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Encyclopedia > Bipropellant rocket
F-1 rocket engine (The kind used by the Saturn V.)
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F-1 rocket engine (The kind used by the Saturn V.)

A bipropellant rocket engine is a rocket engine that uses two fluid propellants stored in separate tanks that are injected into, and undergo a strong exothermic reaction, in a rocket's combustion chamber. In contrast, solid rockets have single solid propellant, and hybrid rockets use a solid propellant lining the combustion chamber that reacts with an injected fluid. Because bipropellant systems permit precise mixture control, they are often more efficient than solid or hybrid rockets, but are normally more complex and expensive, particularly when turbopumps are used to pump the propellants into the chamber to save weight. F-1 rocket engine. ... F-1 rocket engine. ... A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites, or in short, to provide delta-v. ... A subset of the phases of matter, fluids include liquids, gases, plasmas and, to some extent, plastic solids. ... Exothermic means to release energy in the form of heat. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters Solid rockets are rockets with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... A hybrid rocket propulsion system is a rocket engine that comprises of a solid propellant lining a combustion chamber into which a liquid or gaseous propellant is injected so as to undergo a strong exothermic reaction to produce hot gas that is emitted through a De Laval nozzle for propulsive... A turbopump can refer to either of two types of pump. ... Mass is a property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter it contains. ...

Contents


Properties of bipropellant rockets

Bipropellant rocket engines are extremely powerful rockets- they can provide the highest specific impulse of all current Earth launchable rocket engines whilst at the same time as providing thrust to weight ratios of 70-100+, and permitting extraordinarily lightweight tankage and vehicle structure. The specific impulse (commonly abbreviated Isp) of a propulsion system is the impulse (change in momentum) per unit of propellant. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The highest ISP bipropellant rocket engine in existence is the hydrogen/oxgen fuelled SSME which gives very high performance; but in terms of overall performance the dense-fuelled NK-33 is comparable due to better mass ratios; inspite of lower specific impulse. Space Shuttle Main Engine block The Space Shuttle orbiter has three main engines. ... The NK-33 was the rocket engine designed and built for the ill-fated Russian N-1 rocket moon shot. ...


Principle of operation

Bipropellant rockets have to introduce the propellants into the chamber at high pressure, mixing them well to give stable and thorough combustion and stop the chamber from melting.


As propellants need to leave the tanks at sufficiently high rate they are stored under pressure, normally as liquids for maximum density. Gaseous storage can be used but is rarely employed as the tanks are inevitably heavy. Liquid propellants are pressurised by a pressurant gas, either an inert one, often helium, or in some cases the vapourised propellant itself is used. Early experiments by Goddard of directly pressurising the fuel with oxidiser vapour caused mysterious explosions, and this is no longer done; although sometimes this is still done but with a flexible membrane to avoid mixing. Illustration of the Buran Shuttle on an Energiya booster rocket Buran_Energia on the launch pad at Baikonur Buran_Energia on the pad Buran on liftoff Buran on touchdown Buran piggybacked on an An-225 carrier The Soviet reusable spacecraft program Buran (Бура́н meaning snowstorm or blizzard in Russian) began in 1976...


The propellants to enter the combustion chamber must be introduced at high pressure (typically 2 to 20 MPa (20–200 atm) and reasonably high flow (0.1-1000+ liters per second). This is achieved either via high pressure (heavy) tankage, or from lightweight, low pressure tankage through suitable pumps. The pumps used are typically turbopumps, often powered by tapping off 1-2% of the propellants or using a separate system, such as decomposed hydrogen peroxide and powering the pump via a gas turbine. The exhaust from the gas turbine is either dumped over the side, used to cool the nozzle, or placed into the combustion chamber. A turbopump can refer to either of two types of pump. ...


Propellants are introduced to the combustion chamber through injectors. Injectors can be as simple as drilled holes with sharp edges which aim jets of liquid propellants to collide with the optimum mixture ratios. However, liquid fuels are not precisely flammable- the liquids must be first turned to gas before combustion can take place. This readily occurs within the engine, but takes longer and uses up volume in the chamber. High performance rocket engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engines take great pains to gasify the propellants before injection into the chamber. This gives more thorough, quicker and much more stable combustion; and permits the combustion chamber to be smaller and hence lighter. The injector is a devise like a pump but without rotating parts, to pump any fluid into a container under pressure or discharge under pressure with suitable arrangements. ... Space Shuttle Main Engine block The Space Shuttle orbiter has three main engines. ...


The injectors' job is also to drop the pressure slightly from the propellant line feeds. This decouples the flow through the injectors from the natural variations in chamber pressure that occur during the combustion process. Failure to drop sufficient pressure in the injectors can cause oscillations in pressure in the chamber that can badly damage the engine and cause 'hard-starts' or even self disassembly of the engine during the ignition process. Gasoline explosions, simulating bomb drops at an airshow. ...


The high temperature combustion products accelerate along the chamber from the injectors and then pass through the throat; and then expand out the nozzle, pressing on the inside of the nozzle, accelerating and generating an equal and opposite thrust on the rocket.


Cooling

The combustion process can generate temperatures as high as 3500 kelvins; above the melting point of all materials. Combustion chambers that need to survive for any length of time do so by continuously cooling the solid walls.


The coolant methods include:

  1. uncooled (used for short runs mainly during testing)
  2. ablative walls (walls are lined with a material that is continuously vapourised and carried away).
  3. radiative cooling (the chamber becomes almost white hot and radiates the heat away)
  4. dump cooling (a propellant, usually hydrogen, is passed around the chamber and dumped)
  5. regenerative cooling (uses the propellant to cool the chamber via a cooling jacket)
  6. curtain cooling (propellant is arranged so the temperature of the gases is cooler at the walls)
  7. film cooling (surfaces are wetted with liquid propellant, which cools as it evaporates)

Propellants

Thousands of combinations of fuels and oxidizers have been tried over the years. Some of the more common and practical ones are:

  • T-Stoff (80% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 as the oxidizer) and C-Stoff (methanol, CH3OH, and hydrazine hydrate, N2H4n(H2O as the fuel) - Walter Werke HWK 109-509 engine used on Messerschmitt Me 163B Komet a rocket fighterplane of (WW2)
  • inhibited red fuming nitric acid (IRFNA, HNO3 + N2O4) and unsymmetric dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH, (CH3)2N2H2) Soviet Scud-B,-C,-D, aka SS-1-c,-d,-e
  • hydrogen peroxide and kerosene - UK (1970s) Black Arrow, USA Development (or study): BA-3200
  • hydrazine (N2H4) and red fuming nitric acid - Nike Ajax Antiaircraft Rocket
  • Unsymmetric dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and dinitrogen tetroxide - Proton rocket and various Soviet rockets
Robert Goddard and his rocket
Robert Goddard and his rocket

One of the most efficient mixture, oxygen and hydrogen, suffers from the extremely low temperatures required for storing hydrogen and oxygen as liquids (around 20 K or −253 °C)) and low fuel density (70 kg/m3), necessitating large and heavy tanks. The use of lightweight foam to insulate the cryogenic tanks caused problems for the Space Shuttle Columbia's STS-107 mission. Lox can stand for any of several things: Lox (salmon) - a type of salmon produce LOx (oxidizer) - liquid oxygen used as oxidizer in aerospace The Lox - was a Yonkers, NY-based rap trio This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... LH2 is an acronym used in the aerospace industry, which stands for liquid hydrogen. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA). ... Ariane 5 lifts off with the Rosetta probe on 2 March 2004. ... This article is about the rocket. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated verson of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ... The Saturn I was Americas first large clustered rocket. ... Model of Centaur with Surveyor as payload. ... Russian kerosene lamp Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin) is a colorless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... RP-1 (refined petroleum) is a highly refined form of kerosene similar to jet fuel, used in the United States as a rocket fuel. ... This article is about the rocket. ... The Zenit rocket (Ukrainian: Зеніт, Russian: Зени́т; meaning Zenith) is a space launch vehicle manufactured by the Yuzhnoe Design Bureau of Ukraine. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Soyuz rocket on launch pad. ... Delta EELV family of launch vehicles (US Govt) Delta rocket (sometimes retroactively called Delta I) Delta II rocket Delta III rocket Delta IV rocket The Delta family of expendable launch vehicles has been a mainstay of the United States space launch capability since 1960. ... The Saturn I was Americas first large clustered rocket. ... The Saturn IB was an uprated verson of the Saturn I, which was the first manned launch vehicle that was not directly derived from an ICBM (though its tanks were derived from the Jupiter and Redstone tanks, and its first stage engines were Navaho derived). ... Titan was a family of U.S. expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005. ... Mercury Atlas 9 rocket and capsule on pad The Atlas is a venerable line of space launch vehicles built by Lockheed Martin. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II... German test launch. ... First launched in 1953, the American Redstone rocket was a direct descendant of the German V-2. ... Gasoline (or petrol) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Robert Goddard Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was one of the pioneers of modern rocketry. ... T-stoff is a bipropellant rocket fuel (oxidizer) of WW2 times developed in Germany. ... C-Stoff (C substance) was an reductant used in bipropellant rocket fuels developed by Helmuth Walter Werke in Germany during World War 2. ... The Me 163 Komet was the only operational rocket fighter aircraft. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point not applicable RTECS number QU5775000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Polish missile wz. ... The SS-1 is the standard assault rifle of the Indonesian armed forces. ... RFNA is a rocket fuel (a storeable oxidiser): red fuming nitric acid. ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) (1,1-Dimethylhydrazine) is a hypergolic rocket fuel ingredient, often used in combination with the oxidiser nitrogen tetroxide. ... Polish missile wz. ... The SS-1 is the standard assault rifle of the Indonesian armed forces. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or dinitrogen tetroxide) (N2O4) is a hypergolic propellant often used in combination with a hydrazine-based rocket fuel. ... Shahab is a common Persian name. ... Black Arrow was a British satellite launch vehicle based on the Black Knight rocket. ... Hydrazine is a chemical compound with formula N2H4 used as a rocket fuel. ... Aerozine 50 is a 50/50 mix of hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). ... Titan was a family of U.S. expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005. ... Description Role: Lunar landing Crew: 2; CDR, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 20. ... A spacecrafts service module is a compartment containing a variety of support systems used for spacecraft operations, but not any habitable area. ... A NASA artists rendition of a Voyager spacecraft The Voyager 1 spacecraft is an 815-kilogram unmanned probe of the outer solar system and beyond, launched September 5, 1977, and currently operational. ... The Voyager 2 spacecraft was launched in 1977. ... The Proton (Прото́н) rocket (formal designation: UR-500, also known as D-1) is a Russian unmanned space vehicle design first launched in 1965 and still in use as of 2005. ... Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a volatile hydrazine with the chemical formula CH3N2H3. ... Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a volatile hydrazine with the chemical formula CH3N2H2. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA). ... The Orbital Maneuvering System, or OMS, is a system of rocket engines used on the Space Shuttle for orbital injection and modifying its orbit. ... Download high resolution version (512x628, 229 KB)First Flight of a Liquid Propellant Rocket Full Description Dr. Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline bipropellant rocket in the frame from which it was fired on March 16, 1926, at Auburn, Massachusetts. ... Download high resolution version (512x628, 229 KB)First Flight of a Liquid Propellant Rocket Full Description Dr. Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline bipropellant rocket in the frame from which it was fired on March 16, 1926, at Auburn, Massachusetts. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... The STS-107 crewmembers strike a ‘flying’ pose for their traditional in-flight crew portrait in the SPACEHAB aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. ...


For storable ICBMs or interplanetary spacecraft, keeping the fuel cool seems to be an unsolvable problem. Because of this, mixtures of hydrazine and its derivatives in combination with nitrogen oxides are generally used for such rockets. Hydrazine has its own disadvantages, being a very caustic and volatile chemical. Consequently, hybrid rockets have recently been the vehicle of choice for low-budget private and academic developments in aerospace technology. A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... Hydrazine is a chemical compound with formula N2H4 used as a rocket fuel. ... A hybrid rocket propulsion system is a rocket engine that comprises of a solid propellant lining a combustion chamber into which a liquid or gaseous propellant is injected so as to undergo a strong exothermic reaction to produce hot gas that is emitted through a De Laval nozzle for propulsive...


Small scale rocket engines

XCOR Aerospace, a California based company, is developing small scale rocket engines to power small airplanes for suborbital flights. They have tested various combination of propellants including nitrous oxide/propane, nitrous oxide/alcohol, LOX/alcohol, LOX/kerosene with success. A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight that does not involve putting a vehicle into orbit. ...


See also

A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites, or in short, to provide delta-v. ... A Tripropellant rocket is a form of spacecraft propulsion that uses two fuels and one oxidizer. ... Hypergolic rocket fuels spontaneously ignite when their two components come into contact with each other. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bipropellant rocket - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1223 words)
A bipropellant rocket engine is a rocket engine that uses two fluid propellants stored in separate tanks that are injected into, and undergo a strong exothermic reaction, in a rocket's combustion chamber.
Bipropellant rocket engines are extremely powerful rockets- they can provide the highest specific impulse of all current Earth launchable rocket engines whilst at the same time as providing thrust to weight ratios of 70-100+, and permitting extraordinarily lightweight tankage and vehicle structure.
The highest ISP bipropellant rocket engine in existence is the hydrogen/oxgen fuelled SSME which gives very high performance; but in terms of overall performance the dense-fuelled NK-33 is comparable due to better mass ratios; inspite of lower specific impulse.
Rocket engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (830 words)
Rocket engines take their reaction mass from one or more tanks and form it into a hypersonic jet, obtaining thrust in accordance with Newton's third law.
The speed ratio of a rocket nozzle is mostly determined by its area expansion ratio—the ratio of the area of the throat to the area at the exit, but details of the gas properties are also important.
Rockets emitting plasma can potentially carry out reactions inside a magnetic bottle and release the plasma via a magnetic nozzle, so that no solid matter need come in contact with the plasma.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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