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Encyclopedia > Bird
Birds
Fossil range: Late Jurassic - Recent
Superb Fairy-wren, Malurus cyaneus, juvenile
Superb Fairy-wren, Malurus cyaneus, juvenile
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Aves
Linnaeus, 1758
Orders

About two dozen - see section below Look up bird in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aves is Latin for bird and is universally used as the scientific classification of birds. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 843 KB) Summary From en. ... Binomial name Malurus cyaneus Latham, 1783 The Superb Fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) is the best-known of all fairy-wrens, and in south-eastern Australia is frequently known simply as the blue wren. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ...

Birds (class Aves) are bipedal, warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrate animals. Birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic period, and the earliest known bird is the Late Jurassic Archaeopteryx. Ranging in size from tiny hummingbirds to the huge Ostrich and Emu, there are around 10,000 known living bird species in the world, making them the most diverse class of terrestrial vertebrates. A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... Bipedalism is standing, or moving for example by walking, running, or hopping, on two appendages (typically legs). ... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in black. ... Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land, as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e. ...


Modern birds are characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. All birds have forelimbs modified as wings and most can fly, though the ratites and several others, particularly endemic island species, have lost the ability to fly. Birds also have unique digestive and respiratory systems that are highly adapted for flight. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... It has been suggested that keel (bird) be merged into this article or section. ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ... Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ... This article is a parent page for a series of articles providing information about endemism among birds in the Worlds various zoogeographic zones. ... The digestive system is the organ system that breaks down and absorbs nutrients that are essential for growth and maintenance. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ...


Many species of bird undertake long distance annual migrations, and many more perform shorter irregular movements. Birds are social and communicate using visual signals and through calls and song, and participate in social behaviours including cooperative hunting, cooperative breeding, flocking and mobbing of predators. Birds are primarily socially monogamous, with engagement in extra-pair copulations being common in some species—other species have polygamous or polyandrous breeding systems. Eggs are usually laid in a nest and incubated and most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching. Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys of varying distances undertaken by many species of birds. ... Blackbird (Turdus merula), singing male. ... Helpers at the nest is a term used in behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology to describe a social structure in which juveniles, of one or both sexes, remain in association with their parents and help them in raising subsequent broods or litters, instead of dispersing and beginning to reproduce themselves. ... Flocking is a common demonstration of emergence and emergent behaviour, invented in 1987 by Craig Reynolds with his simulation program, Boids. ... The Great Tit, a passerine bird, employs both mobbing behavior and alarm calls. ... Recent discoveries have led biologists to talk about the three varieties of monogamy: social monogamy, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy. ... Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ... The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ...


Birds are economically important to humans: many are important sources of food, acquired either through hunting or farming, and they provide other products. Some species, particularly songbirds and parrots, are popular as pets. Birds figure prominently in all aspects of human culture from religion to poetry and popular music. About 120–130 species have become extinct as a result of human activity since 1600, and hundreds more before this. Currently around 1,200 species of birds are threatened with extinction by human activities and efforts are underway to protect them. A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Oscines of Passeriformes (ca. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... // Swan Maiden- a mythical creature who shapeshifts from human form to swan form. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... The extinction of the Dusky Seaside Sparrow was caused by habitat loss. ...

Contents

Evolution and taxonomy

Main article: Bird evolution
Archaeopteryx, the earliest known bird
Archaeopteryx, the earliest known bird

The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume, Ornithologiae.[1] Carolus Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system still in use.[2] Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda.[3] Aves and a sister group, the order Crocodilia, together are the sole living members of the reptile clade Archosauria. Phylogenetically, Aves is commonly defined as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica.[4] Archaeopteryx, from the Kimmeridgian stage of the Late Jurassic (some 155–150 million years ago), is the earliest known bird under this definition. Others have defined Aves to include only the modern bird groups, excluding most groups known only from fossils,[5] in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs. Paleornithology is the scientific study of bird evolution and fossil birds. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1062x828, 173 KB) Summary Archaeopteryx bavarica, Paläontologisches Museum, München Photograph: Luidger (2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1062x828, 173 KB) Summary Archaeopteryx bavarica, Paläontologisches Museum, München Photograph: Luidger (2. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Francis Willughby (November 22, 1635 - July 3, 1672) was an English ornithologist and ichthyologist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... Linnaean taxonomy classifies living things into a hierarchy, originally starting with kingdoms. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... black: range of Crocodilia Families Gavialidae Alligatoridae Crocodylidae Crocodilia is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Groups Pterosauria Crocodylia (crocodiles) Dinosauria    Aves (birds) Archosaurs (Greek for ruling reptiles) are a group of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago). ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... The Kimmeridgian is a stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. ... Upper Jurassic (also known as Malm) was an epoch of the Jurassic geologic period. ...


Modern birds all sit within the subclass Neornithes, which is divided into two superorders, the Paleognathae (mostly flightless birds like ostriches), and the wildly diverse Neognathae, containing all other birds.[3] Depending on the taxonomic viewpoint, the number of species cited varies anywhere from 9,800[6] to 10,050[7] known living bird species in the world. In biology, a subclass is one level below a class. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Orders Lithornithiformes Ambiornithiformes Gansuiformes Paleocursornithiformes Dinornithiformes Aepyornithiformes Struthoniformes Rheiformes Casuariiformes Apterygiformes Tinamiformes The Paleognathae or paleognaths (old jaws) are one of the two living superorders of birds. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... Orders Anseriformes, waterfowl Galliformes, fowl Gaviiformes, loons Podicipediformes, grebes Procellariiformes, albatrosses, petrels, and allies Sphenisciformes, penguins Pelecaniformes, pelicans and allies Ciconiiformes, storks and allies Phoenicopteriformes, flamingos Accipitriformes, eagles, hawks and allies Falconiformes, falcons Turniciformes, button-quail Gruiformes, cranes and allies Charadriiformes, plovers and allies Pteroclidiformes, sandgrouse Columbiformes, doves and pigeons... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ...


Dinosaurs and the origin of birds

Main article: Origin of birds
Confuciusornis, a Cretaceous bird from China
Confuciusornis, a Cretaceous bird from China

There is significant evidence that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs, specifically, that birds are members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurs and oviraptorids, among others.[8] As more non-avian theropods that are closely related to birds are discovered, the formerly clear distinction between non-birds and birds becomes blurred. Recent discoveries in Liaoning Province of northeast China, demonstrating that many small theropod dinosaurs had feathers, contribute to this ambiguity.[9] A model of Archaeopteryx lithographica on display at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History The current scientific consensus holds that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 681 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (872 × 768 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Autor: Bleistiftzeichnung aus dem Jahr 2003 von Frederik Spindler. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 681 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (872 × 768 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Autor: Bleistiftzeichnung aus dem Jahr 2003 von Frederik Spindler. ... Species (type) Hou , 1999 (disputed) (disputed) Confuciusornis is a genus of crow-sized prehistoric bird from the Early Cretaceous of China, approximately 120 million years ago. ... A model of Archaeopteryx lithographica on display at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History The current scientific consensus holds that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... Orders Saurischia    Sauropodomorpha    Theropoda Ornithischia Dinosaurs are giant reptiles that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for most of their 165-million year existence. ... Subgroups Alvarezsauria Aves Deinonychosauria Oviraptorosauria Therizinosauria Maniraptora is a group used in biological classification to cover the birds and the dinosaurs that were related to them. ... Genera Achillobator Adasaurus Bambiraptor Cryptovolans Dromaeosaurus Deinonychus Gracilraptor Microraptor Pyroraptor Saurornitholestes Sinornithosaurus Utahraptor Variraptor Velociraptor Among the dinosaurs, the Dromaeosaurids or Dromaeosauridae (running lizards) were fast and agile dominant carnivores throughout the Cretaceous period. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as transitional fossils between birds and dinosaurs (see Dinosaur-bird connection). ...


The basal bird Archaeopteryx from the Jurassic era is well-known as one of the first transitional fossils to be found in support of evolution in the late 19th century, though it is not considered a direct ancestor of modern birds. Confuciusornis is another early bird; it lived in the Early Cretaceous. Protoavis texensis may be even older although the fragmentary nature of this fossil leaves it open to considerable doubt whether this was a bird ancestor.[10] Other Mesozoic birds include the Enantiornithes, Yanornis, Ichthyornis, Gansus and the Hesperornithiformes, a group of flightless divers resembling grebes and loons. Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... A transitional fossil or transitional form is the fossilized remains of a life form that illustrates an evolutionary transition. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Species (type) Hou , 1999 (disputed) (disputed) Confuciusornis is a genus of crow-sized prehistoric bird from the Early Cretaceous of China, approximately 120 million years ago. ... The Early Cretaceous (timestratigraphic name) or the Lower Cretaceous (logstratigraphic name), is the earlier of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous period. ... Binomial name Protoavis texensis Chatterjee, 1991 Protoavis texensis (First bird from Texas) is the name given to archosaurian fossil bones from the Late Triassic found near Post, Texas. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Enantiornithes, or opposite birds (because their foot bones are fused differently than in modern birds), are an extinct group of flying birds. ... Binomial name Z.H. Zhou & F.C. Zhang, 2001 Synonyms Archaeovolans repatriatus Czerkas & Xu 2002 Archaeoraptor liaoningensis (nomen nudum, partim) Yanornis was an Early Cretaceous bird, thought to be closely related to the common ancestor of all modern birds. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Gansus yumenensis Hou & Liu, 1984 Gansus is a genus of aquatic birds that lived during the Albian stage of the Early Cretaceous period (around 110 million years ago) in what is now Gansu province, western China. ... Families Hesperornithidae Hesperornithiformes are an extinct and highly specialized order of Cretaceous toothed birds. ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Global distribution of Gaviidae (breeding and winter ranges combined) Species Gavia stellata Gavia arctica Gavia pacifica Gavia immer Gavia adamsii The Loons (N.Am. ...


The dromaeosaurids Cryptovolans and Microraptor may have been capable of powered flight to an extent similar to or greater than that of Archaeopteryx. Cryptovolans had a sternal keel and had ribs with uncinate processes. In fact, Cryptovolans makes a better "bird" than Archaeopteryx which is missing some of these modern bird features. Because of this, some palaeontologists have suggested that dromaeosaurs are actually basal birds, and that the larger members of the family are secondarily flightless, i.e. that dromaeosaurs evolved from birds and not the other way around.[11] Evidence for this theory is currently inconclusive, as the exact relationship among the most advanced maniraptoran dinosaurs and the most primitive true birds are not well understood. Genera Achillobator Adasaurus Bambiraptor Cryptovolans Dromaeosaurus Deinonychus Gracilraptor Microraptor Pyroraptor Saurornitholestes Sinornithosaurus Utahraptor Variraptor Velociraptor Among the dinosaurs, the Dromaeosaurids or Dromaeosauridae (running lizards) were fast and agile dominant carnivores throughout the Cretaceous period. ... Cryptovolans pauli is a 90 cm long feathered dromaeosaurid dinosaur recently discovered in the Jiufotang site, China. ... Species (type) Xu et al, 2003 Microraptor (small thief) is a genus of small, dromaeosaurid dinosaur known from well-preserved fossil remains recovered from Liaoning, China, and dating from the early Cretaceous Period (Barremian stage), 130-125. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into bird skeleton. ... An uncinate process is a hook shaped process on the lateral borders of the superior surface of the bodies of C3-C6 (T1). ...


Although ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaurs share the hip structure of birds, birds actually originated from the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs, and thus evolved their hip structure independently.[12] In fact, the bird-like hip structure also developed a third time among a peculiar group of theropods, the Therizinosauridae. Suborders Thyreophora Cerapoda    Ornithopoda    Marginocephalia Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... Genera Alxasaurus elesitaiensis Chilantaisaurus zheziangensis Enigmosaurus mongoliensis Erlikosaurus andrewsi Nanshiungosaurus brevispinus Nanshiungosaurus bohlini Nothronychus mckinleyi Segnosaurus galbinensis Therizinosaurus cheloniformis Falcarius utahensis Therizinosauridae is a family of dinosaur species with related characteristics, belonging to the more including group of the Therizinosauroidea. ...


An alternate theory to the dinosaurian origin of birds, espoused by a few scientists (most notably Larry Martin and Alan Feduccia), states that birds (including maniraptoran "dinosaurs") evolved from early archosaurs like Longisquama,[13] a theory which is contested by most palaeontologists and evidence based on feather development and evolution.[14] Larry Martin (born 1943) is an American vertebrate paleontologist and curator curator of the Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center at the University of Kansas. ... Alan Feduccia is a paleornithologist, specializing in the origins and phylogeny of birds. ... Subgroups Alvarezsauria Aves Deinonychosauria Oviraptorosauria Therizinosauria Maniraptora is a group used in biological classification to cover the birds and the dinosaurs that were related to them. ... Clades Crurotarsi Aetosauria Crocodilia (crocodiles) Phytosauria Rauisuchia Ornithodira Aves (birds) Dinosauria Pterosauria Archosaurs (Greek for ruling lizards) are a group of diapsid reptiles that is represented today by birds and crocodiles and which also included the dinosaurs. ... Binomial name Sharov, 1970 Longisquama insignis is a poorly preserved and incomplete fossil of a small lizard-like reptile which lived during the early Triassic Period, 240 million years ago, in what is now Kyrgyzstan. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ...


Early evolution of birds

See also: Fossil birds
 
Aves 

Archaeopteryx For a list of birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and (usually) known from specimens not completely fossilized, see Later Quaternary Prehistoric Birds. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ...


 Pygostylia 

Confuciusornithidae Species (type) Hou , 1999 (disputed) (disputed) Confuciusornis is a genus of crow-sized prehistoric bird from the Early Cretaceous of China, approximately 120 million years ago. ...


 Ornithothoraces 

Enantiornithes The Enantiornithes, or opposite birds (because their foot bones are fused differently than in modern birds), are an extinct group of flying birds. ...


 Ornithurae 

Hesperornithiformes Families Hesperornithidae Hesperornithiformes are an extinct and highly specialized order of Cretaceous toothed birds. ...



Neornithes Orders Many - see section below. ...






Basal bird phylogeny simplified after Chiappe, 2007[15]

During the Cretaceous Period, birds diversified into a wide variety of forms.[15] Many of these groups retained primitive characteristics, such as clawed wings and teeth, though the latter was lost independently in a number of bird groups, including modern birds (Neornithes). While the earliest birds retained the long bony tails of their ancestors (birds such as Archaeopteryx and Jeholornis),[15] more advanced birds shortened the tail with the advent of the pygostyle bone in the clade Pygostylia. The Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period (about 135 mya) to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65 mya). ... A symplesiomorphy or symplesiomorphic character is in cladistics a trait which is shared (a symmorphy) between two or more taxa, but which is also shared with other taxa which have an earlier last common ancestor with the taxa under consideration. ... Superorders Paleognathae Neognathae Modern birds (subclass Neornithes) are the members of class Aves that have survived into recent times and have coexisted with humans. ... Binomial name Shenzhouraptor sinensis Ji, Ji, You, J. Zhang, Yuan, X. Ji, J. Li & Y. Li, 2002 Synonyms see text Shenzhouraptor (or Jeholornis Zhou & F. C. Zhang, 2002) is the name given to a genus of primitive bird found in the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Hebei, China. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into bird skeleton. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...


The first large, diverse lineage of short-tailed birds to evolve were the Enantiornithes, or "opposite birds", so named because the construction of their shoulder bones was the reverse of the condition seen in modern birds. Enantirornithes occupied a wide array of ecological niches, from sand-probing shorebirds and fish-eaters to tree-dwelling forms and seed-eaters.[15] More advanced lineages also specialized in eating fish, like the superficially gull-like subclass of Ichthyornithes ("fish birds").[16] One order of Mesozoic seabirds, the Hesperornithiformes, became so well adapted to hunting fish in marine environments that they lost the ability to fly and became primarily aquatic. Despite their extreme specializations, the Hesperornithiformes represent some of the closest relatives of modern birds.[15] The Enantiornithes, or opposite birds (because their foot bones are fused differently than in modern birds), are an extinct group of flying birds. ... “Seagull” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Ichthyornis dispar be merged into this article or section. ... Families Hesperornithidae Hesperornithiformes are an extinct and highly specialized order of Cretaceous toothed birds. ...


Radiation of modern birds

See also: Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy and dinosaur classification

Modern birds are classified in the subclass Neornithes, which are now known to have evolved into some basic lineages by the end of the Cretaceous (see Vegavis).[17] The Neornithes are split into the Paleognathae and Neognathae. The paleognaths include the tinamous of Central and South America and the ratites. The ratites are large flightless birds, and include ostriches, rheas, cassowaries, kiwis and emus (though some scientists suspect that the ratites represent an artificial grouping of birds which have independently lost the ability to fly in a number of unrelated lineages).[18] The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird taxonomy based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... Dinosaur classification began in 1842 when Sir Richard Owen placed Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, and Hylaeosaurus in a distinct tribe or suborder of Saurian Reptiles, for which I would propose the name of Dinosauria. ... Vegavis is a recently discovered genus of extinct birds that lived during the Cretaceous period. ... Orders Lithornithiformes Ambiornithiformes Gansuiformes Paleocursornithiformes Dinornithiformes Aepyornithiformes Struthoniformes Rheiformes Casuariiformes Apterygiformes Tinamiformes The Paleognathae or paleognaths (old jaws) are one of the two living superorders of birds. ... Orders Anseriformes, waterfowl Galliformes, fowl Gaviiformes, loons Podicipediformes, grebes Procellariiformes, albatrosses, petrels, and allies Sphenisciformes, penguins Pelecaniformes, pelicans and allies Ciconiiformes, storks and allies Phoenicopteriformes, flamingos Accipitriformes, eagles, hawks and allies Falconiformes, falcons Turniciformes, button-quail Gruiformes, cranes and allies Charadriiformes, plovers and allies Pteroclidiformes, sandgrouse Columbiformes, doves and pigeons... Genera Tinamus Nothocercus Crypturellus Rhynchotus Nothoprocta Nothura Taoniscus Eudromia Tinamotis The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... Species Casuarius casuarius Casuarius unappendiculatus Casuarius bennetti Cassowaries (genus Casuarius) are very large flightless birds native to the tropical forests of New Guinea and northeastern Australia. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in black. ...


The basal divergence from the remaining Neognathes was that the Galloanserae, the superorder containing the Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans and screamers), and the Galliformes (the pheasants, grouse, and their allies, together with the mound builders, and the guans and their allies). The dates for the splits are much debated by scientists.[citation needed] It is agreed that the Neornithes evolved in the Cretaceous and that the split between the Galloanseri from other Neognathes occurred before the K-T extinction event, but there are different opinions about whether the radiation of the remaining Neognathes occurred before or after the extinction of the other dinosaurs.[19] This disagreement is in part caused by a divergence in the evidence, with molecular dating suggesting a Cretaceous radiation and fossil evidence supporting a Tertiary radiation. Attempts to reconcile the molecular and fossil evidence have proved controversial.[19][20] Orders Galliformes Anseriformes Fowl is a term for certain birds often used as food by humans. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... “Geese” redirects here. ... Species 6-7 living, see text. ... Genera Anhima Chauna The Screamers are a small family of birds, the Anhimidae. ... Families Megapodidae Numididae Odontophoridae Phasianidae Meleagrididae Tetraonidae Cracidae Mesitornithidae The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. ... Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... Genera Tetrao Lagopus Falcipennis Centrocercus Bonasa Dendrapagus Tympanuchus Grouse are from the order Galliformes which inhabit temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. ... Genera Megapodius Macrocephalon Leipoa Talegalla Aepypodius Alectura The mound-builders, also known as incubator birds or megapodes, are stocky, medium-large chicken-like birds with small heads and large feet in the family Megapodiidae. ... Guan(ch 關, 関, 关) is a Chinese family name rendered in Cantonese as Kwan. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ...


The classification of birds is a contentious issue. Sibley and Ahlquist's Phylogeny and Classification of Birds (1990) is a landmark work on the classification of birds, although frequently debated and constantly revised. A preponderance of evidence seems to suggest that the modern bird orders constitute accurate taxa.[citation needed] But scientists disagree about the relationships between orders; evidence from modern bird anatomy, fossils and DNA have all been brought to bear on the problem but no strong consensus has emerged. More recently, new fossil and molecular evidence is providing an increasingly clear picture of the evolution of modern bird orders. Charles Sibley (August 7, 1917 - April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist. ... Jon Edward Ahlquist specialized in molecular phylogenetics and ornithology, collaborating extensively with Charles Sibley, primarily at Yale University. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...


Modern bird orders

 
Neornithes  
Paleognathae 

Struthioniformes Orders Lithornithiformes Ambiornithiformes Gansuiformes Paleocursornithiformes Dinornithiformes Aepyornithiformes Struthoniformes Rheiformes Casuariiformes Apterygiformes Tinamiformes The Paleognathae or paleognaths (old jaws) are one of the two living superorders of birds. ... Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ...



Tinamiformes Genera The Tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ...



 Neognathae 
 

Other birds Orders Anseriformes, waterfowl Galliformes, fowl Gaviiformes, loons Podicipediformes, grebes Procellariiformes, albatrosses, petrels, and allies Sphenisciformes, penguins Pelecaniformes, pelicans and allies Ciconiiformes, storks and allies Phoenicopteriformes, flamingos Accipitriformes, eagles, hawks and allies Falconiformes, falcons Turniciformes, button-quail Gruiformes, cranes and allies Charadriiformes, plovers and allies Pteroclidiformes, sandgrouse Columbiformes, doves and pigeons...


Galloanserae 

Anseriformes Orders Galliformes Anseriformes Fowl is a term for certain birds often used as food by humans. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ...



Galliformes Families Megapodidae Numididae Odontophoridae Phasianidae Meleagrididae Tetraonidae Cracidae Mesitornithidae The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. ...





Basal divergences of modern birds
based on Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy

This is a list of the taxonomic orders in the subclass Neornithes, or modern birds. This is the traditional classification (the so-called Clements order), revised by the Sibley-Monroe classification. The list of birds gives a more detailed summary of the orders, including families. The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird taxonomy based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... Dr. James Franklin (Jim) Clements (October 31, 1927-June 9, 2005) was an ornithologist and author. ... This page lists living orders and families of birds, class Aves (for extinct birds, please see Extinct birds and Prehistoric birds). ...


Subclass Neornithes
Paleognathae: Orders Lithornithiformes Ambiornithiformes Gansuiformes Paleocursornithiformes Dinornithiformes Aepyornithiformes Struthoniformes Rheiformes Casuariiformes Apterygiformes Tinamiformes The Paleognathae or paleognaths (old jaws) are one of the two living superorders of birds. ...

Neognathae: Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in black. ... Species See text. ... Genera The Tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ... Genera Tinamus Nothocercus Crypturellus Rhynchotus Nothoprocta Nothura Taoniscus Eudromia Tinamotis The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ... Orders Anseriformes, waterfowl Galliformes, fowl Gaviiformes, loons Podicipediformes, grebes Procellariiformes, albatrosses, petrels, and allies Sphenisciformes, penguins Pelecaniformes, pelicans and allies Ciconiiformes, storks and allies Phoenicopteriformes, flamingos Accipitriformes, eagles, hawks and allies Falconiformes, falcons Turniciformes, button-quail Gruiformes, cranes and allies Charadriiformes, plovers and allies Pteroclidiformes, sandgrouse Columbiformes, doves and pigeons...

The radically different Sibley-Monroe classification (Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy) based on molecular data became quite influential, as recent molecular, fossil and anatomical evidence supported the Galloanserae.[19] By 2006, increasing evidence made it possible to verify the major proposals of the taxonomy. For example, see Charadriiformes, Gruiformes or Caprimulgiformes. Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Families Megapodidae Numididae Odontophoridae Phasianidae Meleagrididae Tetraonidae Cracidae Mesitornithidae The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. ... Species Gavia stellata Gavia arctica Gavia pacifica Gavia immer Gavia adamsii For other meanings of diver, also see diving. ... Global distribution of Gaviidae (breeding and winter ranges combined) Species Gavia stellata Gavia arctica Gavia pacifica Gavia immer Gavia adamsii The Loons (N.Am. ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Genera Diomedea Thalassarche Phoebastria Phoebetria Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). ... The petrels are seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. ... This article is about penguin birds. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Families Fregatidae Pelecanidae Sulidae Phalacrocoracidae Anhingidae Phaethontidae For prehistoric families, see article text. ... For other uses, see Pelican (disambiguation). ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... For other uses, see Stork (disambiguation). ... For the American doo-wop group, best known for I Only Have Eyes for You (1959), see The Flamingos. ... Flamingos ( ) are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus and family Phoenicopteridae. ... Families Accipitridae Pandionidae Falconidae Sagittariidae The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. ... Falcons eat humans. ... Genera Several, see below. ... Genera Accipiter Micronisus Melierax Urotriorchis Erythrotriorchis The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three senses: Strictly, to mean any of the species in the bird sub-family Accipitrinae in the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis, and Megatriorchis. ... Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... “Seagull” redirects here. ... The buttonquails or hemipodes are a small family of birds which resemble, but are unrelated to, the true quails. ... Genera Pterocles Syrrhaptes The sandgrouse are a group of 16 near passerine bird species in the order Pteroclidiformes. ... Families Columbidae The bird order Columbiformes the includes the very widespread and successful doves and pigeons, classified in the family Columbidae, and the extinct Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire, long classified as a second family Raphidae. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... Families Musophagidae Cuculidae Opisthocomidae The near passerine bird order Cuculiformes traditionally included three families as below: Order Cuculiformes Family Musophagidae: turacos and allies Family Cuculidae: cuckoos Family Opisthocomidae: Hoatzin However, the taxonomy of this group is now controversial. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Corythaeola Tauraco Ruwenzorornis Musophaga Corythaixoides Crinifer The turacos, plantain eaters and go-away birds make up the bird family Musophagidae (literally banana-eaters). ... Binomial name Ophisthocomus hoazin (Muller, 1776) The Hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) is an odd species of tropical bird which is found in the swamps associated with the Amazon and Orinoco rivers of South America. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Families Steatornithidae Podargidae Aegothelidae Nyctibiidae Caprimulgidae The Caprimulgiformes is an order of birds that includes the cosmopolitan nightjars, the frogmouths of Australasia and Southeast Asia, the South American potoos and Oilbird, and the Australasian owlet-nightjars. ... “Goatsucker” redirects here. ... Families Apodidae Hemiprocnidae Traditionally, the bird order Apodiformes contained three families: the swifts, Apodidae, the tree swifts, Hemiprocnidae, and the hummingbirds, Trochilidae. ... For other uses, see Swift (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Brachypteraciidae Coraciidae Leptosomidae Meropidae Momotidae Todidae Bucerotidae Upupidae Phoeniculidae The Coraciiformes are a group of usually colourful near passerine birds including the kingfishers, the Hoopoe, the bee-eaters, the rollers, and the hornbills. ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Kingfishers are birds of the three families Alcedinidae (river kingfishers), Halcyonidae (tree kingfishers), and Cerylidae (water kingfishers). ... Families Galbulidae Bucconidae Capitonidae Ramphastidae Picidae Indicatoridae For prehistoric taxa, see text Six families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. ... Genera Melanerpes Sphyrapicus Xiphidiopicus Dendropicos Dendrocopos Picoides Veniliornis Campethera Geocolaptes Dinopium Meiglyptes Hemicircus Micropternus Picus Mulleripicus Dryocopus Celeus Piculus Colaptes Campephilus Chrysocolaptes Reinwardtipicus Blythipicus Gecinulus Sapheopipo For other uses, see Woodpecker (disambiguation). ... Genera Apaloderma Euptilotis Harpactes Pharomachrus Priotelus Trogon Ref: ITIS 178094 2002-10-06 The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes. ... Genera Apaloderma Euptilotis Harpactes Pharomachrus Priotelus Trogon The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family, the Trogonidae. ... Genera Colius Urocolius The mousebirds are a small group of near passerine birds which have no clear affinities to other groups, and are therefore given order status. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird taxonomy based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... Orders Galliformes Anseriformes Fowl is a term for certain birds often used as food by humans. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Families Steatornithidae Podargidae Aegothelidae Nyctibiidae Caprimulgidae The Caprimulgiformes is an order of birds that includes the cosmopolitan nightjars, the frogmouths of Australasia and Southeast Asia, the South American potoos and Oilbird, and the Australasian owlet-nightjars. ...


Distribution

The range of the House Sparrow has expanded dramatically due to human activities.
The range of the House Sparrow has expanded dramatically due to human activities.[21]

Birds breed on all seven continents, with the highest diversity occurring in tropical regions; this may be due either to higher speciation rates in the tropics or to higher extinction rates at higher latitudes.[22] They are able to live and feed in most of the world's terrestrial habitats, reaching their southern extreme in the Snow Petrel's breeding colonies, found as far as 440 kilometres (270 mi) inland in Antarctica.[23] Several families of birds have adapted to life both on the world's oceans and in them, with some seabird species coming ashore only to breed[24] and some penguins recorded diving as deeply as 300 metres (980 ft).[25] Many species have established naturalised breeding populations in areas to which they have been introduced by humans. Some of these introductions have been deliberate; the Ring-necked Pheasant, for example, has been introduced around the world as a game bird.[26] Others are accidental, such as the Monk Parakeets that have escaped from captivity and established breeding colonies in a number of North American cities.[27] Some species, including the Cattle Egret,[28] Yellow-headed Caracara[29] and Galah,[30] have spread naturally far beyond their original ranges as agricultural practices created suitable new habitat. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 282 KB) Female House Sparrow, Bairnsdale Australia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 282 KB) Female House Sparrow, Bairnsdale Australia. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a member of the Old World sparrow family Passeridae. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pagodroma nivea (G. Forster, 1777) The Snow Petrel (Pagodroma nivea) is a small, pure white fulmarine petrel with black underdown, coal-black eyes, small black bill and bluish gray feet. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... In biology the adjective alien, as in alien species, means that the normal locale is somewhere else, that a species or specimen exceptionally has been established in the area in question. ... Binomial name Phasianus colchicus Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... Game is any animal hunted for food. ... Binomial name (Boddaert, 1783) The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus), also known as the Quaker Parrot, is a species of parrot that originated in the temperate areas of Argentina and Brazil in South America. ... Binomial name Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus, 1758 The Cattle Egret, (Bubulcus ibis), is a small white heron. ... Binomial name Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816) The Yellow-headed Caracara, Milvago chimachima, is a bird of prey in the family Falconidae. ... This article is about the bird species. ... Avian Range Expansion describes how birds expand their habitat. ... Agriculture (encompassing farming, grazing, and the tending of orchards, vineyards and timberland) is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. ...


Anatomy

Main article: Bird anatomy
External anatomy of a bird: 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Median coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast, 21 Throat, 22 Wattle
External anatomy of a bird: 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Median coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast, 21 Throat, 22 Wattle

Compared with other vertebrates, birds have a body plan that shows many unusual adaptations, mostly to facilitate flight. External anatomy of a typical bird 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast, 21... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ...


The skeleton consists of bones which are very light. They have large pneumatic (air-filled) cavities which connect with the respiratory system.[31] The skull bones are fused and do not show cranial sutures.[32] The orbits are large and separated by a bony septum. The spine has cervical, thoracic, lumbar and caudal regions with the number of cervical (neck) vertebrae highly variable and especially flexible, but movement is reduced in the anterior thoracic vertebrae and absent in the later vertebrae.[33] The last few are fused with the pelvis to form the synsacrum.[32] The ribs are flattened and the sternum is keeled for the attachment of flight muscles, except in the flightless bird orders. The forelimbs are modified into the wings.[34] The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... Side view of the skull. ... In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated. ... Look up septum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... The pelvis (pl. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ...


Like the reptiles, birds are primarily uricotelic, that is their kidneys extract nitrogenous wastes from their bloodstream and excrete it as uric acid instead of urea or ammonia. The uric acid is excreted along with feces as a semisolid waste and they do not have a separate urinary bladder or opening.[35][36] Some birds such as hummingbirds however can be facultatively ammonotelic, excreting most of the nitrogenous wastes as ammonia.[37] They also excrete creatine rather than creatinine as in mammals.[32] This material, as well as the output of the intestines, emerges from the bird's cloaca.[38][39] The cloaca is a multi-purpose opening: their wastes are expelled through it, they mate by joining cloaca, and females lay eggs out of it. In addition, many species of birds regurgitate pellets.[40] The digestive system of the bird is unique, with a crop for storage and a gizzard that contains swallowed stones for grinding food, given the lack of teeth.[41] Most are highly adapted for rapid digestion, an adaptation to flight.[42] Some migratory birds have the additional ability to reduce parts of the intestines prior to migration.[43] Reptilia redirects here. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that naturally occurs in vertebrates and helps to supply energy to muscle and nerve cells. ... Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). ... In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ... External anatomy of a typical bird 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast, 21... A pellet, in ornithology, is the mass of undigested parts of a birds food that some bird species occasionally regurgitate. ... The digestive system is the organ system that breaks down and absorbs nutrients that are essential for growth and maintenance. ... The crop is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion that is found in many animals, including earthworms, leeches, insects, and birds. ... The gizzard is an adapted stomach that is found in birds, earthworms, and other animals. ...


Birds have one of the most complex respiratory systems of all animal groups.[32] When a bird inhales, 75% of the fresh air bypasses the lungs and flows directly into a posterior air sac which extends from the lungs and connects with air spaces in the bones and fills them with air. The other 25% of the air goes directly into the lungs. When the bird exhales, the used air flows out of the lung and the stored fresh air from the posterior air sac is simultaneously forced into the lungs. Thus, a bird's lungs receive a constant supply of fresh air during both inhalation and exhalation.[44] Sound production is achieved using the syrinx, a muscular chamber with several tympanic membranes, situated at the lower end of the trachea where it bifurcates.[45] The bird's heart has four chambers and the right aortic arch gives rise to systemic aorta (unlike in the mammals where the left arch is involved).[32] The postcava receives blood from the limbs via the renal portal system. Birds, unlike mammals, have nucleated erythrocytes, that is, red blood cells which retain a nucleus.[46] The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... Air sac is an anatomical term with several meanings: Pulmonary alveolus, informally known as an air sac, one of innumerable spherical outcroppings of the respiratory bronchioles in the mammalian lung, the primary sites of gas exchange with the blood an anatomical structure continuous with the trachea found in some insects... Syrinx is the name for the vocal cords of birds. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ...


The nervous system is large relative to the bird's size.[32] The most developed part of the brain is the one that controls the flight related function while the cerebellum coordinates movement and the cerebrum controls behaviour patterns, navigation, mating and nest building. Most birds have a poor sense of smell with notable exceptions including kiwis,[47] vultures[48] and the tubenoses.[49] The visual system is usually highly developed. Water birds have special flexible lenses, allowing accommodation for vision in air and water.[32] Some species also have dual fovea. Birds are tetrachromatic, possessing ultraviolet cone cells in the eye as well as green, red and blue ones.[50] This allows them to perceive ultraviolet light; which is used in courtship. Many birds show plumage patterns in ultraviolet that are invisible to the human eye; so that some birds, whose sexes appear similar are distinguished by the presence of ultraviolet reflective patches of feathers. Male Blue Tits have an ultraviolet reflective crown patch which is displayed in courtship by posturing and raising of their nape feathers.[51] Ultraviolet light is also used in foraging—kestrels have been shown to search for prey by detecting the UV reflective urine trail marks left on the ground by rodents.[52] The eyelids of a bird are not used in blinking, instead the eye is lubricated by the nictitating membrane, the third eyelid that moves horizontally.[53] The nictitating membrane also covers the eye and acts as a contact lens in many aquatic birds.[32] The bird retina has a fan shaped blood supply system called the pecten.[32] Most birds cannot move their eyes, although there are exceptions, like the Great Cormorant.[54] Birds with eyes on the sides of their heads have a wide visual field while birds with eyes on the front of their heads like owls have binocular vision and can estimate field depth.[55] The avian ear lacks external pinnae but is covered by feathers, although in some birds (the Asio, Bubo and Otus owls, for example) these feathers form tufts which resemble ears. The inner ear has a cochlea but it is not spiral as in mammals.[56] The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... For other articles about other subjects named brain see brain (disambiguation). ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... Species See text. ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... The fovea, a part of the eye, is a spot located in the center of the macula. ... A tetrachromat is an organism for which the perceptual effect of any arbitrarily chosen light from its visible spectrum can be matched by a mixture of no more than four different pure spectral lights. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Normalised absorption spectra of human cone (S,M,L) and rod (R) cells Cone cells, or cones, are cells in the retina of the eye which only function in relatively bright light. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Parus caeruleus Linnaeus, 1758 The Blue Tit Parus caeruleus (syn. ... The name kestrel is given to several different members of the falcon genus, Falco. ... Many species of land animals have a nictitating membrane, which can move across the eyeball to give the sensitive eye structures additional protection in particular circumstances. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... The pecten is a structure in bird retinas which contains most of the vasculature. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), known in Australia as the Black Cormorant, is a widespread member of the cormorant family of seabirds. ... The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... Juzzah is a loser Boom, Headshot Bergamin and Gerald died The pinna (Latin for feather) is the visible part of the ear that resides outside of the head. ... ASIO is an acronym for: The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Audio stream input output, a protocol for low-latency digital audio specified by Steinberg See also Asio (disambiguation) This page about a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Species 17, see text The horned owls are a genus (Bubo) of 17 species of typical owls which are found in many parts of the world. ... Species many, see species list The scops owls, known as screech owls in the Americas are small owls in the genus Otus of the typical owl family Strigidae. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... The cochlea is the auditory portion of the inner ear. ...


Some birds use chemical defenses against predators. Some Procellariiformes can eject an unpleasant oil against an aggressor,[57] and some species of pitohui, found in New Guinea, secrete a powerful neurotoxin in their skin and feathers.[58] Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Stomach oil is the light oil composed of neutral dietary lipids found in the fore-gut or proventriculus of birds in the order Procellariiformes. ... Genus Pitohui Lesson, 1830 The Pitohuis are a genus of birds, endemic to New Guinea, belonging to the family Pachycephalidae. ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ...


Feathers and plumage

Main articles: Feather and Flight feather
The plumage of the African Scops Owl allows it to blend in with its surroundings.
The plumage of the African Scops Owl allows it to blend in with its surroundings.

The one characteristic that distinguishes birds from all other living groups is the covering of feathers. Feathers are epidermal growths attached to the skin that serve a variety of functions to birds: they aid in thermoregulation by insulating birds from cold weather and water, they are essential to bird flight, and they are also used in display, camouflage and signalling.[32] There are several different types of feather that serve different purposes. Feathers need maintenance, and birds preen or groom their feathers daily (they around 9.2% of their daily time budget on this),[59] using their bills to brush away foreign particles, and applying waxy secretions from the uropygial gland, which protects feather flexibility and also acts as an anti-microbial agent, inhibiting the growth of feather-degrading bacteria.[60] This may be supplemented with the secretions of formic acid from ants, which birds apply in a behaviour known as anting in order to remove feather parasites.[61] Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Red Kite (Milvus milvus) in flight, showing remiges and rectrices. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 399 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bird African Scops... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 399 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bird African Scops... Binomial name Otus senegalensis (Linnaeus, 1766) The African Scops Owl (Otus senegalensis) is a small owl endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... The uropygial gland, or, more informally, the preen gland is a gland found in the large majority of birds that secretes an oil (preen oil) that birds use for preening. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Anting is when birds rub insects on their feathers, usually ants that secrete liquids containing chemicals such as formic acid, that can act as an insecticide, miticide, fungicide, or bactericide. ...


The arrangement and appearance of feathers on the body is known as plumage. Within species plumage can vary with age, social status,[citation needed] with higher ranked individuals displaying their status, or most commonly by sex.[citation needed] Plumage is regularly moulted, the standard plumage of a bird that has moulted after breeding is known as the non-breeding plumage, or in the Humphrey-Parkes terminology, 'basic plumage'; breeding plumages or variations of the basic plumage are known under the Humphrey-Parkes system as 'alternate plumages'.[62] Moult is annual in most species[citation needed] but some species may have two moults a year,[citation needed] while large birds of prey may moult once in two or three years.[citation needed] Ducks and geese moult their primaries and secondaries simultaneously and become flightless for about a month.[63] Different groups of birds have different moulting patterns and strategies. Some drop the feathers starting sequentially from outward-in [clarify] while others replace feathers inwards-out [clarify] and the rare others lose all their feathers at once.[citation needed] The first or centripetal moult as termed for the moult of tail feathers is seen for instance in the Phasianidae.[citation needed] The second or centrifugal moult is seen for instance in the tail feathers of the woodpeckers and treecreepers,[citation needed] although it begins with the second innermost pair of tail-feathers and the central pair of feathers is molted last, so as to permits the continuous presence of a functional climbing tail.[64] The general pattern seen in the passerines is that the primaries are replaced outward, secondaries inward, and the tail from center outward.[citation needed] Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... In animals, moulting (Commonwealth English) or molting (American English) is the routine shedding off old feathers in birds, or of old skin in reptiles, or of old hairs in mammals (see also coat (dog)). In arthropods, such as insects, arachnids and crustaceans, moulting describes the shedding of its exoskeleton (which... Red Kite (Milvus milvus) in flight, showing remiges and rectrices. ... The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of the pheasants and their allies. ... Genera Melanerpes Sphyrapicus Xiphidiopicus Dendropicos Dendrocopos Picoides Veniliornis Campethera Geocolaptes Dinopium Meiglyptes Hemicircus Micropternus Picus Mulleripicus Dryocopus Celeus Piculus Colaptes Campephilus Chrysocolaptes Reinwardtipicus Blythipicus Gecinulus Sapheopipo For other uses, see Woodpecker (disambiguation). ... Species C. familiaris C. brachydactyla C. americana C. himalayana C. nipalensis C. discolor The treecreepers are a group of very similar small passerines found throughout the Northern hemisphere. ...


Feathers do not arise from all parts of the bird skin but grow in specific tracts or pterylae. The distribution pattern of these feather tracts or pterylosis is used in taxonomy and systematics. Prior to nesting, the females of most bird species gain a bare brood patch by loss of feathers close to the belly. The skin here is well supplied with blood vessels and helps in incubation.[65]


Flight

Main article: Bird flight

Flight characterises most birds, and distinguishes them from almost all other vertebrates with the exception of mammalian bats and the extinct pterosaurs. As the main means of locomotion for most bird species, flight is used for breeding, feeding, and predator avoidance and escape. Birds have a variety of adaptations to flight, including a lightweight skeleton, two large flight muscles, the pectoralis (which accounts for 15% of the total mass of the bird) and the supercoracoideus and a modified forelimb (the wing) serving as an aerofoil.[32] Wing shape and size primarily determines the type of flight each species is capable of. Many birds combine powered or flapping flight with less energy intensive soaring flight. About 60 species of extant birds are flightless, and many extinct birds were also flightless.[66] Flightlessness often arises in birds on isolated islands, probably due to the lack of land predators and limited resources, which rewards the loss of costly unnecessary adaptations.[67] Penguins, while flightless, use similar musculature and movements to "fly" through the water, as do auks, shearwaters and dippers.[68] Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ... A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Suborders Rhamphorhynchoidea Pterodactyloidea Pterosaurs (TEH-row-sore, winged lizards) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... For other uses, see Wing (disambiguation). ... An airfoil (or aerofoil in British English) is a specially shaped cross-section of a wing or blade, used to provide lift or downforce, depending on its application. ... Look up soar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... Genera Uria Alle Alca Pinguinus Synthliboramphus Cepphus Brachyramphus Ptychoramphus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula Extinct genera, see Systematics Auks are birds of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. ... Genera Procellaria Calonectris Puffinus †See also fulmar, prion, petrel Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged seabirds. ... For the article on the constellations, see Big Dipper and Little Dipper Species Cinclus cinclus Cinclus leucocephalus Cinclus mexicanus Cinclus pallasii Cinclus schulzi Dippers are members of the genus Cinclus in the family Cinclidae. ...


Behaviour

Most birds are diurnal, but some birds, such as many species of owls and nightjars, are nocturnal or crepuscular (active during twilight hours), and many coastal waders feed when the tides are appropriate, by day or night.[69] A diurnal animal (dī-ŭrnəl) is an animal that is active during the daytime and sleeps during the night. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... “Goatsucker” redirects here. ... A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ... Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ... Families Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Burhinidae Chionididae Pluvianellidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Charadriidae Dunlin (Calidris alpina). ...


Diet and feeding

Feeding adaptations in beaks. A:Nectarivore, B:Insectivore, C:Granivore, D:Specialist Seed-eater, E:Fishing, F:Netting, G:Filter feeding, H:Surface probing, I:Probing, J:Surface skimming, K:Raptorial
Feeding adaptations in beaks. A:Nectarivore, B:Insectivore, C:Granivore, D:Specialist Seed-eater, E:Fishing, F:Netting, G:Filter feeding, H:Surface probing, I:Probing, J:Surface skimming, K:Raptorial

Birds feed on a variety of materials, including nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, carrion, and various types of small animals including other birds.[32] Because birds have no teeth, the digestive system of birds is specially adapted to process unmasticated food items that are usually swallowed whole. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A Broad-tailed Hummingbird feeding on nectar In zoology, a nectarivore is an animal which eats the sugar-rich nectar produced by flowering plants. ... Any organism with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures is an insectivore. ... Red (Common) Crossbill In zoology, a granivore is an animal which selectively eats the nutrient-rich seeds produced by plants, including those of gymnosperms. ... Nectar of camellia Nectar, in botany, is a sugar-rich liquid produced by the flowers of plants in order to attract pollinating animals. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... The digestive system is the organ system that breaks down and absorbs nutrients that are essential for growth and maintenance. ... Mastication or chewing is the process by which food is mashed and crushed by teeth. ...


Various feeding strategies are used by birds. Gleaning for insects, invertebrates, fruit and seeds is used by many species. Sallying from a branch and flycatching for insects is used by many songbirds. Nectar feeders such as hummingbirds, sunbirds and lorikeets amongst others are facilitated by specially adapted brushy tongues and in many cases bills designed to fit co-adapted flowers.[70] Probing for invertebrates is used by kiwis shorebirds with long bills; in the case of shorebirds length of bill and feeding method are associated with niche separation.[32][71] Pursuit diving under the water, using wings or feet for propulasion, is employed by loons, diving ducks and penguins, auks,[24][72] Geese and dabbling ducks are primarily grazers. Some species will engage in kleptoparasitism, stealing food items from other birds; frigatebirds, gulls,[73] and skuas[74] employ this type of feeding behaviour. Kleptoparasitism is not thought to play a significant part of the diet of any species, and is instead a supplement to food obtained by hunting; a study of Great Frigatebirds stealing from Masked Boobies estimated that the frigatebirds could at most obtain 40% of the food they needed, and on average obtained only 5%.[75] Finally, some birds are scavengers, either specialised carrion eaters like vultures or opportunists like gulls, corvids or other birds of prey.[76] Some birds may employ many strategies to obtain food, or feed on a variety of food items and are called generalists, while others are considered specialists, concentrating time and effort on specific food items or having a single strategy to obtain food.[32] A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Oscines of Passeriformes (ca. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Genera Many: see text The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. ... Genera Chalcopsitta Eos Pseudeos Trichoglossus Lorius Phigys Vini (genus) Glossopsitta Charmosyna Oreopsittacus Neopsittacus Lorikeets and lories are small, brightly coloured, highly arboreal parrots. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Species See text. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ... Two lichenes species on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... Species Gavia stellata Gavia arctica Gavia pacifica Gavia immer Gavia adamsii For other meanings of diver, also see diving. ... Genera Marmaronetta Netta (including Rhodonessa) Aythya † See also dabbling duck The 16 species of diving duck, also known as pochards, make up a sub-group of the biological subfamily Anatinae, which itself is part of the diverse and very large duck, goose and swan family, Anatidae. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Genera Uria Alle Alca Pinguinus Synthliboramphus Cepphus Brachyramphus Ptychoramphus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula Extinct genera, see Systematics Auks are birds of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Genera Pteronetta Cairina Aix Nettapus Anas Callonetta Chenonetta Amazonetta See also Diving duck The dabbling ducks are a group of eight genera and about 55 species of ducks, including some of the most familiar Northern Hemisphere species. ... Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it. ... Species Fregata magnificens Fregata aquila Fregata andrewsi Fregata minor Fregata ariel There are five species in the family Fregatidae, the frigatebirds. ... “Seagull” redirects here. ... For other uses: see Skua (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Fregata minor (Gmelin, 1789) The Great Frigatebird (Fregata minor), also known as the Iwa, is a migratory seabird in the frigatebird family. ... Binomial name Sula dactylatra (Lesson, 1831) The Masked Booby, Sula dactylatra, is a large seabird of the gannet family, Sulidae. ... For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ...


Migration

Main article: Bird migration
The routes of satellite tagged Bar-tailed Godwits migrating north from New Zealand. This species has the longest known non-stop migration of any species, up to 10,200 km (6,300 mi).
The routes of satellite tagged Bar-tailed Godwits migrating north from New Zealand. This species has the longest known non-stop migration of any species, up to 10,200 km (6,300 mi).

Many bird species migrate to take advantage of global differences of seasonal temperatures to optimise availability of food sources and breeding habitat. These migrations vary among the different groups. Many landbirds, shorebirds and waterbirds undertake annual long distance migrations, usually triggered by length of daylight as well as weather conditions. These are characterised by a breeding season spent in the temperate or arctic/antarctic regions, and a non-breeding season in the tropical regions or opposite hemisphere. Prior to migration, birds substantially increase body fats and reserves and reduce the size of some of their organs.[77][43] Migration is highly energetically demanding, particularly as birds need to cross deserts and oceans without refuelling; landbirds have a flight range of around 2,500 km (1,600 mi) and shorebirds can fly up to 4,000 km (2,500 mi),[32] although the Bar-tailed Godwit is capable of non-stop flights of up to 10,200 km (6,300 mi).[78] Seabirds also undertake long migrations, the longest annual migration being those of Sooty Shearwaters, which nest in New Zealand and Chile and spend the northern summer feeding in the North Pacific off Japan, Alaska and California, an annual round trip of 64,000 km (39,800 mi).[79] Other seabirds disperse after breeding, travelling widely but having no set migration route. Albatrosses nesting in the Southern Ocean often undertake circumpolar trips between breeding seasons.[80] Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys of varying distances undertaken by many species of birds. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Limosa lapponica (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bar-tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica, is a large shorebird. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Binomial name Limosa lapponica (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bar-tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica, is a large shorebird. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... Binomial name Puffinus griseus Gmelin, 1789 The Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus) is a medium-large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Birds also display other types of migration. Some species undertake shorter migrations, travelling only as far as is required to avoid bad weather or obtain food. These include irruptive species, like boreal finches which may be quite common some years and almost absent in others.[clarify] This type of migration is normally associated with food availability.[81] Species may also travel shorter distances over part of their range, with individuals from higher latitudes travelling into the existing range of conspecifics; others undertake partial migrations, where only a fraction of the population, usually females and subdominant males, migrates.[82] Partial migration can form a large percentage of the migration behaviour of birds in some regions; in Australia surveys found that 44% of non-passerine birds studied were partially migratory and 32% of passerines were.[83] Altitudinal migration is a form of short distance migration, in which birds spend the breeding season at higher altitudes elevations, and move to lower ones during suboptimal conditions. It is most often triggered by temperature changes and usually occurs when the normal territories become inhospitable also due to lack of food.[84] Some species may also be nomadic, holding no fixed territory and moving according to weather and food availability. Parrots as a family are overwhelmingly neither migratory nor sedentary but considered to either be dispersive, irruptive, nomadic or undertake small and irregular migration.[85] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Parrot. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ...


The ability of birds to return to precise locations across vast distances has been known for some time; in an experiment conducted in the 1950s a Manx Shearwater released in Boston returned to its colony in Skomer, Wales within 13 days, a distance of 5,150 km (3,200 mi).[86] Birds navigate during migration using a variety of methods. For diurnal migrants the sun is used to navigate by, at night a stellar compass is used instead. Birds that use the sun compensate for the changing position of the sun during the day, by the use of an internal clock.[32] Orientation with the stellar compass depends on the position of the constellations surrounding Polaris.[87] These are backed up in some species with the ability to sense the Earth's geomagnetism through specialised sensitive photoreceptors.[88] Binomial name Puffinus puffinus (Brünnich, 1764) Synonyms Procellaria puffinus Brünnich, 1764 The Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) is a medium-sized shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. ... “Boston” redirects here. ... Skomer is an island off south west Pembrokeshire in Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... A diurnal animal (dÄ«-Å­rnÉ™l) is an animal that is active during the daytime and sleeps during the night. ... Sol redirects here. ... Chronobiology is a field of science that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Polaris (α UMi / α Ursae Minoris / Alpha Ursae Minoris), more commonly known as The North Star or simply North Star, is the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor. ... The cause of Earths magnetic field (the surface magnetic field) is not known for certain, but is possibly explained by dynamo theory. ... A photoreceptor, or photoreceptor cell, is a specialized type of neuron found in the eyes retina that is capable of phototransduction. ...


Communication

Birds communicate principally using visual and auditory signals. Signals can be interspecific (between species) and intraspecific (within species). Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... Vision can refer to: Visual perception is one of the senses. ... Hearing is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ...

The startling display of the Sunbittern mimics a large predator
The startling display of the Sunbittern mimics a large predator

Visual communication in birds serves a number of functions and is manifested in both plumage and behaviour.[42] Plumage can be used to assess and assert social dominance,[89] display breeding condition in sexually selected species, even make a threatening display, such as the threat display of the Sunbittern, which mimics a large possible predator. This display is used to ward off potential predators such as hawks, and to protect young chicks.[90] Variation in plumage also allows for identification, particularly between species.[clarify] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Eurypiga helias (Pallas, 1781) The Sunbittern (Eurypiga helias) is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... Binomial name Eurypiga helias (Pallas, 1781) The Sunbittern (Eurypiga helias) is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas. ... Genera Accipiter Micronisus Melierax Urotriorchis Erythrotriorchis The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three senses: Strictly, to mean any of the species in the bird sub-family Accipitrinae in the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis, and Megatriorchis. ...


Visual communication includes ritualised displays, such as those which signal aggression or submission, or those which are used in the formation of pair-bonds.[32] These ritualised behaviours develop from non-signalling actions such as preening, adjustments of feather position, pecking or other behaviours.[clarify] The most elaborate displays are shown during courtship, such as the breeding dances of the albatrosses, where the successful formation of a life-long pair-bond requires both partners to practice a unique dance,[91] and the birds-of-paradise, where the breeding success of males depends on plumage and display quality.[92] Male birds can demonstrate their fitness through construction; females of weaver species, such as the Baya Weaver, may choose mates with good nest-building skills,[93] while bowerbirds attract mates through constructing bowers and decorating them with bright objects.[94] Genera Diomedea Thalassarche Phoebastria Phoebetria Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). ... Genera 13, see list below The birds of paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes. ... Genera Many:see text The Weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. ... Binomial name Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766 ) The Baya Weaver (Ploceus philippinus) is a weaver found in South and South-east Asia. ... Genera Ailuroedus Archboldia Amblyornis Prionodura Sericulus Ptilonorhynchus Chlamydera The 19 bowerbirds and catbirds make up the family Ptilonorhynchidae. ...


In addition to visual communication, birds are renowned for their auditory skills. Calls, and in some species song, are the major means by which birds communicate with sound; though some birds use mechanical sounds, for example driving air thorugh their feathers, as do the Coenocorypha snipes of New Zealand,[95] the territorial drumming of woodpeckers,[42] or the use of tools to drum in Palm Cockatoos.[96] Bird calls and songs can be very complex; sounds are created in the syrinx, both sides of which, in some species, can be operated separately, resulting in two different songs being produced at the same time.[45] Blackbird (Turdus merula), singing male. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... Species see text The Coenocorypha are a genus of tiny birds, also known as the New Zealand snipes, which are found in the Outlying Islands of New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Snipe (disambiguation). ... Genera Melanerpes Sphyrapicus Xiphidiopicus Dendropicos Dendrocopos Picoides Veniliornis Campethera Geocolaptes Dinopium Meiglyptes Hemicircus Micropternus Picus Mulleripicus Dryocopus Celeus Piculus Colaptes Campephilus Chrysocolaptes Reinwardtipicus Blythipicus Gecinulus Sapheopipo For other uses, see Woodpecker (disambiguation). ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... Binomial name Probosciger aterrimus Gmelin, 1788 Palm Cockatoo range (in red) The Palm Cockatoo, Probosciger aterrimus, is a large black parrot of the cockatoo family. ... According to Bulfinchs Mythology, Syrinx (Greek Συριγξ) was a nymph and a follower of Artemis, known for her chastity. ...


Calls are used for a variety of purposes, several of which may be tied into an individual song.[97] They are used to advertise when seeking a mate, either to attract a mate, aid identification of potential mates or aid in bond formation (often with combined with visual communication). They can convey information about the quality of a male and aid in female choice.[98] They are used to claim and maintain territories. Calls can also be used to identify individuals, aiding parents in finding chicks in crowded colonies or adults reuniting with mates at the start of the breeding season.[99] Calls may be used to warn other birds of potential predators; calls of this nature may be detailed and convey specific information about the nature of the threat.[100] This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...

House Wren call
The call of the House Wren, a common songbird from North America
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Image File history File links Troglodytes_aedon. ... Binomial name Troglodytes aedon (Vieillot, 1809) The House Wren, Troglodytes aedon, is a small songbird of the wren family. ...

Flocking

Red-billed Queleas, the most numerous species of bird, form enormous flocks—sometimes tens of thousands strong.
Red-billed Queleas, the most numerous species of bird,[101] form enormous flocks—sometimes tens of thousands strong.

While some birds are essentially territorial or live in small family groups, other birds often form large flocks. The benefits of aggregating in flocks are varied and flocks will form explicitly for specific purposes. Flocking also has costs, particularly to socially subordinate birds, which are bullied by more dominant birds; birds may also sacrifice feeding efficiency in a flock in order to gain other benefits.[102] The principal benefits are safety in numbers and increased foraging efficiency.[32] Defence against predators is particularly important in closed habitats such as forests where predation is often by ambush and early warning provided by multiple eyes is important, this has led to the development of many mixed-species feeding flocks.[103] These multi-species flocks are usually composed of small numbers of many species, increasing the benefits of numbers but reducing potential competition for resources. Birds also form associations with non-avian species; plunge diving seabirds associate with dolphins and tuna which push shoaling fish up towards the surface,[104] and a mutualistic relationship has evolved between Dwarf Mongooses and hornbills, where hornbills seek out mongooses in order to forage together, and warn each other of birds of prey and other predators.[105] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 519 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Red-billed Quelea Quelea quelea flock at waterhole. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 519 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Red-billed Quelea Quelea quelea flock at waterhole. ... Binomial name Quelea quelea (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-billed Quelea (Quelea quelea) is the worlds most abundant bird species, with an estimated adult breeding population of 1. ... Two flocks of Common Cranes. ... A mixed-species feeding flock or mixed hunting party is a flock of birds of different species that join each other to search for food. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... Genera See article below. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Helogale parvula Sundevall, 1847 The Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula), sometimes called Common Dwarf Mongoose to distinguish it from the Desert Dwarf Mongoose () is a small African carnivore belonging to the mongoose family (Herpestidae). ... If you are looking for other meanings of the term, refer to Bird of prey (disambiguation). ...


Resting and roosting

The high metabolic rates of birds during the active part of the day is supplemented by rest at other times. Sleeping birds often utilise a type of sleep known as vigilant sleep, where periods of rest are interspersed with quick eye-opening 'peeks' allowing birds to be sensitive to disturbance and enable rapid escape from threats.[106] It has been widely believed that swifts may sleep while flying, however this is not supported by experimental evidence. It is however suggested that there may be certain kinds of sleep which are possible even when in flight.[107] For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Swift (disambiguation). ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ...


Birds do not have sweat glands and they may cool themselves by moving to shade, standing in water, panting, increasing their surface are, fluttering their throat or by using special behaviours like urohidrosis to cool themselves. Urohidrosis (often written urohydrosis) is the habit in some birds of releasing feces or urine onto the scaly portions of the leg as a cooling mechanism, using evaporative cooling of the fluids. ...


Many sleeping birds bends their heads over their backs and tuck their bills in their back feathers, others cover their beaks among their breast feathers. Many birds rest on one leg, some may pull up their legs into their feathers, especially in cold weather. Communal roosting is common, it lowers the loss of body heat and decreases the risks associated with predators.[108] Roosting sites are often chosen with regard to thermoregulation and safety.[109] The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ...


Perching birds have a tendon locking mechanism that helps hold on to the perch when they are asleep. Many ground birds such as quails and pheasants roost in trees. A few parrots of the genus Loriculus roost hanging upside down.[110] Some Hummingbirds go into a nightly state of torpor with a reduction in their metabolic rates,[111] as around a hundred other species, including owlet-nightjars, nightjars, and woodswallows; [clarify] one species, the Common Poorwill, even enters a state of hibernation.[112] For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Torpor is a state of regulated hypothermia in an endotherm lasting for periods ranging from just a few hours to several months. ... “Goatsucker” redirects here. ... Species Many, see text Woodswallows are soft-plumaged, somber-coloured passerine birds found in Australia and the islands nearby. ... Binomial name Audubon, 1844 The Common Poorwill, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, is a nocturnal bird of the family Caprimulgidae, the nightjars. ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ...


Breeding

Social systems

Red-necked Phalaropes have an unusual polyandrous mating system where males care for the eggs and chicks and brightly coloured females compete for males.
Red-necked Phalaropes have an unusual polyandrous mating system where males care for the eggs and chicks and brightly coloured females compete for males.[113]

The vast majority (95%) of bird species are socially monogamous; although polygyny (2%) and polyandry (< 1%), polygamy, polygynandry (where a female pairs with several males and the male pairs with several females) and promiscuity systems also occur.[32] Some species may use more than one system depending on the circumstances. Monogamous species of males and females pair for the breeding season; in some cases, the pair bonds may persist for a number of years or even the lifetime of the pair.[114] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Phalaropus lobatus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Red-necked Phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus, is a small wader. ... Recent discoveries have led biologists to talk about the three varieties of monogamy: social monogamy, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy. ... It has been suggested that Sororal polygyny be merged into this article or section. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Group marriage is a form of marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, and all members of the marriage share parental responsibility for any children arising from the marriage. ...


The advantage of monogamy for birds is bi-parental care. In most groups of animals, male parental care is rare, but in birds it is quite common; in fact, it is more extensive in birds than in any other vertebrate class.[32] In birds, male care can be seen as important or essential to female fitness; in some species the females are unable to successfully raise a brood without the help of the male.[115] Polygamous breeding systems arise when females are able to raise broods without the help of males.[32] There is sometimes a division of labour in monogamous species, with the roles of incubation, nest site defence, chick feeding and territory defence being either shared or undertaken by one sex.[116]


While social monogamy is common in birds, infidelity, in the form of extra-pair copulations, is common in many socially monogamous species.[117] These can take the form of forced copulation (or rape) in ducks and other anatids,[118] or more usually between dominant males and females partnered with subordinate males. It is thought that the benefit to females comes from getting better genes for her offspring, as well as an insurance against the possibility of infertility in the mate.[119] Males in species that engage in extra-pair copulations will engage in mate-guarding in order to ensure parentage of the offspring they raise.[120] Look up infidelity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ...


Breeding usually involves some form of courtship display, most often performed by the male.[121] Most are rather simple, and usually involve some type of song. Some displays can be quite elaborate, using such varied methods as tail and wing drumming, dancing, aerial flights, and communal leks depending on the species. Females are most often involved with partner selection,[122] although in the polyandrous phalaropes the males choose brightly coloured females.[123] Courtship feeding, billing and preening are commonly performed between partners, most often after birds have been paired and mated.[42] Blackbird (Turdus merula), singing male. ... A lek is a gathering of males, of certain animal species, for the purposes of competitive mating display. ... Species Red Phalarope, Red-necked Phalarope, Wilsons Phalarope, The name Phalarope refers to any of three species of slender-necked shorebirds in the genus Phalaropus of the bird family Scolopacidae. ...


Territories, nesting and incubation

Main article: Bird nest

Many birds actively defend a territory from others of the same species during the breeding season. Large territories are protected in order to protect the food source for their chicks. Species that are unable to defend feeding territories, such as seabirds and swifts, often breed in colonies instead; this is thought to offer protection from predators. Colonial breeders will defend small nesting sites, and competition between and within species for nesting sites can be intense.[124] Crows nests A nest is normally built by birds to hold their eggs and provide a home for their offspring. ... In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... For other uses, see Swift (disambiguation). ... This is a biological article: For a territory administered by another territory see: Colony For a group attempting to affiliate with a Fraternity or Sorority see: Colony (fraternity) In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual...

The nesting colonies of the Sociable Weaver are amongst the largest bird-created structures.
The nesting colonies of the Sociable Weaver are amongst the largest bird-created structures.

All birds lay amniotic eggs with hard shells made mostly of calcium carbonate.[32] The colour of eggs is controlled by a number of factors, those of hole and burrow nesting species tend to be white or pale, while those of open nesters such as Charadriiformes are camouflaged. There are many exceptions to this pattern, however; the ground nesting nightjars have pale eggs, camouflage being provided instead by the bird's plumage. Species that are victims of brood parasites like the Dideric Cuckoo will vary their egg colours in order to improve the chances of spotting a cuckoo's egg, and female cuckoos need to match their eggs to their hosts.[125] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 868 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bird Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 868 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bird Metadata This... Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Sociable Weaver (Philetairus socius) or Social Weaver is a species of bird in the Ploceidae family. ... Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ... “Goatsucker” redirects here. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... A Common Cuckoo being raised by a Reed Warbler. ... Binomial name Chrysococcyx caprius Boddaert, 1783 The Dideric Cuckoo or Didric Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx caprius, is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes, which also includes the roadrunners, the anis, and the Hoatzin. ...


The eggs are usually laid in a nest, which can be highly elaborate, like those created by weavers and oropendolas, or extremely primitive, like some albatrosses, which are no more than a scrape on the ground. Some species have no nest, the cliff nesting Common Guillemot lays its egg on bare rock and the egg of the Emperor Penguin is kept between the body and feet; this is especially prevalent in ground nesting species where the newly hatched young are precocial. Most species build more elaborate nests, which can be cups, domes, plates, beds scrapes, mounds or burrows.[126] Most nests are built in shelter and hidden to reduce the risk of predation, more open nests are usually colonial or built by larger birds capable of defending the nest. Nests are mostly built out of plant matter, some species specifically select plants such as yarrow which have chemicals that reduce nest parasites such as mites, leading to increased chick survival.[127] Nests are often lined with feathers in order to improve the retention of heat.[126] Crows nests A nest is normally built by birds to hold their eggs and provide a home for their offspring. ... Genera Many:see text The Weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. ... Oropendolas are Icterid birds in the genera Psarocolius, Ocyalus, and Gymnostinops. ... Genera Diomedea Thalassarche Phoebastria Phoebetria Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). ... Binomial name Uria aalge (Pontoppidan, 1763) The Common Guillemot, known as the Common Murre in North America, Uria aalge, is a large alcid. ... Binomial name Gray, 1844 The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. ... In biology, precocial species are those that are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. ... Binomial name Achillea millefolium L. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Look up mite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Incubation, which regulates temperature to keep it optimum for chick development, usually begins after the last egg has been laid.[32] Incubation duties are often shared in monogamous species; in polygamous species a singe parent undertakes all duties. Warmth from parents passes to the eggs through brood patches, areas of bare skin on the abdomen or breast of the incubating birds. Incubation can be an energetically demanding process, for example adult albatrosses lose as much as 83 g of body weight a day.[128] The warmth for the incubation of the eggs of megapodes comes from the sun, decaying vegetation or from volcanic sources.[129] Incubation periods last between 10 days (in species of woodpeckers, cuckoos and passerine birds) to over 80 days (in albatrosses and kiwis).[32] This article is about mound-building birds. ... Genera Melanerpes Sphyrapicus Xiphidiopicus Dendropicos Dendrocopos Picoides Veniliornis Campethera Geocolaptes Dinopium Meiglyptes Hemicircus Micropternus Picus Mulleripicus Dryocopus Celeus Piculus Colaptes Campephilus Chrysocolaptes Reinwardtipicus Blythipicus Gecinulus Sapheopipo For other uses, see Woodpecker (disambiguation). ... Genera See text. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... Species See text. ...


Parental care and fledging

A female Seychelles Sunbird with arachnid prey attending its nest.
A female Seychelles Sunbird with arachnid prey attending its nest.

Chicks can be helpless or independent at hatching, or be at any stage in between. The helpless chicks are known as altricial, and tend to be born, small, naked and blind; chicks that are mobile and feathered at hatching are precocial, chicks can also be semi-precocial and semi-altricial. Altricial chicks require help in thermoregulation and need to be brooded for longer than precocial chicks. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Nectarinia dussumieri (Hartlaub, 1861) The Seychelles Sunbird (Nectarinia dussumieri) is a small passerine from the family of sunbirds. ... Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ... In bird and mammal biology, altricial species are those whose newly hatched or born young are relatively immobile, have closed eyes, lack hair or down, and must be cared for by the adults. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... In biology, precocial species are those that are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ...


The length and nature of parental care varies widely amongst different orders and species. At one extreme, parental care in megapodes ends at hatching; the newly-hatched chick digs itself out of the nest mound without parental assistance and can fend for itself immediately.[130] At the other extreme many seabirds have extended periods of parental care, the longest being Great Frigatebird, the chicks of which take up to six months to fledge and are fed by the parents for up to another 14 months.[131] This article is about mound-building birds. ... Binomial name Fregata minor (Gmelin, 1789) The Great Frigatebird (Fregata minor), also known as the Iwa, is a migratory seabird in the frigatebird family. ... Fledge is the stage in a young birds life when the feathers and wing muscles are sufficiently developed for flight. ...


In some species the care of young is shared between both parents, in others it is the responsibility of just one sex. In some species other members of the same species will help the breeding pair in raising the young. These helpers are usually close relatives such as the chicks of the breeding pair from previous breeding seasons.[132] Alloparenting is particularly common in the corvids, but has been observed in as different species as the Rifleman, Red Kite and Australian Magpie. Helpers at the nest is a term used in behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology to describe a social structure in which juveniles, of one or both sexes, remain in association with their parents and help them in raising subsequent broods or litters, instead of dispersing and beginning to reproduce themselves. ... Genera many, see article text Corvidae is a family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies and nutcrackers (Clayton and Emery 2005, [1]). Collectively its members are called corvids and there are over 120 species. ... Binomial name Acanthisitta chloris (Sparrman, 1787) For other uses, see Rifleman (disambiguation) // The Rifleman (Acanthisitta chloris), or Tītitipounamu in Māori is a small insectivorous passerine bird that is endemic to New Zealand. ... Binomial name Milvus milvus Linnaeus, 1758 The Red Kite (Milvus milvus) is a medium-large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards and harriers. ... For other uses of the word magpie, see Magpie (disambiguation). ...

This Reed Warbler is raising the young of a Common Cuckoo, a brood parasite

The point at which chicks fledge varies dramatically. The chicks of the Synthliboramphus murrelets, like the Ancient Murrelet, leave the nest the night after they hatch, following their parents calls out to sea, where they are raised away from terrestrial predators.[133] Some other species, especially ducks, move their chicks away from the nest at an early age. In most species chicks leave the nest soon after, or just before, they are able to fly. Parental care after fledging varies; in albatrosses chicks leave the nest alone and receive no further help, other species continue some supplementary feeding after fledging.[134] Chicks may also follow their parents during their first migration.[135] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (446x628, 67 KB) From the Norsk language wiki. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (446x628, 67 KB) From the Norsk language wiki. ... Binomial name Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Hermann, 1804) The Eurasian Reed Warbler, or just Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. ... Binomial name Cuculus canorus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes, which also includes the roadrunners, the anis, the coucals, and the Hoatzin. ... A Common Cuckoo being raised by a Reed Warbler. ... Fledge is the stage in a young birds life when the feathers and wing muscles are sufficiently developed for flight. ... Species Synonyms Endomychura Synthliboramphus is a small genus of seabirds in the auk family from the North Pacific. ... Binomial name Synthliboramphus antiquus (Gmelin, 1789) The Ancient Murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus, is a bird in the auk family. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys of varying distances undertaken by many species of birds. ...


Brood parasites

Main article: Brood parasite

Although some insects and fish engage in brood parasitism, most brood parasites are birds.[136] Brood parasites are birds which lay their eggs in the nests of other birds. These eggs are often accepted and raised by the host species, often at the cost of their own brood. There are two kinds of brood parasite, obligate brood parasites, which are incapable of raising their own young and must lay their eggs in the nests of other species; and non-obligate brood parasites, which are capable of raising their own young but lay eggs in the nests of conspecifics in order to increase their reproductive output.[137] The most famous obligate brood parasites are the cuckoos, although in total 100 species of cuckoos, honeyguides, icterids, estrildid finches and ducks are obligate parasites.[136] Some brood parasites are adapted to hatching before their hosts and pushing their hosts eggs out of the nest, destroying the egg or killing their chicks, ensuring that all the food brought to the nest is fed to them.[138] A Common Cuckoo being raised by a Reed Warbler. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... A Common Cuckoo being raised by a Reed Warbler. ... Conspecificity is a concept in biology. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Indicator Melichneutes Prodotiscus Honeyguide birds, also known as honey birds, indicator birds, and simply honeyguides, (family Indicatoridae) are several dull-colored near passerine bird species of the order Piciformes, notable for their method of obtaining food. ... Genera 24 genera, see text The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. ... Genera Many:see text The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. ... Binomial name Heteronetta atricapilla (Merrem, 1841) The Black_headed Duck (Heteronetta atricapilla) is a South American duck allied to the stiff-tailed ducks in the subfamily Oxyurinae of the family Anatidae. ...


Ecology

The South Polar Skua (left) is a generalist predator, taking the eggs of other birds, fish, carrion and other animals. This skua is attempting to push an Adelie Penguin (right) off its nest

The diverse food habits and life-histories of birds are associated with a range of ecological positions.[101] While some birds are generalists, others are highly specialized in their habitat or food requirements. Even within a habitat such as a forest, the niches occupied by different groups of birds are varied with some species using the forest canopy, others using the space under the canopy, while still others may use the branches and so on. In addition forest birds may be classified into different feeding guilds such as insectivores, frugivores and nectarivores. Aquatic birds show other food habits such as fishing, plant eating and piracy or kleptoparasitism. The birds of prey specialize in hunting mammals or other birds while the vultures have specialized as scavengers. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1773x1172, 358 KB) Summary A South Polar Skua tries to push an Adelie Penguin off its nest to steal its egg. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1773x1172, 358 KB) Summary A South Polar Skua tries to push an Adelie Penguin off its nest to steal its egg. ... Binomial name Stercorarius maccormicki (Saunders, 1893) The South Polar Skua, Stercorarius maccormicki, is a large seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. ... Binomial name (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) Adélie Penguins at Cape Adare The Adélie Penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae is common along the entire Antarctic coast and nearby islands. ... Two lichenes species on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... Any organism with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures is an insectivore. ... A frugivore is an animal that feeds primarily or less commonly exclusively on fruit. ... A Broad-tailed Hummingbird feeding on nectar In zoology, a nectarivore is an animal which eats the sugar-rich nectar produced by flowering plants. ... Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it. ... For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ...


Some nectar-feeding birds are also important pollinators of plants and many frugivores play a key role in seed dispersal.[139] Numerous plants have adapted to using birds as their primary pollinators, and both flower and plant have coevolved together,[140] in some cases to the point where the flower's primary pollinator is the only species capable of reaching the nectar.[141] Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate co-evolve so that the flower is dependent on the bee and the bee is dependent on the flower for survival In Biology, Co-evolution is the mutual evolutionary influence between two species that become dependent on each other. ...


Birds have important impacts on the ecology of islands. In many cases they reach islands that mammals do not, and in which they may fulfill ecological roles played by larger animals; for example in New Zealand the moa were important browsers, as are the Kereru and Kokako today.[139] Today the plants of New Zealand retain the defensive adaptations evolved to protect them from the extinct moa.[142] Large concentrations of nesting seabirds also have an impact on the ecology of islands and the surrounding seas, principally through the concentration of large quantities of guano, which can have appreciable impacts on the richness of the local soil,[143] and of the surrounding seas.[144] Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... Browsing redirects here Browser can refer to: Browser - a type of herbivore whose nutrition generally comes from high growing plants, like trees, rather than a grazer that eats from the ground. ... Binomial name Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae (Gmelin, 1789) The Kereru or New Zealand Pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae) is an endemic native bird of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. ... Binomial name Callaeas cinerea (Gmelin, 1788) The Kokako (Callaeas cinerea) is a forest bird which is endemic to New Zealand. ... Plants have evolved an enormous array of mechanical and chemical defenses against the animals that eat them. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ...


Relationship with humans

Industrial farming of chickens.
Industrial farming of chickens.

Birds are highly visible and common animals, and humans have had a long relationship with them. In some cases the relationship has been mutualistic, such as the cooperative relationship between honeyguides and tribesmen in obtaining honey,[145] or commensal, as found in the numerous species that benefit indirectly from human activities.[146] For example, the common pigeon or Rock Pigeon thrives in urban areas around the world. Human activities can also be detrimental, threatening some bird species with extinction. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1555 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chicken Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1555 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chicken Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Genera Indicator Melichneutes Prodotiscus Honeyguide birds, also known as honey birds, indicator birds, and simply honeyguides, (family Indicatoridae) are several dull-colored near passerine bird species of the order Piciformes, notable for their method of obtaining food. ... Commensalism is an interaction between two living organisms, where one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped. ... Binomial name Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 The Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae, doves and pigeons. ...


Birds also effect humans. They can act as vectors for spreading diseases such as psittacosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis), avian influenza (bird flu), giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis over long distances. Some of these are zoonotic diseases that can also be transmitted to humans.[147] Birds are also commercially important pests on agricultural crops,[148] as well as posing a hazard to aviation through bird strikes.[149] They are also important food and income sources. In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis -- also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis -- is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma psittaci and contracted from parrots, macaws, cockatiels, and parakeets. ... Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial infections of humans. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or TuBerculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Avian influenza (also known as bird flu, avian flu, influenzavirus A flu, type A flu, or genus A flu) is a flu (influenza) due to a type of influenza virus that is hosted by birds, but may infect several species of mammals. ... Giardiasis (also known as beaver fever) is a disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (also Giardia intestinalis). ... Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease affecting the intestines of mammals that is caused by Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ... Carpet beetle larvae damaging a specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in an entomological collection A pest is an organism which has characteristics that are regarded as injurious or unwanted. ... F16 after a bird strike A bird strike (sometimes birdstrike, bird hit, or BASH (bird aircraft strike hazard)) in aviation, is a collision between an airborne animal (most often a bird, but also sometimes another species) and a man made vehicle, especially aircraft. ...


In some ecosystems, birds are at the apex of food chains making them very sensitive indicators of pollution.[150] The decline in bird populations in the US, as a result of pesticide use is a famous example.[151] Birds and their diversity have therefore been considered as good indicators of ecosystem health and, in the UK, bird diversity is used as one of 15 quality of life indicators.[152] It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ...


Economic importance

Birds are an important food source for humans. The most commonly eaten species is the domestic chicken and its eggs, as well as geese, pheasants, turkeys, ducks and quail. Hunting remains an important method of obtaining birds, as it has been throughout human history,[153] and has led to the extinction or endangerment of dozens of species.[154] However, muttonbirding in Australia and New Zealand is an example of an ongoing sustainable harvest of two seabird species.[155] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... “Geese” redirects here. ... Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Genera Coturnix Anurophasis Perdicula Ophrysia † See also Pheasant, Partridge, Grouse Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds in the pheasant family Phasianidae, or in the family Odontophoridae. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... An endangered species is a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct. ... Muttonbirding is a seasonal harvesting activity, which may be recreational or commercial, of the chicks of petrels, especially shearwater species, for food, oil and feathers. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ...


Besides meat and eggs, birds provide feathers for clothing, bedding and decoration, guano-derived phosphorus and nitrogen that is used in fertiliser and gunpowder.Colourful birds (such as parrots, and mynas) are bred in captivity or kept as pets, and this practice has led to the illegal trafficking of some endangered species.[156] Other birds have long been used by humans to perform tasks; falcons for hunting, and cormorants to catch fish. Pigeons were used as a messenger as early as 1 AD, according to Pliny and played an important role as recently as World War II. Today, such activities are more common as a hobbies, or for entertainment and tourism,[157] or for sport including pigeon racing. Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ... &#8224; See also Starling, Oxpecker The mynas are part of the family Sturndidae, along with the starlings and oxpeckers. ... Aviculture is the practice of keeping and often breeding pet birds, generally companion parrots, and the culture that forms around it. ... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Falcons eat humans. ... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A champion Racing pigeon. ...

Cormorants used by fishermen in Southeast Asia. The practice is in steep decline but survives in some areas as a tourism attraction.
Cormorants used by fishermen in Southeast Asia. The practice is in steep decline but survives in some areas as a tourism attraction.

The scientific study of birds is called ornithology. Birds are among the most extensively studied of all animal groups; chickens and pigeons are popular as experimental subjects, and are often used in biology and comparative psychology research. Hundreds of academic journals and thousands of scientists are devoted to bird research, while amateur enthusiasts (called birdwatchers, twitchers or, more commonly, birders) number in the millions.[158] Many homeowners erect bird feeders near their homes to attract various species. Bird feeding has grown into a multimillion dollar industry; for example an estimated 75% of households in Britain provide food for birds at some point during the winter.[159] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 404 × 599 pixels Full resolution (575 × 853 pixel, file size: 167 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bird Bird intelligence ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 404 × 599 pixels Full resolution (575 × 853 pixel, file size: 167 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bird Bird intelligence ... Ornithology (from the Greek ornis = bird and logos = word/science) is the branch of zoology concerned with the scientific study of birds. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pigeon redirects here. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Comparative psychology, taken in its most usual, broad sense, refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings. ... The following is a list of journals and magazines relating to birding and ornithology, arranged by place of publication. ... Birding or birdwatching is a hobby concerned with the observation and study of birds (the study proper is termed American origin; birdwatching is (or more correctly, was) the commonly-used word in Great Britain and Ireland and by non-birders in the United States. ... A hummingbird feeder - dye should not be used in the liquid provided Bushtits on a suet feeder An empty bird-seed dispenser A birdfeeder, bird feeder, or bird table is a device placed out-of-doors to supply bird food to birds. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ...


Importance in religion, folklore and culture

"The 3 of Birds" by the Master of the Playing Cards, 16th Century Germany
"The 3 of Birds" by the Master of the Playing Cards, 16th Century Germany

Birds feature prominently in folklore, religion and popular culture, in which they fulfil a number of roles. In religion they may serve as messengers or priests and leaders for a deity, such as in the cult of Make-make where the Tangata manu (bird men) of Easter Island served as chiefs,[160] or as attendants, as in the case of Hugin and Munin, two Common Ravens which whisper news into the ears of the Norse god Odin.[161] They may also serve as religious symbols, for example the symbolism of Jonah as a dove (יוֹנָה), with its various associated meanings, fright, passivity, mourning and beauty.[162] Birds can themselves be deified, as occurred to the Common Peacock by the Dravidians of India, who perceived the peacock as Mother Earth.[163] Birds have also been perceived as monsters, including the legendary Roc and the Māori legends about the Pouākai, a giant bird capable of snatching humans, based on the extinct Haast's Eagle.[164] In some parts of the world many birds are regarded with suspicion; in parts of Africa owls are associated with bad luck, witchcraft and death.[165] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The 3 of Birds from the playing cards, a single-plate card The Master of the Playing Cards was the first major master in the history of printmaking. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Make-make (disambiguation). ... The Tangata manu (the bird-man), is the winner of a traditional competition of the Easter Island people. ... “Rapa Nui” redirects here. ... Huginn and Muninn sit on Odins shoulders in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Binomial name Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758 Common Raven range Subspecies The Common Raven (Corvus corax), also known as the Northern Raven, is a large all-black passerine bird in the crow family, with iridescent feathers. ... Norse gods Divided between the Æsir and the Vanir, and sometimes including Jotun, the dividing line between these groups is less than clear. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: يونس, Yunus or يونان, Yunaan ; Latin Ionas ; Dove) was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) and Quran who was swallowed by a great fish. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Binomial name Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 The Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus also known as the Common Peafowl or the Blue Peafowl is one of the species of bird in the genus Pavo of the Phasianidae family known as peafowl. ... Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in southern India and Sri Lanka. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Roc, a mythical bird. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Harpagornis moorei Haast, 1872 Haasts Eagle (Harpagornis moorei), was a massive, extinct eagle that once lived on the South Island of New Zealand. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... “Witch” redirects here. ...


Birds feature in culture and art and have done so since prehistoric times. Birds are represented in early cave paintings along with other animals.[166] Later birds came to be used in religious or symbolic art and design; among the most magnificent of these was the (now lost) Peacock Throne of the Mughal and Persian emperors of India.[167] With the advent of scientific interest in birds many paintings of birds were commissioned for books, amongst the most famous bird artists was John James Audubon, whose paintings of North American birds were a great commercial success in Europe and who later lent his name to the National Audubon Society.[168] Birds are also important in poetry; Homer incorporated Nightingales into the Odyssey, and poets have continued to use that species ever since.[169] The relationship between an albatross and a sailor is the central theme of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, the significance of which has increased with the adoption of the term as a metaphor for a 'burden'.[170] Birds serve as other metaphors in the English language, for example vulture funds and vulture investors, where vultures are perceived as unpleasant and possibly unethical.[171] Perceptions of individual bird species vary from culture to culture; while owls are considered bad luck in some parts of Africa they are regarded as wise across much of Europe,[172] and Hoopoes were considered sacred in Ancient Egypt, symbols of virtue in Persia, thieves across much of Europe and harbingers of war in Scandinavia.[173] Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... The Peacock Throne, called Takht-e-Tavous (Persian: تخت طائوس) in Persian, is the name originally of a Mughal throne, later used to describe the thrones of the Persian emperors from Nader Shah Afshari to Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... John James Audubon John James Audubon[1] (April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was a Franco-American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Headquarter of National Audubon Society in New York. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Luscinia megarhynchos (Brehm, 1831) This article is about the bird. ... This article is about the poem by Homer. ... Genera Diomedea Thalassarche Phoebastria Phoebetria Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... One of a set of engraved metal plate illustrations by Gustave Doré. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is a poem written by the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1797–1799 and published in the first edition of Lyrical Ballads (1798). ... The word albatross is sometimes used to mean an encumbrance, or a wearisome burden. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A vulture fund is an financial organization that specializes in buying securities in distressed environments, such as high-yield bonds in or near default, or equities that are in or near bankruptcy. ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... Binomial name Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758 The Hoopoe Upupa epops is in the same order of often colourful near passerine birds as the kingfishers, bee-eaters, and rollers. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...


Conservation

Main article: Bird conservation
See also: Late Quaternary prehistoric birds and Extinct birds
This Black-browed Albatross has been hooked on a long-line. This type of fishing threatens 19 of the 21 species of albatross, three critically so.

Humans have had a large impact on many bird species. Human activities have in some cases allowed some species to dramatically expand their natural ranges, in other species ranges have decreased and have even resulted in many extinction. Over a hundred species have gone extinct in historical times,[174] although the most dramatic human caused extinctions occurred in the Pacific Ocean as people colonised the islands of Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia, during which an estimated 750–1800 species of bird went extinct.[175] Many bird populations are declining worldwide, with 1,221 species listed as threatened (as of 2007) by Birdlife International and the IUCN.[176] The biggest cited reason surrounds habitat loss.[177] Other threats include overhunting, accidental mortality due to structural collisions and as long-line fishing bycatch,[178] pollution (including oil spills and pesticide use),[179] competition and predation by nonnative invasive species,[180] and climate change. Governments, along with numerous conservation charities, work to protect birds, either through laws to protect birds, preserving and restoring bird habitat or establishing captive populations for reintroductions. The efforts of conservation biology have met with some success, a study estimated that between 1994 and 2004 16 species of bird that would otherwise have gone extinct were saved.[181] The extinction of the Dusky Seaside Sparrow was caused by habitat loss. ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ... Since 1500, over 100 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing. ... Image File history File links Albatross_hook. ... Image File history File links Albatross_hook. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1828) The Black-browed Albatross, Thalassarche melanophrys, is a large seabird of the albatross family Diomedeidae. ... . ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... The threatened categories (IUCN Red List) Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, insects, bugs, etc. ... BirdLife International is the international conservation organization working to protect the world’s birds and their habitats. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... F16 after a bird strike A bird strike (sometimes birdstrike, bird hit, or BASH (bird aircraft strike hazard)) in aviation, is a collision between an airborne animal (most often a bird, but also sometimes another species) and a man made vehicle, especially aircraft. ... Long-line fishing is a commercial fishing technique that uses hundreds or even thousands of baited hooks hanging from a single line. ... In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively_immature juveniles of the target species. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... A charitable trust is a trust organized to serve private or public charitable purposes. ... In-situ conservation means on-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. ... Restoration ecology is the scientific discipline of environmental restoration, or returning degraded ecosystems and landscapes to a reference state where ecological communities and processes are re-established. ... Ex-situ conservation means literally, off-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and placing it or part of it under the care of humans. ...


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The Handbook of the Birds of the World is a multi-volume series produced by Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Academic Press (London, New York and San Diego) was an academic book publisher that is now part of Elsevier. ... ... The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World is a book by Jim Clements which presents a list of the bird species of the world. ... Cornell University Press, established in 1869, was the first university publishing enterprise in the United States and is one of the countrys largest university presses. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Die Naturwissenschaften (The Natural Sciences) is a weekly publication of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. ... This article is about the journal. ... Alan Feduccia is a paleornithologist, specializing in the origins and phylogeny of birds. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1883. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Charles Sibley (August 7, 1917 - April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist. ... Molecular Biology and Evolution is a monthly journal owned and edited by The Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution and published by Oxford University Press. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Handbook of the Birds of the World is a multi-volume series produced by Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions. ... The Helm Identification Guides are a series of books dealing with the identification of groups of birds. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Cover of the Biochemical Journal The Biochemical Journal, published by Portland Press on behalf of the Biochemical Society, covers all aspects of biochemistry as well as cell and molecular biology. ... American Naturalist is a monthly scientific journal, founded in 1867 and associated with the American Society of Naturalists. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Sir David Frederick Attenborough, OM, CH, CVO, CBE, FRS (born on 8 May 1926 in London, England) is one of the worlds best known broadcasters and naturalists. ... The Life of Birds is a BBC nature documentary series written and presented by David Attenborough, first transmitted in the UK from 21 October 1998. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Proceedings of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... Cover of the Biochemical Journal The Biochemical Journal, published by Portland Press on behalf of the Biochemical Society, covers all aspects of biochemistry as well as cell and molecular biology. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Journal of Avian Biology is a peer-reviewed ornithological journal published bimonthly, currently by Blackwell on behalf of the Nordic Society OIKOS. Before 2004, there were only 4 issues per year. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1883. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1883. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1883. ... American Naturalist is a monthly scientific journal, founded in 1867 and associated with the American Society of Naturalists. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1883. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... BirdLife International is the international conservation organization working to protect the world’s birds and their habitats. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1883. ... Emu, subtitled Austral Ornithology (ISSN 0158-4197), is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union (RAOU). ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1883. ... The Handbook of the Birds of the World is a multi-volume series produced by Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a bimonthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1883. ... Ecology Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique by Blackwell Publishing. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Journal of Zoology (not to be confused with a different journal called Zoology) is a scientific journal concerning zoology, the study of animals. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... The Handbook of the Birds of the World is a multi-volume series produced by Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions. ... Oikos is a monthly scientific journal published by the Nordic Society OIKOS concerning ecology. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... Die Naturwissenschaften (The Natural Sciences) is a weekly publication of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. ... Oecologia is an international peer-reviewed English language journal that publishes original research into topics related to ecology. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... The Journal of Avian Biology is a peer-reviewed ornithological journal published bimonthly, currently by Blackwell on behalf of the Nordic Society OIKOS. Before 2004, there were only 4 issues per year. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... American Naturalist is a monthly scientific journal, founded in 1867 and associated with the American Society of Naturalists. ... American Naturalist is a monthly scientific journal, founded in 1867 and associated with the American Society of Naturalists. ... Proceedings of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London. ... The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics is published yearly by Annual Reviews. ... Integrative and Comparative Biology is the scientific journal for the American Society of Zoologists and Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Oikos is a monthly scientific journal published by the Nordic Society OIKOS concerning ecology. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Academic Press (London, New York and San Diego) was an academic book publisher that is now part of Elsevier. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The Handbook of the Birds of the World is a multi-volume series produced by Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions. ... The Journal of Avian Biology is a peer-reviewed ornithological journal published bimonthly, currently by Blackwell on behalf of the Nordic Society OIKOS. Before 2004, there were only 4 issues per year. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Ibis (ISSN print 0019-1019; online 1474-919X), subtitled the International Journal of Avian Science, is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of the British Ornithologists Union. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Journal of Avian Biology is a peer-reviewed ornithological journal published bimonthly, currently by Blackwell on behalf of the Nordic Society OIKOS. Before 2004, there were only 4 issues per year. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... T & A D Poyser began as a British publisher, founded by Trevor and Anna Poyser in 1973, to specialise in ornithology books. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Oikos is a monthly scientific journal published by the Nordic Society OIKOS concerning ecology. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Ibis (ISSN print 0019-1019; online 1474-919X), subtitled the International Journal of Avian Science, is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of the British Ornithologists Union. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Stationery Office is a private publishing company that was created in 1995 when the publishing arm of Her Majestys Stationery Office was privatised. ... Ibis (ISSN print 0019-1019; online 1474-919X), subtitled the International Journal of Avian Science, is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of the British Ornithologists Union. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... BirdLife International is the international conservation organization working to protect the world’s birds and their habitats. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

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  • Avibase – The World Bird Database
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  • The Internet Bird Collection – A free library of videos of the world's birds
  • Birds and Science from the National Audubon Society
  • SORA Searchable online research archive; Archives of the following ornithological journals The Auk, Condor, Journal of Field Ornithology, North American Bird Bander, Studies in Avian Biology, Pacific Coast Avifauna, and the Wilson Bulletin.
  • Cornell Lab of Ornithology
  • The Institute for Bird Populations, California
  • Ornithology
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  • Bird biogeography

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Headquarter of National Audubon Society in New York. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1883. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... The Wilson Bulletin is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Wilson Ornithological Society. ... External anatomy of a typical bird 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast, 21... It has been suggested that keel (bird) be merged into this article or section. ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Paleornithology is the scientific study of bird evolution and fossil birds. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... The Enantiornithes, or opposite birds (because their foot bones are fused differently than in modern birds), are an extinct group of flying birds. ... A bird hybrid is basically a bird that has two different species as parents. ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ... For a list of birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and (usually) known from specimens not completely fossilized, see Later Quaternary Prehistoric Birds. ... The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird taxonomy based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... Since 1500, over 100 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing. ... Blackbird (Turdus merula), singing male. ... Bird intelligence deals with the definition of intelligence and its measurement as it applies to birds. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys of varying distances undertaken by many species of birds. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ... A Common Cuckoo being raised by a Reed Warbler. ... Crows nests A nest is normally built by birds to hold their eggs and provide a home for their offspring. ... Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ... Genera Tinamus Nothocercus Crypturellus Rhynchotus Nothoprocta Nothura Taoniscus Eudromia Tinamotis The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Families Megapodidae Numididae Odontophoridae Phasianidae Meleagrididae Tetraonidae Cracidae Mesitornithidae The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. ... Global distribution of Gaviidae (breeding and winter ranges combined) Species Gavia stellata Gavia arctica Gavia pacifica Gavia immer Gavia adamsii The Loons (N.Am. ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Families Fregatidae Pelecanidae Sulidae Phalacrocoracidae Anhingidae Phaethontidae For prehistoric families, see article text. ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Flamingos ( ) are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus and family Phoenicopteridae. ... Families Accipitridae Pandionidae Falconidae Sagittariidae The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. ... Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... Genera Pterocles Syrrhaptes The sandgrouse are a group of 16 near passerine bird species in the order Pteroclidiformes. ... Families Columbidae The bird order Columbiformes the includes the very widespread and successful doves and pigeons, classified in the family Columbidae, and the extinct Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire, long classified as a second family Raphidae. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... Families Musophagidae Cuculidae Opisthocomidae The near passerine bird order Cuculiformes traditionally included three families as below: Order Cuculiformes Family Musophagidae: turacos and allies Family Cuculidae: cuckoos Family Opisthocomidae: Hoatzin However, the taxonomy of this group is now controversial. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Families Steatornithidae Podargidae Aegothelidae Nyctibiidae Caprimulgidae The Caprimulgiformes is an order of birds that includes the cosmopolitan nightjars, the frogmouths of Australasia and Southeast Asia, the South American potoos and Oilbird, and the Australasian owlet-nightjars. ... Families Apodidae Hemiprocnidae Traditionally, the bird order Apodiformes contained three families: the swifts, Apodidae, the tree swifts, Hemiprocnidae, and the hummingbirds, Trochilidae. ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Brachypteraciidae Coraciidae Leptosomidae Meropidae Momotidae Todidae Bucerotidae Upupidae Phoeniculidae The Coraciiformes are a group of usually colourful near passerine birds including the kingfishers, the Hoopoe, the bee-eaters, the rollers, and the hornbills. ... Families Galbulidae Bucconidae Capitonidae Ramphastidae Picidae Indicatoridae For prehistoric taxa, see text Six families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. ... Genera Apaloderma Euptilotis Harpactes Pharomachrus Priotelus Trogon The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family, the Trogonidae. ... Genera Colius Urocolius The mousebirds are a small group of near passerine birds which have no clear affinities to other groups, and are therefore given order status. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... This page lists living orders and families of birds, class Aves (for extinct birds, please see Extinct birds and Prehistoric birds). ... // The following are the regional bird lists by continent. ... Bird ringing (also known as bird banding) is an aid to studying wild birds, by attaching a small individually numbered metal or plastic ring to their legs or wings, so that various aspects of the birds life can be studied by the ability to re-find the same individual... Ornithology (from the Greek ornis = bird and logos = word/science) is the branch of zoology concerned with the scientific study of birds. ... Marbled Godwit, Limosa fedoa, prepared as a skin (shmoo), skeleton, and spread wing Bird collections are curated repositories of scientific specimens consisting of birds and their parts. ... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... The extinction of the Dusky Seaside Sparrow was caused by habitat loss. ... Aviculture is the practice of keeping and often breeding pet birds, generally companion parrots, and the culture that forms around it. ...


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