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Encyclopedia > Birch
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Birches
Silver Birch
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fagales
Family: Betulaceae
Genus: Betula
L.
Species

Many species;
see text and classification Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (750 × 1000 pixel, file size: 653 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) de: Birke (Betula pendula) im Winter. ... Binomial name Betula pendula Roth. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Orders See text. ... Families included in the Kew list: Fagaceae - Beech family   (including Nothofagaceae) Betulaceae - Birch family Corylaceae - Hazel family Ticodendraceae not included in the Kew list: Casuarinaceae - She-oak family Juglandaceae - Walnut family Rhoipteleaceae Myricaceae The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best known trees. ... Genera Alnus - Alder Betula - Birch Carpinus - Hornbeam Corylus - Hazel Ostrya - Hop-hornbeam Ostryopsis - Hazel-hornbeam Betulaceae, or the Birch Family, includes six genera of deciduous nut-bearing trees and shrubs, including the birches, alders, hazels, hornbeams and hop-hornbeams, numbering about 130 species. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23[], 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Subgenus Betulenta - Wintergreen oil birches Bark on twigs rich in methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). ...

Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. These are generally small to medium-size trees or shrubs, mostly of northern temperate climates. The simple leaves may be toothed or lobed. The fruit is a small samara, although the wings may be obscure in some species. They differ from the alders (Alnus, the other genus in the family) in that the female catkins are not woody and disintegrate at maturity, falling apart to release the seeds, unlike the woody cone-like female alder catkins. For other uses, see Tree (disambiguation). ... Genera Alnus - Alder Betula - Birch Carpinus - Hornbeam Corylus - Hazel Ostrya - Hop-hornbeam Ostryopsis - Hazel-hornbeam Betulaceae, or the Birch Family, includes six genera of deciduous nut-bearing trees and shrubs, including the birches, alders, hazels, hornbeams and hop-hornbeams, numbering about 130 species. ... Species Fagus crenata - Japanese Beech Fagus engleriana - Chinese Beech Fagus grandifolia - American Beech Fagus hayatae - Taiwan Beech Fagus japonica - Japanese Blue Beech Fagus longipetiolata - South Chinese Beech Fagus lucida - Shining Beech Fagus mexicana - Mexican Beech or Haya Fagus orientalis - Oriental Beech Fagus sylvatica - European Beech Beech (Fagus) is a genus... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Genera Castanea - Chestnuts Castanopsis Chrysolepis - Golden chinkapin Colombobalanus Cyclobalanopsis Fagus - Beeches Formanodendron Lithocarpus - Stone oaks Nothofagus - Southern beeches Quercus - Oaks Trigonobalanus The family Fagaceae, or beech family, is characterized by alternate leaves with pinnate venation, flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of nuts, one to... For other uses, see Tree (disambiguation). ... hiii, This article is on plants. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Foliage redirects here. ... Maple samara or key A samara is a type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall. ... Species About 20-30 species, see text. ... A male catkin on a willow Male catkins on a Common Hazel in January before opening Catkins, or aments, are slim, cylindrical flower clusters, wind-pollinated and without petals, that can be found in many plant families, including Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Moraceae, and Salicaceae. ...


The common name birch is derived from an old Germanic root similar to birka. The Proto-Germanic rune berkanan is named after the birch. The botanic name Betula is from the original Latin. Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, ca 500 BC-50 BC. The area south of Scandinavia is the Jastorf culture Proto-Germanic, the proto-language believed by scholars to be the common ancestor of the Germanic languages, includes among its descendants Dutch, Yiddish... A rune can mean a single character in the Runic alphabet as well as an inscription of several runic charcters or symbols. ... Berkanan is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the b-rune ᛒ, meaning birch. In the Younger Futhark it is called bjarken in Icelandic and bjarkan in Norse. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Birch is used as a food plant by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species, see List of Lepidoptera which feed on Birches. A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Superfamilies Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Axioidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Choreutoidea Cossoidea Drepanoidea Epermenioidea Eriocranioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Geometroidea Gracillarioidea Hedyloidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Hyblaeoidea Immoidea Incurvarioidea Lasiocampoidea Lophocoronoidea Micropterigoidea Mimallonoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea Nepticuloidea Noctuoidea Palaephatoidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tischerioidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea The order Lepidoptera... Birches () are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species including: Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) Brimstone Moth (Opisthograptis luteolata) Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea) Buff-tip (Phalera bucephala) Clouded Border (Lomaspilis marginata) Common Emerald (Hemithea aestivaria) Common Marbled Carpet (Chloroclysta truncata) Common Wave (Cabera exanthemata...


The birch is considered a national tree of Russia, where it used to be worshipped as a goddess during the Green Week in early June. A national emblem symbolically represents a nation. ... Rusalka, a 1968 painting by Konstantin Vasiliev. ...


Species

See also: Betula classification birch Subgenus Betulenta - Wintergreen oil birches Bark on twigs rich in methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). ...

Birches of North America include
  • Betula alleghaniensis - Yellow Birch (B. lutea)
  • Betula cordifolia - Mountain Paper Birch
  • Betula glandulosa - American Dwarf Birch
  • Betula lenta - Sweet Birch, Cherry Birch, or Black Birch
  • Betula michauxii - Newfoundland Dwarf Birch
  • Betula nana - Dwarf Birch or Bog Birch (also in northern Europe and Asia)
  • Betula neoalaskana - Alaska Birch or Yukon Birch
  • Betula nigra - River Birch or Black Birch
  • Betula occidentalis - Water Birch or Red Birch (B. fontinalis)
  • Betula papyrifera - Paper Birch, Canoe Birch or American White Birch
  • Betula populifolia - Gray Birch
  • Betula pumila - Swamp Birch
Birches of Europe and Asia include
  • Betula albosinensis - Chinese Red Birch
    • Betula albosinensis var. septentrionalis - North Chinese Red Birch
  • Betula alnoides - Alder-leaf Birch
  • Betula austrosinensis - South China Birch
  • Betula chinensis - Chinese Dwarf Birch
  • Betula ermanii - Erman's Birch
  • Betula grossa - Japanese Cherry Birch
  • Betula jacquemontii (Betula utilis subsp. jacquemontii) - White-barked Himalayan Birch
  • Betula mandschurica - Manchurian Birch
    • Betula mandschurica var. japonica - Japanese Birch
  • Betula maximowiczii - Monarch Birch
  • Betula medwediewii - Caucasian Birch
  • Betula nana - Dwarf Birch (also in northern North America)
  • Betula pendula - Silver Birch
  • Betula platyphylla (Betula pendula var. platyphylla) - Siberian Silver Birch
  • Betula pubescens - Downy Birch, White Birch or European White Birch (also in northern Asia)
  • Betula szechuanica (Betula pendula var. szechuanica) - Sichuan Birch
  • Betula utilis - Himalayan Birch
Note: many American texts have B. pendula and B. pubescens confused, though they are distinct species with different chromosome numbers

World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Binomial name Betula alleghaniensis Britt. ... Binomial name Betula glandulosa Michx. ... Binomial name Betula lenta L. Sweet Birch (Betula lenta), also known as Cherry Birch or Black Birch, is a species of birch native to eastern North America, from southern Maine west to southernmost Ontario and southern Michigan, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia. ... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1832 Seat Marion Area  - Total  - Water 1,171 km² (452 mi²) 1 km² (0 mi²) 0. ... Binomial name Betula nana Dwarf birch (Betula nana) is a plant of the family Betulaceae. ... Binomial name Betula neoalaskana Sarg. ... Categories: Stub | Fagales ... Binomial name Betula papyrifera Marsh. ... Binomial name Betula populifolia Marsh. ... Binomial name Betula pumila Swamp Birch or Bog Birch (Betula pumila) is a deciduous shrub native to North America. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Binomial name Betula nana Dwarf birch (Betula nana) is a plant of the family Betulaceae. ... Binomial name Betula pendula Roth. ... Binomial name Betula pubescens Ehrh. ... Binomial name Betula pubescens Ehrh. ...

Uses

Birches are versatile trees. The sap, bark, leaves, wood, twigs, and roots are used for food, construction materials, drums, medicinal treatments, lubricants, and other practical applications. Sap exuding (gummosis) from the stem of a koa tree, probably in response to surface damage Sap is the fluid carried in tubules inside a plant, circulating to distribute food and water to various parts of the plant. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Lubrication. ...


Due to birch pulp’s short-fibre qualities, this hardwood can be used to make printing paper. Pulp can refer to: Soft shapeless substances in general. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood The term hardwood designates wood from angiosperm trees. ...


In northern latitudes birch is however considered to be the most important allergenic tree pollen, with an estimated 15-20% of hay fever sufferers sensitive to birch pollen grains. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... This article deals specifically with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ...


Extracts of birch are used for flavoring or leather oil, and in cosmetics such as soap or shampoo. In the past, commercial oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate) was made from the Sweet Birch (Betula lenta). Birch tar or Russian Oil, extracted from birch bark, was used as a lubricant or glue and also for medicinal purposes. Xylitol can also be extracted from birch, a sugar alcohol artificial sweetener, which has shown effectiveness in preventing, and in some cases repairing, tooth decay. This article is about the computer protocol. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chemical structure of methyl salicylate Methyl salicylate (chemical formula C6H4(HO)COOCH3; also known as salicylic acid methyl ester, oil of wintergreen, betula oil, methyl ester) is a natural product of many species of plants. ... Binomial name Betula lenta L. Sweet Birch (Betula lenta), also known as Cherry Birch or Black Birch, is a species of birch native to eastern North America, from southern Maine west to southernmost Ontario and southern Michigan, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia. ... Xylitol, also called wood sugar or birch sugar, is a five-carbon sugar alcohol that is used as a sugar substitute. ... A sugar alcohol (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol) is a hydrogenated form of carbohydrate, whose carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. ... A sweetener is a food additive which adds the basic taste of sweetness to a food. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ...


In Belarus, Russia, the Baltic States, Finland, and parts of northern China, birch sap is drunk as a refreshing beverage, and is believed to have tonic qualities. It is watery and pale green in color, with a slightly sweet flavor, and is bottled commercially. Birch sap may also made into kvass. The sap of particular birch species may also be rendered into birch syrup, vinegar, beer, soft drinks, and other foods. In contrast to maple syrup, birch syrup is very difficult to produce, making it more expensive than other food syrups. It is also considerably less sweet than maple syrup and the sap for syrup production is not available until a month later than maple's. The syrup is made mainly in Alaska (from Alaska Birch) and Russia (from several species), and more rarely elsewhere. The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The Baltic states refer to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. ... Birch sap is the sap extracted from a birch tree, for example a Sweet Birch or a Silver Birch. ... Tonic may mean: A concept from musical harmony and musical theory: see Tonic (music); A carbonated beverage flavoured with quinine, used in cocktails: see Tonic water. ... A glass of kvass. ... Birch syrup is a sweetener made from the sap of birch trees, and used in much the same way as maple syrup. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Birch Beer is a carbonated soft drink made from herbal extracts, usually from birch bark. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ...


Silver Birch (Betula pendula) is Finland's national tree. Occasionally one uses leafy, fragrant twigs of silver birch to gently beat oneself in a sauna. The twigs are called vihta or vasta. This has a relaxing effect on the muscles. Binomial name Betula pendula Roth. ... A sauna on Lake Vättern, in Karlsborg Municipality, Sweden. ...


Birch is used as firewood due to its high calorific value per unit weight and unit volume. Wood burning is the largest current use of biomass derived energy. ... Heating value (or calorific value) is used to define the amount of heat released during the combustion of a fuel or food. ...


Birch leaves are used to make a diuretic tea and to make extracts for dyes and cosmetics. A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Birch twigs were bound in a bundle, also called birch, to be used for birching, a form of corporal punishment. Birching is corporal punishment with a birch rod, typically a spanking (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Corporal punishment. ...


Many of the First Nations of North America prized the birch for its bark, which due to its light weight, flexibility, and the ease with which it could be stripped from fallen trees, was often used for the construction of strong, waterproof but lightweight canoes, bowls, and tipis. The bark is high in betulin and betulinic acid, phytochemicals which have potential as pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals which show promise as industrial lubricants. First Nations is a term of ethnicity used in Canada. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... A wood-and-canvas canoe evokes the heritage of canoeing in North America A canoe is a small narrow boat, typically human-powered, but also commonly sailed. ... A tipi of the Nez Perce tribe. ... Betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol)is an abundant naturally occuring triterpene. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients; these terms are often used interchangeably. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ...


Birch bark can be soaked until moist in hot water, and then formed into a cast for a broken arm [citation needed]. It is also used in starting fires. The bark will burn very well, even when wet, because of the oils it contains. With care, the bark can be split into very thin sheets that will ignite from even the smallest of sparks.


Birches also have spiritual importance in several religions, both modern and historical.


Birch wood is also used to make drums. They produce boosted high and low frequencies with loud low end punch that is ideal for studio recordings.


According to the Food Network series Unwrapped, birch is a preferred wood for the manufacture of toothpicks. Food Network is an American cable network that airs many specials and recurring (episodic) shows about food. ... Unwrapped, a program on Food Network, reveals the origins and history of popular and not-so-popular foods. ... A toothpick is a piece of wood or other substance such as plastic used to remove food from the teeth after a meal. ...


The inner bark of birch can be ingested.


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Betula

In India the thin bark coming off in winter was used as writing paper. This has excellent life. the paper is known as bhoorj patra. Bhoorj is the sanskrit name of tree and patra means paper.


 
 

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