FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bird migration
Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration
Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration

Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. Migrations include movements of varied distances made in response to changes in food availability, habitat or weather. These however are usually irregular and are termed variously as nomadism, invasions or irruptions. Migration is marked by its annual seasonality. In contrast, birds that are non-migratory are known as resident birds. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2993x1370, 1663 KB) Wider cut of Barnacle Geese flock (Branta leucopsis) flying in formation during autum migration, catching last rays of the sun in dull autumn sky. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2993x1370, 1663 KB) Wider cut of Barnacle Geese flock (Branta leucopsis) flying in formation during autum migration, catching last rays of the sun in dull autumn sky. ... Binomial name Branta leucopsis (Bechstein, 1803) The Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis) belongs to the genus Branta of black geese, which contains species with largely black plumage, distinguishing them from the grey Anser species. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Species that periodically migrate are called migratory bird. ...

Contents

General patterns

Many land birds migrate long distances. The most common pattern involves flying north to breed in the temperate or Arctic summer and returning to wintering grounds in warmer regions to the south.


The primary advantage of migration is energetic. The longer days of the northern summer provide greater opportunities for breeding birds to feed their young. The extended daylight hours allow diurnal birds to produce larger clutches than related non-migratory species that remain in the tropics year-round. As the days shorten in autumn, the birds return to warmer regions where the available food supply varies little with the season. Diurnal may mean: in biology, a diurnal animal is an animal that is active in the daytime. ... A clutch of blackbird (Turdus merula) eggs. ...


These advantages offset the high stress, energetic costs, and other risks of the migration. Predation can be heightened during migration; the Eleonora's Falcon which breeds on Mediterranean islands has a very late breeding season, coordinated with the autumn passage of southbound passerine migrants which it feeds to its young. A similar strategy is adopted by the Greater Noctule bat, which preys on nocturnal passerine migrants.[1][2][3] Binomial name Gene, 1839 The Eleonoras Falcon (Falco eleonorae) is a medium-sized falcon. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... Binomial name Nyctalus lasiopterus (Schreber, 1780) The Greater Noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus), or Greater Noctule, is a rare and little known mammal. ...


Within a species not all populations may be migratory and this is termed as partial migration. Partial migration is very common in the southern continents; in Australia, 44% of non-passerine birds and 32% of passerine species were partially migratory.[4] In some species the population at higher latitudes tend to be migratory and will often winter at lower latitude past the latitudes where other populations may be sedentary, with suitable wintering habitats already occupied, and this is termed as leap-frog migration.[5] Within a population, there can also be different patterns of timing and migration based on the age groups and sex. Only the female Chaffinches in Scandinavia migrate with the males staying resident. This has given rise to its specific name coelebs, a bachelor. Binomial name Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758 The Chaffinch, (Fringilla coelebs), is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Migration is often concentrated along well established routes known as flyways. These routes typically follow mountain ranges or coastlines, and may take advantage of updrafts and other wind patterns or avoid geographical barriers such as large stretches of open water. The specific routes may be genetically programmed or learnt to varying degrees. Flyway is a term which designates the aerial flight path of migrating birds. ... Genetic programming (GP) is an evolutionary algorithm based methodology inspired by biological evolution to find computer programs that perform a user-defined task. ...


The altitude at which birds fly during migration varies. An expedition to Mt. Everest found skeletons of Pintail and Black-tailed Godwit at 5000 m (16,400 feet) on the Khumbu Glacier.[6] Bar-headed Geese have been seen flying over the highest peaks of the Himalayas above 8000 m (29000 ft) even when low passes of 3000 m (10000 ft) were nearby.[7] Seabirds fly low over water but gain altitude when crossing land and the reverse pattern is seen in landbirds.[8][9] However most bird migration is in the range of 150 m (500 ft) to 600 m (2000 ft). Bird hit records from the United States show most collisions below 600 m (2000 ft) and almost none above 1800 m (6000 ft).[10] Everest redirects here. ... Binomial name Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758 The Pintail or Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) is a common and widespread duck which breeds in the northern areas of Europe and Asia and across most of Canada, Alaska and the mid-western United States. ... Binomial name Limosa limosa (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Black-tailed Godwit: blue=winter- and staging area, yellow=breeding area, green=both, resident The Black-tailed Godwit, Limosa limosa, is a large shorebird. ... The Khumbu Glacier is located in the Khumbu region of northeastern Nepal and flows down from the Khumbu Icefall on the southern slopes of Mount Everest. ... Binomial name Anser indicus (Latham, 1790) Synonyms Eulabeia indica The Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus) is a goose which breeds in Central Asia in colonies of thousands near mountain lakes. ...


Historical views

The earliest recorded observations of bird migration were 3000 years ago, as noted by Hesiod, Homer, Herodotus, Aristotle and others. The bible also notes migrations, as in the Book of Job (39:26), where the inquiry is made: "Doth the hawk fly by Thy wisdom and stretch her wings toward the south?" The author of Jeremiah (8:7) wrote: "The stork in the heavens knoweth her appointed time; and the turtledove, and the crane, and the swallow, observe the time of their coming." Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Aristotle noted that cranes traveled from the steppes of Scythia to marshes at the headwaters of the Nile. Pliny the Elder in his Historia Naturalis repeats Aristotle's observations. Aristotle however suggested that swallows and other birds hibernated. This belief persisted as late as 1878, when Elliott Coues listed the titles of no less than 182 papers dealing with the hibernation of swallows. It was not until early in the nineteenth century that migration as an explanation for the winter disappearance of birds from northern climes was accepted.[11] Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... Elliott Coues Elliott Coues (September 9, 1842 - December 25, 1899) was an American army surgeon, historian, ornithologist and author. ...


The discovery of White Storks in Germany with African arrows embedded provided early clues on migration. One of the oldest of these Pfeilstorch specimens was found in 1822 near the German village of Klütz, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. A Pfeilstorch (German for arrow stork) is a stork which is injured by an arrow while wintering in Africa, and then returns to Europe with the arrow stuck in its body. ...


Long-distance migration

Swainson's Thrush
Swainson's Thrush
Northern Pintail

The typical image of migration is of northern landbirds such as swallows and birds of prey making long flights to the tropics. Many northern-breeding ducks, geese and swans are also long-distance migrants, but need only to move from their Arctic breeding grounds far enough south to escape frozen waters. Most Holarctic wildfowl species remain in the Northern hemisphere, but in countries with milder climates. For example, the Pink-footed Goose migrates from Iceland to Britain and neighbouring countries. Migratory routes and wintering grounds are traditional and learned by young during their first migration with their parents. Some ducks, such as the Garganey, move completely or partially into the tropics. Swainsons Thrush from US NPS Source: U.S. National Park Service, Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve Caption: Swainsons Thrush [Catharus ustulatus] (NPS Photo) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Swainsons Thrush from US NPS Source: U.S. National Park Service, Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve Caption: Swainsons Thrush [Catharus ustulatus] (NPS Photo) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... northern pintail USFWS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... northern pintail USFWS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Swallow (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Geese redirects here. ... For other uses, see Swan (disambiguation). ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Anser brachyrhynchus Baillon, 1834 The Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) is a goose breeding in Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard. ... Binomial name Anas querquedula Linnaeus, 1758 The Garganey, Anas querquedula is a small dabbling duck. ...


The same considerations about barriers and detours that apply to long-distance land-bird migration apply to water birds, but in reverse: a large area of land without bodies of water that offer feeding sites is a barrier to a water bird. Open sea may also be a barrier to a bird that feeds in coastal waters. Detours avoiding such barriers are observed: for example, Brent Geese migrating from the Taymyr Peninsula to the Wadden Sea travel via the White Sea coast and the Baltic Sea rather than directly across the Arctic Ocean and northern Scandinavia. Binomial name Branta bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758) The Brent Goose (Branta bernicla) is a goose of the genus Branta, known in North America as Brant. ... Taymyr Peninsula is a peninsula in Siberia that forms the most northern part of mainland Asia. ... Satellite image of the southwestern part of the Wadden Sea. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...

Bar-tailed Godwit
Bar-tailed Godwit

A similar situation occurs with waders (called "shorebirds" in North America). Many species, such as Dunlin and Western Sandpiper, undertake long movements from their Arctic breeding grounds to warmer locations in the same hemisphere, but others such as Semipalmated Sandpiper travel huge distances to the tropics. Like the large and powerful wildfowl, the waders are strong fliers. This means that birds wintering in temperate regions have the capacity to make further shorter movements in the event of particularly inclement weather. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 543 pixelsFull resolution (1050 × 713 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website provides public domain images. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 543 pixelsFull resolution (1050 × 713 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website provides public domain images. ... Families Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Burhinidae Chionididae Pluvianellidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Charadriidae Dunlin (Calidris alpina). ... Binomial name Calidris alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) The Dunlin, Calidris alpina, is a small wader. ... Binomial name Calidris mauri (Cabanis, 1857) The Western Sandpiper, Calidris mauri, is a very small shorebird. ... Binomial name Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766) The Semipalmated Sandpiper, Calidris pusilla is a very small shorebird. ...


For some species of waders, migration success depends on the availability of certain key food resources at stopover points along the migration route. This gives the migrants an opportunity to "refuel" for the next leg of the voyage. Some examples of important stopover locations are the Bay of Fundy and Delaware Bay. The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas) The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ...


Some Alaskan Bar-tailed Godwits have the longest non-stop flight of any migrant, flying 11,000 km to their New Zealand non-breeding areas (BTO News 258: 3, 2005). Prior to migration, 55% of their bodyweight is stored fat to fuel this uninterrupted journey. For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bar-tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica, is a large wader in the family Scolopacidae, which breeds on Arctic coasts and tundra mainly in the Old World, and winters on coasts in temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ...

Arctic Terns
Arctic Terns

Seabird migration is similar in patter to those of the waders and waterfowl. Some, such as the Black Guillemot and some gulls, are quite sedentary; others, such as most terns and auks breeding in the temperate northern hemisphere, move varying distances south in winter. The Arctic Tern has the longest-distance migration of any bird, and sees more daylight than any other, moving from its Arctic breeding grounds to the Antarctic non-breeding areas. One Arctic Tern, ringed (banded) as a chick on the Farne Islands off the British east coast, reached Melbourne, Australia in just three months from fledging, a sea journey of over 22,000 km (14,000 miles). A few seabirds, such as Wilson's Petrel and Great Shearwater, breed in the southern hemisphere and migrate north in the southern winter. Seabirds have the additional advantage of being able to feed during migration over open waters. Download high resolution version (838x838, 139 KB)Arctic Terns, originally uploaded to Dutch wikipedia by user Jcwf; public domain photo from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (838x838, 139 KB)Arctic Terns, originally uploaded to Dutch wikipedia by user Jcwf; public domain photo from http://www. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... Binomial name Cepphus grylle Linnaeus, 1758 The Black Guillemot or Tystie, Cepphus grylle, is a medium-sized alcid at 32-38 cm in length, and with a 49-58 cm wingspan. ... “Seagull” redirects here. ... Genera Sterna (Gelochelidon) (Hydroprogne) (Thalasseus) Chlidonias Phaetusa Anous Procelsterna Gygis Larosterna Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily Sterninae of the gull family Laridae. ... Genera Uria Alle Alca Pinguinus Synthliboramphus Cepphus Brachyramphus Ptychoramphus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula Extinct genera, see Systematics Auks are birds of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. ... Binomial name Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan, 1763[2] Breeding grounds (red), wintering grounds (blue) and migration routes (green) The Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. ... Bird ringing (also known as bird banding) is an aid to studying wild birds, by attaching a small individually numbered metal or plastic ring to their legs or wings, so that various aspects of the birds life can be studied by the ability to re-find the same individual... The Inner Farne seen from Seahouses harbour The Farne Islands (also referred to less formally as the Farnes) are a group of islands off the coast of Northumberland, England. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... Binomial name Oceanites oceanicus Kuhl, 1820 The Wilsons Storm-petrel or Wilsons Petrel (Oceanites oceanicus) is a small seabird of the storm-petrel family Hydrobatidae. ... Binomial name Puffinus gravis (OReilly, 1818) The Great Shearwater (Puffinus gravis) is a large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ...


The most pelagic species, mainly in the 'tubenose' order Procellariiformes, are great wanderers, and the albatrosses of the southern oceans may circle the globe as they ride the "roaring forties" outside the breeding season. The tubenoses spread widely over large areas of open ocean, but congregate when food becomes available. Many are also among the longest-distance migrants; Sooty Shearwaters nesting on the Falkland Islands migrate 14,000 km (9,000 miles) between the breeding colony and the North Atlantic Ocean off Norway. Some Manx Shearwaters do this same journey in reverse. As they are long-lived birds, they may cover enormous distances during their lives; one record-breaking Manx Shearwater is calculated to have flown 8 million km (5 million miles) during its over-50 year lifespan. Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... This article is about the bird family. ... Binomial name Puffinus griseus Gmelin, 1789 The Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus) is a medium-large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Binomial name Puffinus puffinus (Brünnich, 1764) Synonyms Procellaria puffinus Brünnich, 1764 The Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) is a medium-sized shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ...

Griffon Vulture soaring
Griffon Vulture soaring

Some large broad-winged birds rely on thermal columns of rising hot air to enable them to soar. These include many birds of prey such as vultures, eagles, and buzzards, but also storks. These birds migrate in the daytime. Migratory species in these groups have great difficulty crossing large bodies of water, since thermals only form over land, and these birds cannot maintain active flight for long distances. The Mediterranean and other seas therefore present a major obstacle to soaring birds, which are forced to cross at the narrowest points. Massive numbers of large raptors and storks pass through areas such as Gibraltar, Falsterbo, and the Bosphorus at migration times. More common species, such as the Honey Buzzard, can be counted in hundreds of thousands in autumn. Other barriers, such as mountain ranges, can also cause funnelling, particularly of large diurnal migrants. This is a notable factor in the Central American migratory bottleneck. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixelsFull resolution (1013 × 731 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a cropped version of another image on wiki commons, both will be useful. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixelsFull resolution (1013 × 731 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a cropped version of another image on wiki commons, both will be useful. ... Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... Genera Several, see below. ... A buzzard is one of several large birds, but there are a number of meanings as detailed below. ... For other uses, see Stork (disambiguation). ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... The Sound with the Falsterbo Peninsula to the South. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus) is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as kites, eagles and harriers. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...

Ruby-throated Hummingbird
Ruby-throated Hummingbird

Many of the smaller insectivorous birds including the warblers, hummingbirds and flycatchers migrate large distances, usually at night. They land in the morning and may feed for a few days before resuming their migration. The birds are referred to as passage migrants in the regions where they occur for short durations between the origin and destination.[12] ImageMetadata File history File links Rubythroathummer65. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Rubythroathummer65. ... There are three groups of passerine birds, order Passeriformes, which are called warblers. ... For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Genera many:see text The Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae is a large family of small passerine birds restricted to the Old World. ...


By migrating at night, nocturnal migrants minimize predation, and avoid overheating that could result from the energy expended to fly such long distances. This also enables them to feed during the day and refuel for the night.[11] One cost of nocturnal migration is the loss of sleep. Migrants may be able to alter their quality of sleep to compensate for the loss.[13]


Short-distance migration

Cedar Waxwing
Cedar Waxwing

Many of the long-distance migrants in the previous section are effectively genetically programmed to respond to changing lengths of days. However, many species move shorter distances, but may do so only in response to harsh weather conditions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1500 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Thus mountain and moorland breeders, such as Wallcreeper and White-throated Dipper, may move only altitudinally to escape the cold higher ground. Other species such as Merlin and Skylark will move further to the coast or to a more southerly region. Species like the Chaffinch are not migratory in Britain, but will move south or to Ireland in very cold weather. Binomial name Tichodroma muraria (Linnaeus, 1766) The Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria) a small bird found throughout the high mountains of southern Eurasia, including the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Altai. ... Binomial name Cinclus cinclus (Linnaeus, 1758) The White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) is an aquatic passerine bird found in Europe and the Middle East, also known as the European Dipper or just Dipper. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies 3-9, see text. ... Binomial name Alauda arvensis Linnaeus, 1758 The Skylark (Alauda arvensis) is a small passerine bird. ... Binomial name Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758 The Chaffinch, (Fringilla coelebs), is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. ...


Short-distance passerine migrants have two evolutionary origins. Those which have long-distance migrants in the same family, such as the Chiffchaff, are species of southern hemisphere origins which have progressively shortened their return migration so that they stay in the northern hemisphere. Binomial name Phylloscopus collybita (Vieillot, 1817) The Common Chiffchaff or simply Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita, is a common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia. ...


Those species which have no long-distance migratory relatives, such as the waxwings, are effectively moving in response to winter weather, rather than enhanced breeding opportunities. Species B. garrulus B. cedrorum The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. ...

Woodland Kingfisher
Woodland Kingfisher

In the tropics there is little variation in the length of day throughout the year, and it is always warm enough for an adequate food supply. Apart from the seasonal movements of northern hemisphere wintering species, most species are in the broadest sense resident. However many species undergo movements of varying distances depending on the rainfall. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (965x1170, 462 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tree Kingfisher Woodland Kingfisher Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (965x1170, 462 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tree Kingfisher Woodland Kingfisher Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ...


Many tropical regions have wet and dry seasons, the monsoons of India being perhaps the best known example. An example of a bird whose distribution is rain associated is the Woodland Kingfisher of west Africa. For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Halcyon senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766) The Woodland Kingfisher (Halcyon senegalensis) is a tree kingfisher which is widely distributed in tropical Africa south of the Sahara. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


There are a few species, notably cuckoos, which are genuine long-distance migrants within the tropics. An example is the Lesser Cuckoo, which breeds in India and spends the non-breeding season in Africa. Genera See text. ... Binomial name Latham, 1790 The Lesser Cuckoo (Cuculus poliocephalus) is a species of cuckoo in the Cuculidae family. ...


In the high mountains, such as the Himalayas and the Andes, there are also seasonal altitudinal movements in many species, and others may undertake migrations of considerable length. The Himalayan Kashmir Flycatcher and Pied Thrush both move as far south as the highlands of Sri Lanka. For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Binomial name Ficedula subrubra (Hartert & Steinbacher, 1934) The Kashmir Flycatcher, Ficedula subrubra, is a small passerine bird in the flycatcher family Muscicapidae. ... Binomial name Zoothera wardii (Blyth, 1842) The Pied Thrush (Zoothera wardii) is an Asian thrush, a genus within the large thrush family Turdidae. ...


Irruptions and dispersal

Sometimes circumstances such as a good breeding season followed by a food source failure the following lead to irruptions, in which large numbers of a species move far beyond the normal range. Bohemian Waxwing and Common Crossbills are two species which show this unpredictable variation in annual numbers. Binomial name Bombycilla garrulus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus) is a member of the waxwing family of passerines. ... Binomial name Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. ...


The temperate zones of the southern continents have extensive arid areas, particularly in Australia and western southern Africa, and weather-driven movements are common is not always predictable. A couple of weeks of heavy rain in one part or another of the usually dry centre of Australia, for example, causes dramatic plant and invertebrate growth, attracting birds from all directions. This can happen at any time of year, and, in any given area, may not happen again for a decade or more, depending on the frequency of El Niño and La Niña periods. Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... La Niña is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon similar to El Niño. ...

Rainbow Bee-eater
Rainbow Bee-eater

Bird migration is primarily, but not entirely, a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. In the Southern Hemisphere, seasonal migration tends to be much less obvious. There are several reasons for this. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


First, the largely uninterrupted expanses of land mass or ocean tend not to funnel migrations into narrow and obvious pathways, making them less obvious to the human observer. Second, at least for terrestrial birds, climatic regions tend to fade into one another over a long distance rather than be entirely separate: this means that rather than make long trips over unsuitable habitat to reach particular destinations, migrant species can usually travel at a relaxed pace, feeding as they go. Short of banding studies it is often not obvious that the birds seen in any particular locality as the seasons change are in fact different members of the same species passing through, gradually working their way north or south.


Many species do in fact breed in the temperate southern hemisphere regions and winter further north in the tropics. The southern African Greater Striped Swallow, and the Australian Satin Flycatcher, Dollarbird, and Rainbow Bee-eater for example, winters well north of their breeding range. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Binomial name Hirundo cucullata Boddaert, 1783 The Greater Striped Swallow (Hirundo cucullata syn. ... Binomial name (Vieillot, 1818) The Satin Flycatcher (Myiagra cyanoleuca) is a species of bird in the Monarchidae family. ... Binomial name Eurystomus orientalis , The dollarbird (Eurystomus orientalis) is a bird of the roller family, so named because of the silver-dollar sized spots on its wings. ... Binomial name Merops ornatus Latham, 1801 The Rainbow Bee-eater, Merops ornatus is a near passerine bird in the bee-eater family Meropidae. ...


Physiology and control

The control of migration, its timing and response are genetically controlled and appear to be a primitive trait that is present even in non-migratory species of birds. The ability to navigate and orient themselves during migration is a much more complex phenomenon which may include both endogenous programs as well as learning.[14]


Timing

The primary physiological cue for migration are the changes in the day length. These changes are also related to hormonal changes in the birds.


In the period before migration, many birds display higher activity or Zugunruhe (German: migratory restlessness) as well as physiological changes such as increased fat deposition. The occurrence of Zugunruhe even in cage-raised birds with no environmental cues (e.g. shortening of day and falling temperature) has pointed to the role of circannual endogenic programming in controlling bird migrations. Caged birds display a preferential flight direction that corresponds with the migratory direction they would take in nature, even changing their preferential direction at roughly the same time their wild conspecifics change course. In ethology, zugunruhe is anxious behavior in migratory animals that are prevented from migrating, especially in birds. ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Orientation and navigation

The routes of satellite tagged Bar-tailed Godwits migrating north from New Zealand. This species has the longest known non-stop migration of any species, up to 10,200 km (6,300 mi).
The routes of satellite tagged Bar-tailed Godwits migrating north from New Zealand. This species has the longest known non-stop migration of any species, up to 10,200 km (6,300 mi).

Navigation is based on a variety of senses. Many birds have been shown to use a sun compass. Using the sun for direction involves the need for making compensation based on the time. Navigation has also been shown to be based on a combination of other abilities including the ability to detect magnetic fields, use visual landmarks as well as olfactory cues.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bar-tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica, is a large wader in the family Scolopacidae, which breeds on Arctic coasts and tundra mainly in the Old World, and winters on coasts in temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ...


Long distance migrants are believed to disperse as young birds and form attachments to potential breeding sites and to favourite wintering sites. Once the site attachment is made they show high site-fidelity, visiting the same wintering sites year after year.[16]


The ability of birds to navigate during migrations cannot be fully explained by endogenous programming, even with the help of responses to environmental cues. The ability to successfully perform long-distance migrations can probably only be fully explained with an accounting for the cognitive ability of the birds to recognize habitats and form mental maps. Satellite tracking of day migrating raptors such as Ospreys and Honey Buzzards has shown that older individuals are better at making corrections for wind drift.[17]


As the circannual patterns indicate, there is a strong genetic component to migration in terms of timing and route, but this may be modified by environmental influences. An interesting example where a change of migration route has occurred because of such a geographical barrier is the trend for some Blackcaps in central Europe to migrate west and winter in Britain rather than cross the Alps. For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Sylvia atricapilla (Linnaeus, 1758) The Blackcap, Sylvia atricapilla, is a common and widespread Old World warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Migratory birds may use two electromagnetic tools to find their destinations: one that is entirely innate and another that relies on experience. A young bird on its first migration flies in the correct direction according to the Earth's magnetic field, but does not know how far the journey will be. It does this through a radical pair mechanism whereby chemical reactions in special photo pigments sensitive to long wavelengths are affected by the field. Note that although this only works during daylight hours, it does not use the position of the sun in any way. At this stage the bird is similar to a boy scout with a compass but no map, until it grows accustomed to the journey and can put its other facilities to use. With experience they learn various landmarks and this "mapping" is done by magnetites in the trigeminal system, which tell the bird how strong the field is. Because birds migrate between northern and southern regions, the magnetic field strengths at different latitudes let it interpret the radical pair mechanism more accurately and let it know when it has reached its destination.[18] More recent research has found a neural connection between the eye and "Cluster N", the part of the forebrain that is active during migrational orientation, suggesting that birds may actually be able to see the magnetic field of the earth.[19] [20] Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings Magnetostatics Electrodynamics Electrical Network Tensors in Relativity This box:      In physics, the magnetic field is a field that permeates space and which exerts a magnetic force on moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles. ... The Blue Morpho butterfly, native to Central America, derives its distinctive blue coloring from iridescence rather than from pigmentation. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Polish Boy Scouts fighting in the Warsaw Uprising Boy Scouts originally denoted the organization that developed and rapidly grew up during 1908 in the wake of the publication by Lord Robert Baden-Powell of his book Scouting for Boys. ... Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. ... The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, also called the fifth nerve or simply V) is responsible for sensation in the face. ... This article is about the geographical term. ...


Vagrancy

Migrating birds can lose their way and occur outside their normal ranges. These can be due to flying past their destinations as in the "spring overshoot" in which birds returning to their breeding areas overshoot and end up further north than intended. A mechanism which can lead to great rarities turning up as vagrants thousands of kilometres out of range is reverse migration, where the genetic programming of young birds fails to work properly. Certain areas, because of their location, have become famous as watchpoints for migrating birds. Examples are the Point Pelee National Park in Canada, and Spurn in England. Drift migration of birds blown off course by the wind can result in "falls" of large numbers of migrants at coastal sites. Reverse migration is a phenomenon in bird migration. ... Point Pelee National Park is a park in Essex County in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ... A photograph of Spurn in May 2005, showing the lighthouse and sand-dunes. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Drift migration is the phenomenon in which migrating birds are blown off course by the winds at the time they are in flight. ...


Migration conditioning

It has been possible to teach a new migration route to a flock of birds, for example in re-introduction schemes. After a trial with Canada Geese, microlight aircraft were used in the US to teach safe migration routes to reintroduced Whooping Cranes.[21] For the outerwear manufacturer, see Canada Goose (clothing). ... Ultralight aviation is a segment of aviation that is permitted in the United States of America by the FAA as long as certain weight, speed, and fuel capacity restrictions are observed. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 as of 2007 The Whooping Crane (Grus americana), named for its whooping call, is a very large and endangered crane. ...


Such an effect can also happen naturally, as exemplified by the increasing tendency of Blackcaps to winter in Britain as described above.


Evolutionary and ecological factors

Whether a particular species migrates depends on a number of factors. The climate of the breeding area is important, and few species can cope with the harsh winters of inland Canada or northern Eurasia. Thus the partially migratory Blackbird Turdus merula is migratory in Scandinavia, but not in the milder climate of southern Europe. The nature of the staple food is also significant. Most specialist insect eaters outside the tropics are long-distance migrants, and have little choice but to head south in winter. For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blackbird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Sometimes the factors are finely balanced. The Whinchat Saxicola rubetra of Europe and the Siberian Stonechat Saxicola maura of Asia are long-distance migrants wintering in the tropics, whereas their close relative, the European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola is a resident bird in most of its range, and moves only short distances from the colder north and east. A possible factor here is that the resident species can often raise an extra brood. Binomial name Saxicola rubetra (Linnaeus, 1758) The Whinchat, Saxicola rubetra, is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae, but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher, Muscicapidae. ... Binomial name Saxicola maura (Pallas, 1773) The Siberian Stonechat or Asian Stonechat (Saxicola maura) is a member of the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae. ... Binomial name Saxicola rubicola (Linnaeus, 1766) The European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher, family Muscicapidae. ... Species that periodically migrate are called migratory bird. ...


Recent research suggests that long-distance passerine migrants are of South American and African, rather than northern hemisphere, evolutionary origins. They are effectively southern species coming north to breed rather than northern species going south to winter. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Theoretical analyses, summarized by Alerstam (2001), show that detours that increase flight distance by up to 20% will often be adaptive on aerodynamic grounds - a bird that loads itself with food in order to cross a long barrier flies less efficiently. However some species show circuitous migratory routes that reflect historical range expansions and are far from optimal in ecological terms. An example is the migration of continental populations of Swainson's Thrush, which fly far east across North America before turning south via Florida to reach northern South America; this route is believed to be the consequence of a range expansion that occurred about 10,000 years ago. Detours may also be caused by differential wind conditions, predation risk, or other factors. For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... Binomial name Catharus ustulatus (Nuttall, 1840) The Swainsons Thrush, Catharus ustulatus, is a medium-sized thrush. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Study techniques

Bird migration has been studied by a variety of techniques of which ringing is the oldest. Color marking, use of radar, satellite tracking and stable Hydrogen (or Strontium) isotopes are some of the other techniques used to study migration.[22] Bird ringing (also known as bird banding) is an aid to studying wild birds, by attaching a small individually numbered metal or plastic ring to their legs or wings, so that various aspects of the birds life can be studied by the ability to re-find the same individual... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Satellite navigation systems allow small electronic devices to determine their location (Longitude, Latitude, and Altitude) in within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. ... Isotopes are atoms of a chemical element whose nuclei have the same atomic number, Z, but different atomic weights, A. The word isotope, meaning at the same place, comes from the fact that isotopes are located at the same place on the periodic table. ...


An approach to identify migration intensity makes use of upward pointing microphones to record the nocturnal contact calls of flocks flying overhead. These are then analyzed in a laboratory to measure time, frequency and species.[23]

Emlen funnel
Emlen funnel

An older technique to quantify migration involves observing the face of the moon towards full moon and counting the silhouettes of flocks of birds as they fly at night.[24][25] Image File history File links EmlenFunnel. ... Image File history File links EmlenFunnel. ...


Studies of orientation behaviour have been traditionally carried out using variants of a setup known as the Emlen funnel which consists of a circular cage with the top covered by glass or wire-screen so that either the sky is visible or the setup is placed in a planetarium or with other controls on environmental cues. The orientation behaviour of the bird inside the cage is studied quantitatively using the distribution of marks that the bird leaves on the walls of the cage.[26] Other approaches used in pigeon homing studies make use of the direction in which the bird vanishes on the horizon.


Threats and conservation

Human activities have threatened many migratory bird species. The distances involved in bird migration mean that they often cross political boundaries of countries and conservation measures require international cooperation. Several international treaties have been signed to protect migratory species including the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 of the US[27] and the African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement.[28]


The concentration of birds during migration can put species at risk. Some spectacular migrants have already gone extinct, the most notable being the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius). During migration the flocks were a mile (1.6 km) wide and 300 miles (500 km) long, taking several days to pass and containing up to a billion birds. Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) or Wild Pigeon was a species of pigeon that was once the most common bird in North America. ...


Other significant areas include stop-over sites between the wintering and breeding territories.[29] A capture-recapture study of passerine migrants with high fidelity for breeding and wintering sites did not show similar strict association with stop-over sites.[30]


Hunting along the migratory route can also take a heavy toll. The populations of Siberian Cranes that wintered in India declined due to hunting along the route, particularly in Afghanistan and Central Asia. Birds were last seen in their favourite wintering grounds in Keoladeo National Park in 2002.[31] Binomial name Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773 The Siberian Crane, Grus leucogeranus, also known as the Siberian White Crane or the Snow Crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Keoladeo National Park in Rajasthan, India is a famous avifauna sanctuary that sees thousands of rare and highly endangered birds such as the Siberian Crane come here during the winter season. ...


Structures such as power lines, wind farms and offshore oil-rigs have also been known to affect migratory birds.[32] Habitat destruction by land use changes is however the biggest threat and shallow wetlands which are stopover and wintering sites for migratory birds are particularly threatened by draining and reclamation for human use.


References

  1. ^ Dondini, G., Vergari, S. 2000 Carnivory in the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) in Italy. Journal of Zoology 251: 233-236.
  2. ^ Popa-Lisseanu, A. G., Delgado-Huertas, A., Forero, M. G., Rodriguez, A., Arlettaz, R. & Ibanez, C. 2007. Bats' conquest of a formidable foraging niche: the myriads of nocturnally migrating songbirds. PLoS ONE 2(2): e205. URL
  3. ^ Ibáñez, C., Juste, J., García-Mudarra, J. L., Agirre-Mendi, P. T. 2001. Bat predation on nocturnally migrating birds. PNAS 98:9700-9702. full article.
  4. ^ Chan K (2001) "Partial migration in Australian landbirds: a review" Emu 101 (4): 281-292)
  5. ^ Boland, J. M. 1990. Leapfrog migration in North American shorebirds: intra- and interspecific examples. The Condor. 92:284-290 [1]
  6. ^ Geroudet, P. 1954. Des oiseaux migrateurs trouves sur la glacier de Khumbu dans l'Himalaya. Nos Oiseaux 22: 254.
  7. ^ Swan, L. W. 1970. Goose of the Himalayas. Nat. Hist. 79(10): 68-75.
  8. ^ Dorst, J. 1963. The migration of birds. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 476 p.
  9. ^ Eastwood, E. and G. C. Rider. 1965. Some radar measurements of the altitude of bird flight. Br. Birds 58:
  10. ^ Williams, G. G. 1950. Weather and spring migration. Auk 67: 52-65
  11. ^ a b Lincoln, F. C. 1979 Migration of Birds. Fish and Wildlife Service. Circular 16. [2]
  12. ^ Schmaljohann, Heiko, Felix Liechti and Bruno Bruderer: Songbird migration across the Sahara: the non-stop hypothesis rejected! Proc Biol Sci. 2007 Mar 7;274(1610):735-739 "online first" DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2006.0011
  13. ^ Rattenborg, N.C., Mandt, B.H., Obermeyer, W.H., Winsauer, P.J., Huber, R.(2004) Migratory Sleeplessness in the White-Crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). PLoS Biol 2(7): e212 [3]
  14. ^ Helm B, Gwinner E (2006) Migratory Restlessness in an Equatorial Nonmigratory Bird. PLoS Biol 4(4): e110 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040110 [4]
  15. ^ Walraff, H. G. 2005. Avian Navigation: Pigeon Homing as a Paradigm. Springer.
  16. ^ Ketterson, E.D. and V. Nolan Jr. 1990. Site attachment and site fidelity in migratory birds: experimental evidence from the field and analogies from neurobiology. In: Bird Migration, E. Gwinner (ed.). Springer Verlag, p. 117-129 PDF
  17. ^ Thorup, Kasper, Thomas Alerstam, Mikael Hake and Nils Kjelle (2003)Compensation for wind drift in migrating raptors is age dependent. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (Suppl.) 270, S8–S11 DOI 10.1098/rsbl.2003.0014
  18. ^ Wiltschko, W., U. Munro, H. Ford & R. Wiltschko. (2006) "Bird navigation: what type of information does the magnetite-based receiver provide?" Proc. R. Soc. B. 273: 2815-20.
  19. ^ Heyers D, Manns M, Luksch H, Güntürkün O, Mouritsen H (2007) A Visual Pathway Links Brain Structures Active during Magnetic Compass Orientation in Migratory Birds. PLoS ONE 2(9): e937 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000937 PDF
  20. ^ Deutschlander, ME, Phillips, JB, Borland, SC 1999. The case for light-dependent magnetic orientation in animals J.Exp. Biol. 202:891-908 PDF
  21. ^ Operation migration
  22. ^ Laura Font, Geoff M. Nowell, D. Graham Pearson, Chris J. Ottley and Stephen G. Willis (2007). "Sr isotope analysis of bird feathers by TIMS: a tool to trace bird migration paths and breeding sites". J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 22. DOI: 10.1039/b616328a. 
  23. ^ Farnsworth, A., Gauthreaux, S.A., and van Blaricom, D. 2004. A comparison of nocturnal call counts of migrating birds and reflectivity measurements on Doppler radar. Journal of Avian Biology 35:365-369. [5]
  24. ^ Liechti, F. (1996) Instructions to count nocturnal bird migration by watching the full moon. Schweizerische Vogelwarte, CH-6204 Sempach, Switzerland.
  25. ^ Lowery, G.H. (1951) A quantitative study of the nocturnal migration of birds. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 3, 361-472
  26. ^ Emlen, S. T. and Emlen, J. T. (1966). A technique for recording migratory orientation of captive birds. Auk 83, 361–367.
  27. ^ Migratory bird Treaty 16 USC 703-711; 40 Stat. 755
  28. ^ African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement
  29. ^ Shimazaki, Hiroto; Masayuki Tamura and Hiroyoshi Higuchi (2004) Migration routes and important stopover sites of endangered oriental white storks (Ciconia boyciana) as revealed by satellite tracking. Mem. Natl Inst. Polar Res., Spec. Issue, 58:162–178 PDF
  30. ^ Catry, P., Encarnacao, V., Araujo, A., Fearon, P., Fearon, A., Armelin, M. & Delaloye, P. 2004. Are long-distance migrant passerines faithful to their stopover sites? Journal of Avian Biology, 35, 170–181.
  31. ^ Siberian Crane fact sheet
  32. ^ Fish and Wildlife Service- Bird Mortality Fact sheet

Proceedings of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London. ...

Further reading

  • Alerstam, T. (2001). Detours in bird migration. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 209, 319-331.PDF
  • Berthold, Peter (2001) Bird Migration: A General Survey. Second Edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850787-9
  • Dingle, Hugh. Migration: The Biology of Life on The Move. Oxford Univ. Press, 1996.
  • Weidensaul, Scott. Living On the Wind: Across the Hemisphere With Migratory Birds. Douglas & McIntyre, 1999.

External links

  • MIGRATE - Migration Interest Group: Research Applied Toward Education, USA
  • Trektellen.nl - Migration counts and ringing records The Netherlands, Belgium, Great Britain, France and Germany
  • Canadian Migration Monitoring Network (Co-ordinates bird migration monitoring stations across Canada)
  • Bird Research by Science Daily- includes several articles on bird migration
  • The Nature Conservancy's Migratory Bird Program
  • The Compasses of Birds - a review from the Science Creative Quarterly
  • BBC Supergoose - satellite tagging of light-bellied brent geese
  • Soaring with Fidel - follow the annual migration of ospreys from Cape Cod to Cuba to Venezuela
  • Birder's Journal: A Morning With Migrants Nationalgeographic.com
  • Bat predation on migrating birds

For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... External anatomy (topography) of a typical bird: 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast... It has been suggested that keel (bird) be merged into this article or section. ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Paleornithology is the scientific study of bird evolution and fossil birds. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... The Enantiornithes, or opposite birds (because their foot bones are fused differently than in modern birds), are an extinct group of flying birds. ... Families Enaliornithidae Baptornithidae Hesperornithidae Synonyms Odontornithes Marsh, 1873 (partim) Odontolcae Marsh, 1875 Gaviomorphae Cracraft, 1982 (partim) Hesperornithes are an extinct and highly specialized subclass of Cretaceous toothed birds. ... A bird hybrid is basically a bird that has two different species as parents. ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ... For a list of birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and (usually) known from specimens not completely fossilized, see Later Quaternary Prehistoric Birds. ... The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird taxonomy based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... Since 1500, over 100 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing. ... Blackbird (Turdus merula), singing male. ... Bird intelligence deals with the definition of intelligence and its measurement as it applies to birds. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ... A Common Cuckoo being raised by a Reed Warbler. ... Deep cup nest of the Great Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young. ... Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ... Genera Tinamus Nothocercus Crypturellus Rhynchotus Nothoprocta Nothura Taoniscus Eudromia Tinamotis The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Families Megapodidae Numididae Odontophoridae Phasianidae Meleagrididae Tetraonidae Cracidae Mesitornithidae The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. ... Global distribution of Gaviidae (breeding and winter ranges combined) Species Gavia stellata Gavia arctica Gavia pacifica Gavia immer Gavia adamsii The Loons (N.Am. ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Families Fregatidae Pelecanidae Sulidae Phalacrocoracidae Anhingidae Phaethontidae For prehistoric families, see article text. ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Species See text For other uses, see Flamingo (disambiguation). ... Families Accipitridae Pandionidae Falconidae Sagittariidae The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. ... Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... Genera Pterocles Syrrhaptes Sandgrouse is also the name of the journal of the Ornithological Society of the Middle East - see Sandgrouse (journal) The sandgrouse are a group of 16 near passerine bird species in the order Pteroclidiformes. ... Families Columbidae The bird order Columbiformes the includes the very widespread and successful doves and pigeons, classified in the family Columbidae, and the extinct Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire, long classified as a second family Raphidae. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... Families Musophagidae Cuculidae Opisthocomidae The near passerine bird order Cuculiformes traditionally included three families as below: Order Cuculiformes Family Musophagidae: turacos and allies Family Cuculidae: cuckoos Family Opisthocomidae: Hoatzin However, the taxonomy of this group is now controversial. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Families see text The Caprimulgiformes is an order of birds that includes a number of birds with global distribution (except Antarctica). ... Families Apodidae Hemiprocnidae Traditionally, the bird order Apodiformes contained three families: the swifts, Apodidae, the tree swifts, Hemiprocnidae, and the hummingbirds, Trochilidae. ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Brachypteraciidae Coraciidae Leptosomidae Meropidae Momotidae Todidae Bucerotidae Upupidae Phoeniculidae The Coraciiformes are a group of usually colourful near passerine birds including the kingfishers, the Hoopoe, the bee-eaters, the rollers, and the hornbills. ... Families Galbulidae Bucconidae Capitonidae Ramphastidae Picidae Indicatoridae For prehistoric taxa, see text Six families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. ... Genera Apaloderma Euptilotis Harpactes Pharomachrus Priotelus Trogon The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family, the Trogonidae. ... Genera Colius Urocolius The mousebirds are a small group of near passerine birds which have no clear affinities to other groups, and are therefore given order status. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... This page lists living orders and families of birds, class Aves (for extinct birds, please see Extinct birds and Prehistoric birds). ... // The following are the regional bird lists by continent. ... Bird ringing (also known as bird banding) is an aid to studying wild birds, by attaching a small individually numbered metal or plastic ring to their legs or wings, so that various aspects of the birds life can be studied by the ability to re-find the same individual... This article is about the field of zoology. ... Marbled Godwit, Limosa fedoa, prepared as a skin (shmoo), skeleton, and spread wing Bird collections are curated repositories of scientific specimens consisting of birds and their parts. ... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... The extinction of the Dusky Seaside Sparrow was caused by habitat loss. ... Aviculture is the practice of keeping and often breeding pet birds, generally companion parrots, and the culture that forms around it. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NPWRC :: Migration of Birds (3616 words)
The older birds may be accompanied by some of the young, but most of the immature birds leave their natal grounds later in summer after the adults and move southward through the interior of the country, returning in spring over essentially the same course.
Dog-leg migration patterns are characterized by a prominent bend in the route.
Because the Bobolink is a bird of damp meadows, it was originally cut off from the western states by the intervening arid Great Plains, but with the advent of irrigation and the bringing of large areas under cultivation, small colonies of nesting Bobolinks appeared at various western points.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Bird migration (3552 words)
Migratory birds may use two electromagnetic tools to find their destinations: one that is entirely innate and another that relies on experience.
Bird migration has been studied by a variety of techniques of which ringing is the oldest.
The orientation behaviour of the bird inside the cage is studied quantitatively using the distribution of marks that the bird leaves on the walls of the cage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m