre situated on Hurst Street in the Chinese Quarter of Birmingham, England. ... The Old Rep is a theatre located in Station Street in Birmingham, England, managed by Birmingham City Council. ... The Crescent Theatre is a small, professional theatre run mostly by volunteers, based in Sheepcote Street, Brindleyplace in Birmingham, England. ... The Old Joint Stock pub and theatre The Old Joint Stock Theatre is a pub theatre located at 4 Temple Row West in the centre of Birmingham, England. ... The Drum is an arts centre in the Newtown area of Aston, in Birmingham, England. ... The Aston Hippodrome (grid reference SP072890), also known as The Hipp, was a popular theatre in the Aston area of Birmingham, England. ... The mac (formerly Midlands Arts Centre) is a non-profit arts centre situated in Cannon Hill Park, Birmingham, England. ... Fierce! is an international performance festival that has taken place annually in and around Birmingham, England since 1997. ...


Literary figures associated with Birmingham include Samuel Johnson who stayed in Birmingham for a short period with Birmingham Central Library holding two thousand volumes of his work. Author Arthur Conan Doyle worked in the Aston area of Birmingham whilst poet Louis MacNeice lived in Birmingham for six years. Washington Irving produced several of his most famous literary works whilst staying in Birmingham such as Bracebridge Hall and The Humorists, A Medley which are based on Aston Hall. Other authors who were born in or have resided in Birmingham include David Lodge, Jonathan Coe and J. R. R. Tolkien, who is said to have been inspired by areas and buildings in the city. Influential poets associated with Birmingham include Roi Kwabena, who was the city's sixth poet laureate,[92] and Benjamin Zephaniah, who was born in the city. This article is about culture and the arts in the city of Birmingham, England. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... Frederick Louis MacNeice (September 12, 1907 – September 3, 1963) was a British and Irish poet and playwright. ... Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. ... David Lodge (born January 28, 1935 at London, England) is a British author. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Roi Ankhkara Kwabena. ... Benjamin Obadiah Iqbal Zephaniah (born 15 April 1958, Coles Hill, Birmingham, England) is a British Rastafarian writer and dub poet, and is well known in contemporary English literature. ...

Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery has one of the largest collections of Pre-Raphaelite art in the world. Edward Burne-Jones was born in Birmingham, spent his first twenty years in the city, later becoming president of the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists. The Barber Institute of Fine Arts was declared 'Gallery of the Year' by the 2004 Good Britain Guide.[93] The Ikon Gallery hosts displays of contemporary art. Notable local artists include David Cox, David Bomberg, Martin John Callanan, Pogus Caesar, Keith Piper and Donald Rodney. Download high resolution version (750x1000, 202 KB) Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery in central Birmingham as seen from Chamberlain Square. ... Download high resolution version (750x1000, 202 KB) Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery in central Birmingham as seen from Chamberlain Square. ... Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery Opened in 1885, Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery (BM&AG), in Birmingham, England, has a collection of international importance covering fine art, ceramics, metalwork, jewellery, archaeology, ethnography, local and industrial history. ... Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery Opened in 1885, Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery (BM&AG), in Birmingham, England, has a collection of international importance covering fine art, ceramics, metalwork, jewellery, archaeology, ethnography, local and industrial history. ... The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... Love Among the Ruins, by Edward Burne-Jones. ... Royal Birmingham Society of Artists The Royal Birmingham Society of Artists or RBSA is a learned society of artists and an art gallery based in the Jewellery Quarter in Birmingham, England. ... The Barber Institute of Fine Arts is an art gallery in the English city of Birmingham, situated in purpose built premises on the campus of the University of Birmingham. ... The Ikon Gallery The Ikon Gallery from the entrance. ... David Cox (April 29, 1783 - June 7, 1859) was an English landscape painter. ... David Bomberg (December 5, 1890 – August 19, 1957) was a British painter. ... Martin John Callanan (b. ... It has been suggested that Pogus Caesar Interview (The Voice) 1989 be merged into this article or section. ... Keith Piper born 18 December 1969 in Leicester Keith is retired professional cricketer. ... Donald Rodney (born May 18 1961 - died March 4 1998) was a British artist. ...


Birmingham's role as a manufacturing and printing centre has supported strong local traditions of graphic design and product design. Iconic works by Birmingham designers include the Baskerville font,[94] Ruskin Pottery,[95] the Acme Thunderer whistle,[96] the Art Deco branding of the Odeon Cinemas[97] and the Mini.[98] Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous,[1] as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Baskerville is a “transitional” typeface, designed by John Baskerville in England in the mid-18th century, revived in the early 20th century and widely used for books and other long texts. ... The Ruskin Pottery studio was founded in 1898 by Edward Richard Taylor, the Principal of Birmingham School of Art, to be run by his son, William Howson Taylor, formerly a student there. ... Acme Whistles is the one and only trademark product of the J. Hudson Co. ... Odeon Cinemas is the largest chain of cinemas in the United Kingdom. ... For the new Mini, see Mini (BMW). ...


Festivals and shows

Birmingham is home to many national, religious and spiritual festivals including a St. George's Day party. The Birmingham Tattoo is a long-standing military show. The Caribbean-style Birmingham International Carnival takes place in odd numbered years. Birmingham Pride takes place in the gay village and attracts up to 100,000 visitors each year. Since 1997, the city has hosted an annual arts festival ArtsFest, the largest free arts festival in the UK. In December 2006, the City Council announced that it would no longer hold Artsfest.[99] The city's largest single-day event is its St. Patrick's Day parade (Europe's second largest, after the one in Dublin).[100] Other multicultural events include the Bangla Mela and the Vaisakhi Mela. The Birmingham Heritage Festival is a Mardi Gras style event in August. Caribbean and African culture are celebrated with parades and street performances by buskers. Other festivals in the city include Moseley Folk Festival (since 2006), which takes place in Moseley private park and mixes new with established folk acts, the Birmingham Jazz Festival, and the Birmingham Comedy Festival (since 2001), which has been headlined by such acts as Peter Kay, The Fast Show, Jimmy Carr, Lee Evans and Lenny Henry. Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... The Birmingham Tattoo is held annually at The NIA (National Indoor Arena) in the centre of Birmingham, England. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Birmingham International Carnival takes place biennially in Birmingham, England. ... Birmingham Pride is a three-day gay and lesbian festival held annually in the Gay Village, Hurst Street, Birmingham, England, over the Spring Bank Holiday weekend (i. ... ArtsFest is an annual arts festival held in September in Birmingham, England. ... St. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... United States Marines on parade. ... Busking is the practice of doing live performances in public places to entertain people, usually to solicit donations and tips. ...


Media

The Mailbox, headquarters for BBC Birmingham.
The Mailbox, headquarters for BBC Birmingham.
The Electric Cinema, Station Street.
The Electric Cinema, Station Street.

Birmingham has two local daily newspapers - the Birmingham Post and the Birmingham Mail - as well as the Sunday Mercury, all owned by the Trinity Mirror who also own What's On magazine, a fortnightly listings title which has been running for 30 years. Forward (formerly Birmingham Voice) is a freesheet produced by Birmingham City Council, which is distributed to homes in the city. Birmingham is also the hub for various national ethnic media and the base for two regional Metro editions (east Midlands and West Midlands). Birmingham has a long cinematic history. The Electric Cinema on Station Street is the oldest working cinema in the UK,[101] and Oscar Deutsch opened his first Odeon cinema in Perry Barr during the 1920s. Birmingham-born architect Harry Weedon collaborated with Oscar Deutsch to design over 300 cinemas across the country, most in the distinctive Art Deco style.[102] Star City is said to be Europe's largest leisure and cinema complex and is not far from the Britain's only permanent drive-in cinema; both are in Nechells. An IMAX cinema is located at Millennium Point in the Eastside.[103] Birmingham has also been the location for films including Felicia's Journey of 1999, which used locations in Birmingham that were used in Take Me High of 1973 to contrast the changes in the city.[104] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Categories: Places of interest in Birmingham, England | Stub ... The Mailbox, current home to BBC Birmingham BBC Birmingham is one of the oldest regional arms of the BBC. It was the first region outside of London to start brodcasting both the corporations radio (in 1922) and television (in 1948) transmissions from the Sutton Coldfield television transmitter. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Birmingham Post was originally started under the name Daily Post in Birmingham, England in 1857 by John Frederick Feeney. ... The Birmingham Mail is a tabloid newspaper based in Birmingham, UK but distributed around Birmingham, The Black Country, Solihull, Warwickshire and parts of Worcestershire and Staffordshire. ... Sunday Mercury is a sunday newspaper published in Birmingham, UK. A tabloid, with a sensationalist streak, it is owned by Trinity Mirror and produced in the same newsroom as The Birmingham Post and The Evening Mail. ... Trinity Mirror is a large United Kingdom newspaper and magazine publisher. ... A freesheet is a newspaper that is given away for free. ... Local Government History Most of Birmingham was historically a part of Warwickshire, though the modern city also includes villages and towns formerly in Staffordshire or Worcestershire. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... The Electric Cinema is a cinema in Birmingham, England. ... Oscar Deutsch (1893-1941) was the founder of the Odeon Cinemas chain in the United Kingdom. ... Odeon Cinemas is the largest chain of cinemas in the United Kingdom. ... Perry Barr constituency shown within Birmingham Perry Barr is an area in north Birmingham, England . ... Harry Weedon was a Birmingham, England born- architect, working from the 1930s. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Star City has its own canal moorings Star City is a vast American-style complex in the UK, with a great emphasis on entertainment. ... Nechells skyline from Saltley Viaduct. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia BFI London IMAX by night IMAX (short for Image Maximum) is a film format created by Canadas IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film display systems. ... Millennium Point is a complex in Birmingham, situated in the developing Eastside of the city centre. ... Millennium Point Eastside is the eastern area of Birmingham city centre in England that is under going a large redevelopment project. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Felicias Journey is a 1999 film starring Bob Hoskins, based on a prize winning 1994 novel by William Trevor. ... Take Me High was a 1973 English feature film, directed by David Askey, written by Christopher Penfold and starring Cliff Richard, with Deborah Watling, Hugh Griffith, George Cole and Anthony Andrews. ...


As well as being the location for television dramas, Birmingham is also a national hub for television broadcasting. The BBC has two facilities in the city. The Mailbox, in the city centre, is the location for the national headquarters of BBC English Regions,[105] the headquarters of BBC West Midlands and the BBC Birmingham network production centre, which were previously located at the Pebble Mill Studios in Edgbaston. The BBC Drama Village, based in Selly Oak, is a production facility specialising in television drama.[106] It was announced in October 2007 that BBC Birmingham was to lose 43 out of 2,500 jobs nationwide. It is also to receive the long-running emergency medical drama Casualty, which is currently produced in Bristol.[107] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Categories: Places of interest in Birmingham, England | Stub ... BBC English Regions is the division of the BBC responsible for the corporations local television, radio, web and teletext services in England. ... Categories: Station stubs | BBC radio ... The Mailbox, current home to BBC Birmingham BBC Birmingham is one of the oldest regional arms of the BBC. It was the first region outside of London to start brodcasting both the corporations radio (in 1922) and television (in 1948) transmissions from the Sutton Coldfield television transmitter. ... Pebble Mill Studios were located in the leafy suburbs of Birmingham, England. ... Edgbaston constituency shown within Birmingham Edgbaston is an area and ward in the city of Birmingham in England. ... The BBC Drama Village is a television production facility run by the BBC and based largely at the Selly Oak campus of the University of Birmingham in Birmingham, England. ... Selly Oak constituency shown within Birmingham Selly Oak is an area in south Birmingham, England. ... Cathy Come Home, a 1966 entry into The Wednesday Play anthology series, voted the best drama and second highest programme overall in the British Film Institutes 2000 survey of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes of the 20th century. ... Casualty is the longest running emergency medical drama series in the world[1], first broadcast in 1986 and transmitted in the UK on BBC One (with repeats on UKTV Gold). ... This article is about the English city. ...


Birmingham was also the main hub for many programmes on ITV. Central/ATV studios in Birmingham filmed many programmes including Tiswas and Crossroads until the studio was closed.[108] When Central TV moved to its current Gas Street studios, it was also the main hub for CITV when Stephen Mulhern and Danielle Nicholas were filming until CITV was moved to Manchester. All ITV Central film now is its regional news programme Central Tonight and its regional football programme Central Soccer Night. For other uses, see ITV (disambiguation). ... Tiswas was an anarchic Saturday morning childrens British TV show which ran from 5 January 1974 to 3 April 1982. ... Crossroads is a British television soap opera set in a motel near Birmingham, England. ... This article is about ITVs childrens television brand. ... Stephen David Mulhern (born 4 April 1977) is a British childrens TV presenter and entertainer. ... Central Tonight is the main news programme on ITV Central. ...


The city is served by numerous national and regional radio stations, as well as local radio stations. These include 96.4 BRMB, Galaxy, Heart FM, Kerrang! 105.2, New Style Radio 98.7FM, Smooth Radio 105.7FM and BBC WM.[109] The Archers, the world's longest running radio soap, is recorded in Birmingham for BBC Radio 4.[110] 96. ... Galaxy 102. ... 100. ... Kerrang! 105. ... New Style Radio 98. ... 105. ... BBC WM is the BBC Local Radio service for the West Midlands and South Staffordshire, operated by BBC Birmingham. ... The Archers is a British radio soap opera broadcast on the BBCs main spoken-word channel, Radio 4. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ...


Leisure

The proposed VTP200
The proposed VTP200

Two major developments have regenerated two parts of the city in recent years. Brindleyplace is a major canalside development with restaurants and office buildings along with the National Sea Life Centre. The other development was the Bullring Shopping Centre, which replaced a previous shopping centre. The Mailbox, a canalside development, features designer stores as well as offices and apartments. The Cube, designed by MAKE Architects is a 17 storey mixed-use development which is under construction as part of the Mailbox masterplan. The National Indoor Arena is one of the busiest large scale sporting and entertainment venues in Europe. Outside of the city centre is Star City entertainment complex on the former site of Nechells Power Station.[111] The VerTiPlex 200, or VTP200 as its more commonly known, is a proposed 200 metre leisure and observation tower that has been designed by architects RTKL to be built by ROC International in Birmingham, England. ... Brindleyplace Brindleyplace (often written Brindley Place) is a large mixed-use canalside development, near the centre of Birmingham, England. ... The National Sea Life Centre in Birmingham, England is an aquarium with over 60 displays of freshwater and marine life. ... Selfridges at the Bullring St Martins Church, with Selfridges in the background The interior of the Bullring The Bull Ring market has been an important feature of Birmingham since the Middle Ages. ... Categories: Places of interest in Birmingham, England | Stub ... The Cube is a 17 storey tower, under construction, in Birmingham, England. ... MAKE Architects is an architects practice based in the United Kingdom. ... The NIA The National Indoor Arena (NIA) situated in Birmingham, England was opened in 1991. ... Star City has its own canal moorings Star City is a vast American-style complex in the UK, with a great emphasis on entertainment. ... Nechells skyline from Saltley Viaduct. ...


The nightlife in Birmingham is concentrated mainly along Broad Street and into Brindleyplace. However, in recent years, stylish clubs and bars have started to establish themselves outside the Broad Street area. The Medicine Bar in the Custard Factory, The Sanctuary, Rainbow Pub and Air are large clubs and bars in Digbeth. Near Digbeth, there are bars and club nights in areas such as the Arcadian and Hurst Street Gay Village by the Chinese Quarter. Summer Row, The Mailbox, and St Philips/Colmore Row - where once a month there is a party night held for Polish residents in Birmingham - and Jewellery Quarter also feature clubs. There are number of late night pubs in the Irish Quarter.[112] Broad Street as seen from above Broad Street is a major thoroughfare to the immediate West of Birmingham city centre. ... Brindleyplace Brindleyplace (often written Brindley Place) is a large mixed-use canalside development, near the centre of Birmingham, England. ... The Medicine Bar in Birmingham, England started as a collaboration in the 1990s between the London Medicine bar and local hip hop DJ Simon Fat Head, who began his career at the legendary Brothers and Sisters at the Coast to Coast club on Broad Street. ... The Custard Factory is an arts and media centre located in Birmingham, England (grid reference SP078864). ... The Digbeth Institute is 2,000 capacity a music venue in Birmingham which has been synonymous in the development of the British rave music and drum and bass scene. ... Digbeth is an area of Birmingham, England. ... The gay scene in Birmingham is centred on and around Hurst Street in the city centre. ... The Chinese Quarter is an area of Birmingham, United Kingdom. ... Categories: Places of interest in Birmingham, England | Stub ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Irish Quarter is an area which covers much of Digbeth and Deritend south of Birmingham city centre, England. ...


Architecture

Statue of Lord Nelson on the Portland plinth and railings surrounding it
Statue of Lord Nelson on the Portland plinth and railings surrounding it
The central portion of the skyline of Birmingham
The central portion of the skyline of Birmingham

Today's Birmingham is chiefly a product of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, as its real growth began with the Industrial Revolution. Consequently, relatively few buildings survive from its earlier history, and those that do are protected. There are 1,946 listed buildings in Birmingham and thirteen scheduled ancient monuments.[113] Birmingham City Council also operate a locally listing scheme for buildings that do not fully meet the criteria for statutorily listed status. This article is about the architecture of Birmingham, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1158 KB) Summary Statue of Nelson in the Bull Ring, Birmingham, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1158 KB) Summary Statue of Nelson in the Bull Ring, Birmingham, England. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... There are almost 2,000 listed buildings in Birmingham, England. ... A Scheduled Ancient Monument is defined in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 and the National Heritage Act 1983 of the United Kingdom government. ...


Traces of medieval Birmingham can be seen in the oldest churches, notably the original parish church, St Martin in the Bull Ring. A few other buildings from the medieval and Tudor periods survive, among them The Lad In The Lane[114] and The Old Crown, the 15th century Saracen's Head public house and Old Grammar School in Kings Norton[115] and Blakesley Hall. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... A parish church is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. ... St Martin in the Bull Ring, Birmingham, next to the modern Selfridges shop Alternate view The church of St Martin in the Bull Ring (Grid reference SP073866) in Birmingham, England is the original parish church of Birmingham. ... The Tudor style, a term applied to the Perpendicular style, was originally that of the English architecture and decorative arts produced under the Tudor dynasty that ruled England from 1485 to 1603, characterized as an amalgam of Late Gothic style formalized by more concern for regularity and symmetry, with round... The Old Crown at 188 Digbeth High Street (A41), Digbeth, a inn, is the oldest secular building in Birmingham, England. ... The Saracens Head is the name usually given to a group of late medieval buildings in Kings Norton, Birmingham. ... See also: Kings Norton, Leicestershire , Kings Norton is an area of Birmingham, England. ... Blakesley Hall is a Tudor hall on Blakesley Road in Yardley, Birmingham. ...

The new Selfridges building designed by architects Future Systems.

A number of Georgian buildings survive, including St Philip's Cathedral, Soho House, Perrott's Folly, the Town Hall and much of St Paul's Square. The Victorian era saw extensive building across the city. Major civic buildings such as the Victoria Law Courts (in characteristic red brick and terracotta), the Council House and the Museum & Art Gallery were constructed.[116] St Chad's Cathedral was the first Roman Catholic cathedral to be built in the UK since the Reformation.[117] Across the city, the need to house the industrial workers gave rise to miles of redbrick streets and terraces, many of back-to-back houses, some of which were later to become inner-city slums.[118] Selfridges in Birmingham. ... The Media Centre at Lords Cricket Ground Selfridges in Birmingham Birmingham Selfridges Exterior Detail Birmingham Selfridges Interior Future Systems is a London-based architectural and design practice, headed by the couple, Jan Kaplický and Amanda Levete. ... St Philips Cathedral St Philips Cathedral is a Church of England cathedral, in Colmore Row, Birmingham, England, dedicated to St Philip. ... Soho House, Matthew Boultons home in Handsworth, Birmingham, England, is now a museum (opened in 1995), managed by Birmingham City Council, celebrating his life, his partnership with James Watt and his membership of the Lunar Society. ... Perrotts Folly Perrotts Folly, grid reference SP047862, also known as The Monument, or The Observatory, is a 29-metre (96-foot) tall tower, built in 1758. ... The Town Hall emerging after years of refurbishment. ... St Pauls, Grid reference SP064874, is a church and a Georgian square in the Jewellery Quarter, Birmingham, England. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Victoria Law Courts Birmingham Queen Victoria sits above the main entrance The Victoria Law Courts on Corporation Street, Birmingham, England is a Grade I listed, red brick and terracotta building. ... The Natural History Museum has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. ... Categories: UK geography stubs ... Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery Opened in 1885, Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery (BM&AG), in Birmingham, England, has a collection of international importance covering fine art, ceramics, metalwork, jewellery, archaeology, ethnography, local and industrial history. ... RC Cathedral of St Chad, Birmingham Saint Chads Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Province of Birmingham, England, a province of the Catholic Church in Great Britain. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Back-to-back houses are a form of terraced house, common in Victorian English inner city areas, in which two houses share a rear wall (or in which the rear wall of the house directly abuts a factory or other building). ... Slums in Delhi, India. ...


Postwar redevelopment and anti-Victorianism resulted in the loss of dozens Victorian buildings like Birmingham New Street Station, and the old Central Library.[119] In inner-city areas too, much Victorian housing was redeveloped. Existing communities were relocated to tower block estates like Castle Vale.[120] The tracks at the eastern end of Birmingham New Street station Class 390 no. ... Urban Renewal redirects here. ... A tower block, block of flats, or apartment block, is a multi-unit high-rise apartment building. ... A housing estate is a medium-to-low density residential area, usually part of a suburb of a town or city in a developed country. ... Castle Vale is an area of the City of Birmingham, in England, originally created as an overspill housing estate in the 1960s. ...


Birmingham City Council now has an extensive tower block demolition and renovation programme. There has been a lot of construction in the city centre in recent years, including the award-winning[121] Future Systems' Selfridges building in the Bullring Shopping Centre, the Brindleyplace regeneration project and the Millennium Point science and technology centre. The regeneration of Birmingham has been prompted by the Birmingham Redevelopment Scheme. The Media Centre at Lords Cricket Ground Selfridges in Birmingham Birmingham Selfridges Exterior Detail Birmingham Selfridges Interior Future Systems is a London-based architectural and design practice, headed by the couple, Jan Kaplický and Amanda Levete. ... Selfridges in Birmingham. ... Selfridges at the Bullring St Martins Church, with Selfridges in the background The interior of the Bullring The Bull Ring market has been an important feature of Birmingham since the Middle Ages. ... Brindleyplace Brindleyplace (often written Brindley Place) is a large mixed-use canalside development, near the centre of Birmingham, England. ... Millennium Point is a complex in Birmingham, situated in the developing Eastside of the city centre. ... The Birmingham Redevelopment Plan is a large redevelopment plan for Birmingham, UK. The reason for this plan was how Birmingham was portrayed to the world. ...


Highrise development has slowed since the 1970s and mainly in recent years due to enforcements imposed by the Civil Aviation Authority on the heights of buildings as they could affect aircraft from the International Airport, (e.g. Beetham Tower).[122] Beetham Tower nearing completion in February 2006. ...


Crime and policing

Digbeth Police Station

West Midlands Police serves Birmingham and the West Midlands county. The headquarters are located at Lloyd House in the city centre of Birmingham. Birmingham has been the location for many high profile incidents such as the 31 January 2007 Birmingham raid, New Year Murders and more historically, the Birmingham pub bombings. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 795 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Created by Erebus555. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 795 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Created by Erebus555. ... West Midlands Police is the Home Office police force responsible for policing the metropolitan county of West Midlands in England. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with 2007 Plot to Behead a British Muslim Soldier. ... The New Year Murders is the name given by the media to the slayings of Letisha Shakespeare, 17, and Charlene Ellis, 18, were shot outside a hair salon in Aston on 2 January 2003. ... The Birmingham pub bombings were two pub bombings by the Provisional IRA in Birmingham, England on November 21, 1974 which killed 21 people. ...


Crime figures for 2006/ 2007 showed that Birmingham was above the English average in all fields.[123] Of the eight major cities in the country (Newcastle, Leeds, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Nottingham, Birmingham and Bristol), Birmingham has the lowest crime rate.[124]


In 2006, Birmingham city centre was identified has having the highest concentration of gun crimes in Britain, with three areas of Birmingham being in the top 10 worst gun crime affected areas of Britain.[125] In 2008, gun crime continued to rise in Birmingham with locals and the West Midlands Police in fear of tit for tat shootings and stabbings over gangs and drug turf wars.[126]


In an attempt to reduce crime in the city, a Crime and Disorder Partnership has been established in the city, the largest of its kind in the country.[127] The partnerships work in developing five neighbourhood based community safety projects in Birmingham was recognised when it was awarded first prize at the European Community Safety Awards in December 2004.[127] Crime rates are particularly high in areas such as Aston, Handsworth, Small Heath and Bordesley Green.[127] For other uses, see Aston (disambiguation). ... Handsworth is an inner city suburb of Birmingham in the West Midlands, England. ... Sparkbrook and Small Heath constituency shown within Birmingham Small Heath is an inner-city area within the city of Birmingham, West Midlands, England. ... Bordesley Green is an area of Birmingham, England. ...

Crime figures for 2006/ 2007 in Birmingham[123]
Crime Birmingham average
(per 1,000 of the population)
Manchester average
(per 1,000 of the population)
Bristol average
(per 1,000 of the population)
English average
(per 1,000 of the population)
Violence against a person 26.3 32.7 32.0 16.7
Robbery offences 5.0 8.3 3.8 1.2
Theft of vehicle offences 5.3 8.9 8.1 2.9
Theft from vehicles 11.1 25.5 21.4 7.6
Sexual offences 1.5 1.9 1.8 0.9
Burglary 7.9 16.5 10.4 4.3

Second City

Birmingham has traditionally been regarded by many as the Second city of the United Kingdom. It is the most populous English city and has an important cultural and industrial impact on British life for centuries. A 2007 poll by the BBC placed Manchester ahead of Birmingham in the category of second city of England,[128] but also ahead in the category of third city. Neither categories are officially sanctioned, and criteria for determining what 'second city' means are ill-defined. Identifying the second city of the United Kingdom is a subject of some disagreement. ... Identifying the second city of the United Kingdom is a subject of some disagreement. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ...


Notable residents

Birmingham has a number of notable residents from various walks of life. Joseph Chamberlain, who was once mayor of Birmingham and later became an MP, and his son Neville Chamberlain, who was lord mayor Birmingham and later the British Prime Minister, are two of the most well-known political figures who have lived in Birmingham. Author J. R. R. Tolkien was brought up in Birmingham with many locations in the city such as Moseley bog, Sarehole Mill and Perrott's Folly supposedly being the inspiration for various scenes in The Lord of the Rings. Writer W. H. Auden grew up in the Harborne area of the city. Entertainers who were born or who have lived in Birmingham include comedians Tony Hancock and Jasper Carrott and the actors Trevor Eve and Martin Shaw. In more recent times, Cat Deeley became a popular television presenter in the UK and USA. Birmingham has also produced a number of popular bands and musicians. The Streets, UB40, Editors, The Twang, Ocean Colour Scene, Judas Priest, Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, Wizzard and Duran Duran were all popular bands, whilst musicians Jeff Lynne, Ozzy Osbourne, John Lodge, Nick Mason, Christine McVie, Roy Wood, Jamelia, and Steve Winwood all were very successful. Other famous residents include Birmingham-historian Carl Chinn famous for his passionate love for the city; Tony award winning political playwright David Edgar; and Booker Prize winning novelist David Lodge. Joseph Chamberlain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Joseph Chamberlain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Rt. ... This is a list of famous or notable people born in, or associated with, Birmingham in England. ... The Rt. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Perrotts Folly Perrotts Folly, grid reference SP047862, also known as The Monument, or The Observatory, is a 29-metre (96-foot) tall tower, built in 1758. ... This article is about the novel. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... Biography published in 1978 (1983 paperback reprint shown) Anthony John Hancock (12 May 1924 – 24 June 1968) was a major figure in British television and radio comedy in the 1950s and 1960s, known as Tony Hancock. ... Jasper Carrott OBE (born Robert Davis, March 14, 1945) is an English comedian (declaring himself world famous in Birmingham). // Born in Acocks Green, Birmingham, he was educated at Moseley Grammar School and later attended Aston University in the heart of Birmingham. ... Trevor Eve (b. ... Martin Shaw (born January 21, 1945 in Birmingham, England) is an English actor. ... Catherine Elizabeth Cat Deeley (born October 23, 1976) is a popular English disc jockey, television personality and former fashion model, who rose to fame at the age of 21, co-hosting the well-known childrens series SMTV Live, alongside Anthony McPartlin and Declan Donnelly. ... Mike Skinner (born November 27, 1978), more commonly known by his stage name The Streets, is a rapper from Birmingham, England. ... UB40 are a British dub band formed in 1978 in Birmingham. ... Ocean Colour Scene (often abbreviated to OCS) are an English rock band from Birmingham. ... For other uses, see Judas priest (curse). ... For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). ... For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... This article refers to the 1970s rock and roll band. ... Duran Duran are an English rock band notable for a long series of popular singles and vivid music videos. ... Jeff Lynne (born December 30, 1947 in Shard End, Birmingham) is a Grammy Award-winning English rock songwriter, singer, guitarist and record producer. ... Ozzy redirects here. ... John Charles Lodge (born 20 July 1943, in Birmingham, England) is best known as the bass guitar player for the Moody Blues. ... Nicholas Berkeley Nick Mason (born January 27, 1944 in Birmingham, England) is the drummer for Pink Floyd. ... Christine Perfect redirects here. ... Roy Adrian Wood (sometimes erroneously thought to be born as Ulysses Adrian Wood, from a offhand interview comment in the 1960s) (born 8 November 1946 in Birmingham), is a songwriter, guitarist and multi-instrumentalist. ... Jamelia Niela Davis (born on 11 January 1981), better known as Jamelia, is an English R&B and pop singer and songwriter who found fame in early 2000 after impressing music executives at Parlophone Records with self-written a cappella songs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Professor Carl Stephen Alfred Chinn MBE (born 6 September 1956) is a historian, writer, radio presenter, magazine editor, newspaper columnist, media personality, local celebrity, and famous Brummie, whose working life has been devoted to the study and popularisation of the city of Birmingham in England. ... David Edgar (b. ... See: David Lodge (actor) for the British character actor. ...


The 'Walk of Stars', similar to the Hollywood Walk of Fame, was unveiled in July 2007 to honour the famous residents of Birmingham. The first star to be placed on the walk, which is located on Broad Street, was by Ozzy Osbourne.[129] The second star, honouring Jasper Carrott, was placed in the walk in September 2007 during ArtsFest.[130] Star for Ozzy Osbourne on the canal bridge pavement The Birmingham Walk of Stars is an installation on the pedestrian pavement on Broad Street, Birmingham, England. ... Buskers perform on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. ... Broad Street as seen from above Broad Street is a major thoroughfare to the immediate West of Birmingham city centre. ... Ozzy redirects here. ... Jasper Carrott OBE (born Robert Davis, March 14, 1945) is an English comedian (declaring himself world famous in Birmingham). // Born in Acocks Green, Birmingham, he was educated at Moseley Grammar School and later attended Aston University in the heart of Birmingham. ... ArtsFest is an annual arts festival held in September in Birmingham, England. ...


See also: Blue Plaques erected by the Birmingham Civic Society.


Science and invention

Matthew Boulton
Matthew Boulton

Birmingham has been the location for some of the most important inventions and scientific breakthroughs. Local inventions and notable firsts include: gas lighting, custard powder, the magnetron, the first ever use of radiography in an operation, Lewis Paul and John Wyatt's first cotton Roller Spinning machine and the UK's first ever hole-in-the-heart operation, at Birmingham Children's Hospital.[131] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Birmingham is the second-largest city in the United Kingdom. ... Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... ... A cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates coherent microwaves. ... A radiograph of a right elbow-joint Radiography is the use of certain types of electromagnetic radiation—usually ionizing—to view objects. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Lewis Paul (d. ... John Wyatt (? – 1766), an English inventor, was born near Lichfield and was related to Sarah Ford, Doctor Johnsons mother. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Atrial septal defects (ASD) are a group of congenital heart diseases that enables communication between atria of the heart and may involve the interatrial septum. ... Birmingham Childrens Hospital NHS Trust manage the central Birmingham hospital now known as The Diana, Princess of Wales Childrens Hospital, which provides general and emergency health care services to children in Birmingham and the West Midlands. ...


Among the city's notable scientists and inventors are Matthew Boulton, proprietor of the Soho engineering works, Sir Francis Galton, originator of eugenics and important techniques in statistics, Joseph Priestley, chemist and radical and James Watt, engineer and inventor who is associated with the steam engine. Many of these scientists were members of the Lunar Society, which was based in the city.[132] Matthew Boulton. ... Soho Foundry is a factory created by Matthew Boulton and James Watt at Smethwick, near Birmingham, England, for the manufacture of steam engines. ... Francis Galton Sir Francis Galton FRS (February 16, 1822 - January 17, 1911) was an English explorer, statistician, anthropologist, creator of modern eugenics (he coined the term), and investigator of the human mind. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 (Old Style) – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century British theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... The Lunar Society was a discussion club of prominent industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England. ...


Twin cities

Birmingham's town twins[133] are: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Birmingham, Alabama, USA is named after the city and shares an industrial kinship.[134] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the French city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the area administered by Pakistan. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: , Country State Counties Jefferson, Shelby Incorporated December 19, 1871 Government  - Type Mayor - Council  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (Current) Larry Langford (Mayor-Elect) Area  - City 151. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


See also

This is about the constituent towns, villages and areas of Birmingham in England. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 1998 was the 43rd Eurovision Song Contest and was held on May 9, 1998 at the National Indoor Arena in Birmingham, England. ... A list of images of the city centre of Birmingham Category: ... Birminghams military history is extensive. ... This is a list of songs about Birmingham, United Kingdom: Sex Pistols - Bodies (She was a girl from Birmingham/She just had an abortion ) The Smiths - Panic (Panic on the streets of London/Panic on the streets of Birmingham) Category: ... The Birmingham Redevelopment Plan is a large redevelopment plan for Birmingham, UK. The reason for this plan was how Birmingham was portrayed to the world. ...

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2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Birmingham Mail is a tabloid newspaper based in Birmingham, UK but distributed around Birmingham, The Black Country, Solihull, Warwickshire and parts of Worcestershire and Staffordshire. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the new body incorporating Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Birmingham Post was originally started under the name Daily Post in Birmingham, England in 1857 by John Frederick Feeney. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Birmingham Post was originally started under the name Daily Post in Birmingham, England in 1857 by John Frederick Feeney. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Birmingham Post was originally started under the name Daily Post in Birmingham, England in 1857 by John Frederick Feeney. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Doctor Terry Slater is a reader in Historical Geography at the University of Birmingham, UK and also lectures. ... Canon Doctor Terry Slater is a reader in Historical Geography at the University of Birmingham, UK and also lectures. ...

External links

Find more about Birmingham on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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Learning resources
  • Birmingham City Council
  • Local Strategic Partnership for Birmingham
  • The Birmingham Civic Society
  • Birmingham's Industrial History Website
  • Images of Birmingham Photo Library - A photo library of Birmingham
  • Birmigham Theatre Guide - Comprehensive guide to Birmingham theatres
  • Virtualbrum.co.uk - photographs and information
  • Views of Birmingham in Old Postcards
  • Talk Like A Brummie - A wiki-based Birmingham dialect dictionary.
  • Birmingham Stories - Birmingham's past and the inventions from the city
  • Made in Birmingham - Birmingham's Industrial History Website
  • Showell's Dictionary of Birmingham, a circa 1885 "history and guide, containing thousands of dates and references to matters of interest connected with the past and present history of the town", from Project Gutenberg.
  • Birmingham timeline
  • Birmingham Conservation Trust
  • Birmingham travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Birmingham facts and photography
  • Westmidlands connurbation GDP
  • Birmingham International Airport Guide
  • Birmingham Central Backpackers - hostel and tourist guide

Coordinates: 52°29′1″N 1°54′23″W / 52.48361, -1.90639 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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University of Birmingham (379 words)
For over a hundred years, learning and research at the University has played a major part in the success of the city, the region and the world - and has contributed to the advance of knowledge and its application.
We are determined to continue to be at the forefront of world research well into the 21st century.
One hundred students from the West Midlands will this week visit the University of Birmingham as part of a new three-year programme funded by the Sutton Trust and the Goldman Sachs Foundation.
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