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Encyclopedia > Biotechnology
Insulin crystals
Insulin crystals

Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as:[1] Commons:Image:Insulincrystals. ... Commons:Image:Insulincrystals. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... UN redirects here. ... The Convention on Biological Diversity, known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is an international treaty that was adopted in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. ...

Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

Biotechnology is often used to refer to genetic engineering technology of the 21st century, however the term encompasses a wider range and history of procedures for modifying biological organisms according to the needs of humanity, going back to the initial modifications of native plants into improved food crops through artificial selection and hybridization. Bioengineering is the science upon which all Biotechnological applications are based. With the development of new approaches and modern techniques, traditional biotechnology industries are also acquiring new horizons enabling them to improve the quality of their products and increase the productivity of their systems. Elements of genetic engineering Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that are applied to the direct manipulation of an organisms genes. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ... This article is about a biological term. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) deals with engineering biological processes in general. ...


Before 1971, the term, biotechnology, was primarily used in the food processing and agriculture industries. Since the 1970s, it began to be used by the Western scientific establishment to refer to laboratory-based techniques being developed in biological research, such as recombinant DNA or tissue culture-based processes, or horizontal gene transfer in living plants, using vectors such as the Agrobacterium bacteria to transfer DNA into a host organism. In fact, the term should be used in a much broader sense to describe the whole range of methods, both ancient and modern, used to manipulate organic materials to reach the demands of food production. So the term could be defined as, "The application of indigenous and/or scientific knowledge to the management of (parts of) microorganisms, or of cells and tissues of higher organisms, so that these supply goods and services of use to the food industry and its consumers.[2] Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... Tissue culture refers to the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. ... Species Agrobacterium tumefaciens Agrobacterium rhizogenes áAgrobacterium is a genus of bacteria that causes tumors in plants. ... Biological material may refer to: Biological tissue, or just tissue Biomass, living or dead biological matter, often plants grown as fuel Biomass (ecology), the total mass of living biological matter Biomolecule, a chemical compound that naturally occurs in living organisms Biotic material, from living things Bio-based material, a processed...


Biotechnology combines disciplines like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology and cell biology, which are in turn linked to practical disciplines like chemical engineering, information technology, and robotics. Patho-biotechnology describes the exploitation of pathogens or pathogen derived compounds for beneficial effect. This article is about the general scientific term. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ... The term Patho-biotechnology [1] [2] [3], coined by Dr Roy Sleator and Prof Colin Hill (University College Cork, Ireland) describes the exploitation of pathogenic stress survival factors in biotechnology, medicine and food. ...

Contents

History

Brewing was an early application of biotechnology
Brewing was an early application of biotechnology

The most practical use of biotechnology, which is still present today, is the cultivation of plants to produce food suitable to humans. Agriculture has been theorized to have become the dominant way of producing food since the Neolithic Revolution. The processes and methods of agriculture have been refined by other mechanical and biological sciences since its inception. Through early biotechnology farmers were able to select the best suited and highest-yield crops to produce enough food to support a growing population. Other uses of biotechnology were required as crops and fields became increasingly large and difficult to maintain. Specific organisms and organism byproducts were used to fertilize, restore nitrogen, and control pests. Throughout the use of agriculture farmers have inadvertently altered the genetics of their crops through introducing them to new environments and breeding them with other plants--one of the first forms of biotechnology. Cultures such as those in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India developed the process of brewing beer. It is still done by the same basic method of using malted grains (containing enzymes) to convert starch from grains into sugar and then adding specific yeasts to produce beer. In this process the carbohydrates in the grains were broken down into alcohols such as ethanol. Ancient Indians also used the juices of the plant Ephedra Vulgaris and used to call it Soma. Later other cultures produced the process of Lactic acid fermentation which allowed the fermentation and preservation of other forms of food. Fermentation was also used in this time period to produce leavened bread. Although the process of fermentation was not fully understood until Louis Pasteur’s work in 1857, it is still the first use of biotechnology to convert a food source into another form. Image File history File links 16thCenturyBrewer. ... Image File history File links 16thCenturyBrewer. ... This article is about beer. ... Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... This article is about beer. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... Lactic acid Lactic acid fermentation is a form of fermentation that occurs in some bacteria and animal cells in the absence of oxygen. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ...


Combinations of plants and other organisms were used as medications in many early civilizations. Since as early as 200 BC, people began to use disabled or minute amounts of infectious agents to immunize themselves against infections. These and similar processes have been refined in modern medicine and have led to many developments such as antibiotics, vaccines, and other methods of fighting sickness. A medication is a drug or substance taken to reduce symptoms or cure an illness or medical condition. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ...


In the early twentieth century scientists gained a greater understanding of microbiology and explored ways of manufacturing specific products. In 1917, Chaim Weizmann first used a pure microbiological culture in an industrial process, that of manufacturing corn starch using Clostridium acetobutylicum to produce acetone, which the United Kingdom desperately needed to manufacture explosives during World War I.[3] An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Products made out of cornstarch Cornstarch is the starch of the maize grain, commonly known as corn. ... Clostridium acetobutylicum () is a commercially valuable bacterium, included in the genus Clostridium. ... For other uses, see Acetone (disambiguation). ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The field of modern biotechnology is thought to have largely begun on June 16, 1980, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that a genetically-modified microorganism could be patented in the case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty.[4] Indian-born Ananda Chakrabarty, working for General Electric, had developed a bacterium (derived from the Pseudomonas genus) capable of breaking down crude oil, which he proposed to use in treating oil spills. is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Elements of genetic engineering Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that are applied to the direct manipulation of an organisms genes. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Diamond v. ... GE redirects here. ... Type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa Species group P. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. borbori P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. straminea group P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens group P. antarctica P. azotoformans...


Revenue in the industry is expected to grow by 12.9% in 2008. Another factor influencing the biotechnology sector's success is improved intellectual property rights legislation -- and enforcement -- worldwide, as well as strengthened demand for medical and pharmaceutical products to cope with an ageing, and ailing, U.S. population [5].


Rising demand for biofuels is expected to be good news for the biotechnology sector, with the Department of Energy estimating ethanol usage could reduce U.S. petroleum-derived fuel consumption by up to 30% by 2030. The biotechnology sector has allowed the U.S. farming industry to rapidly increase its supply of corn and soybeans -- the main inputs into biofuels -- by developing genetically-modified seeds which are resistant to pests and drought. By boosting farm productivity, biotechnology plays a crucial role in ensuring that biofuel production targets are met[6]. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


Applications

Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ...


For example, one application of biotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products). Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching. Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, clean up sites contaminated by industrial activities (bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons. Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... A glass of cows milk. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Bioleaching is the extraction of specific metals from their ores through the use of bacteria. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ...


A series of derived terms have been coined to identify several branches of biotechnology, for example:

A rose plant that began as cells grown in a tissue culture
A rose plant that began as cells grown in a tissue culture
  • Green biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. An example would be the selection and domestication of plants via micropropagation. Another example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environmental conditions or in the presence (or absence) of certain agricultural chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture. An example of this is the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides. An example of this would be Bt corn. Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this are ultimately more environmentally friendly is a topic of considerable debate.
  • White biotechnology, also known as industrial biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. Another example is the using of enzymes as industrial catalysts to either produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous/polluting chemicals. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods.
  • Blue biotechnology is a term that has been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.
  • The investments and economic output of all of these types of applied biotechnologies form what has been described as the bioeconomy.
  • Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be defined as, "conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale."[7] Bioinformatics plays a key role in various areas, such as functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector.

Biopharmaceuticals are medical drugs (see pharmacology) produced by biotechnology. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... A rose plant that began as cells grown in a tissue culture Micropropagation is the practice of rapidly multiplying stock plant material to produce a large number of progeny plants, using modern plant tissue culture methods. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Transgenic maize (corn) has been deliberately genetically modified to have agronomically desirable traits. ... Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... The term Bioeconomy refers to all economic activity derived from: a) the scientific and research activity focused on understanting mechanisms and processes at the genetic and molecular levels, and b) the application of this knowledge to any industrial process. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... A DNA microarray Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data produced by genomic projects (such as genome sequencing projects) to describe gene (and protein!) functions and interactions. ... Structural genomics or structural bioinformatics refers to the analysis of macromolecular structure particularly proteins. ... For the journal Proteomics, see Proteomics (journal). ...

Medicine

In medicine, modern biotechnology finds promising applications in such areas as

Pharmacogenomics is the branch of pharmacology which deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a drugs efficacy or toxicity. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one. ...

Pharmacogenomics

DNA Microarray chip -- Some can do as many as a million blood tests at once
Main article: Pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how the genetic inheritance of an individual affects his/her body’s response to drugs. It is a coined word derived from the words “pharmacology” and “genomics”. It is hence the study of the relationship between pharmaceuticals and genetics. The vision of pharmacogenomics is to be able to design and produce drugs that are adapted to each person’s genetic makeup.[8] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (835x507, 133 KB) Summary Example of an approximately 37,500 probe spotted oligo microarray with enlarged inset to show detail Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (835x507, 133 KB) Summary Example of an approximately 37,500 probe spotted oligo microarray with enlarged inset to show detail Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For terminology, see DNA_microarray#Glossary. ... Pharmacogenomics is the branch of pharmacology which deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a drugs efficacy or toxicity. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ...


Pharmacogenomics results in the following benefits:[8]


1. Development of tailor-made medicines. Using pharmacogenomics, pharmaceutical companies can create drugs based on the proteins, enzymes and RNA molecules that are associated with specific genes and diseases. These tailor-made drugs promise not only to maximize therapeutic effects but also to decrease damage to nearby healthy cells. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ...


2. More accurate methods of determining appropriate drug dosages. Knowing a patient’s genetics will enable doctors to determine how well his/ her body can process and metabolize a medicine. This will maximize the value of the medicine and decrease the likelihood of overdose.


3. Improvements in the drug discovery and approval process. The discovery of potential therapies will be made easier using genome targets. Genes have been associated with numerous diseases and disorders. With modern biotechnology, these genes can be used as targets for the development of effective new therapies, which could significantly shorten the drug discovery process.


4. Better vaccines. Safer vaccines can be designed and produced by organisms transformed by means of genetic engineering. These vaccines will elicit the immune response without the attendant risks of infection. They will be inexpensive, stable, easy to store, and capable of being engineered to carry several strains of pathogen at once.


Pharmaceutical products

Computer-generated image of insulin hexamers highlighting the threefold symmetry, the zinc ions holding it together, and the histidine residues involved in zinc binding.
Computer-generated image of insulin hexamers highlighting the threefold symmetry, the zinc ions holding it together, and the histidine residues involved in zinc binding.

Most traditional pharmaceutical drugs are relatively simple molecules that have been found primarily through trial and error to treat the symptoms of a disease or illness. Biopharmaceuticals are large biological molecules known as proteins and these usually target the underlying mechanisms and pathways of a malady (but not always, as is the case with using insulin to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus, as that treatment merely addresses the symptoms of the disease, not the underlying cause which is autoimmunity); it is a relatively young industry. They can deal with targets in humans that may not be accessible with traditional medicines. A patient typically is dosed with a small molecule via a tablet while a large molecule is typically injected. Image File history File links InsulinHexamer. ... Image File history File links InsulinHexamer. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ... Biopharmaceuticals are medical drugs (see pharmacology) produced by biotechnology. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ... Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts (down to the sub-molecular levels) as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues. ...


Small molecules are manufactured by chemistry but larger molecules are created by living cells such as those found in the human body: for example, bacteria cells, yeast cells, animal or plant cells.


Modern biotechnology is often associated with the use of genetically altered microorganisms such as E. coli or yeast for the production of substances like synthetic insulin or antibiotics. It can also refer to transgenic animals or transgenic plants, such as Bt corn. Genetically altered mammalian cells, such as Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, are also used to manufacture certain pharmaceuticals. Another promising new biotechnology application is the development of plant-made pharmaceuticals. A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... GMO redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Genetically modified maize (corn) has been engineered and is grown commercailly in the United States. ... Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO cells) are a cell line derived from Chinese Hamster ovary cells. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Biotechnology is also commonly associated with landmark breakthroughs in new medical therapies to treat hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cancers, arthritis, haemophilia, bone fractures, multiple sclerosis, and cardiovascular disorders. The biotechnology industry has also been instrumental in developing molecular diagnostic devices than can be used to define the target patient population for a given biopharmaceutical. Herceptin, for example, was the first drug approved for use with a matching diagnostic test and is used to treat breast cancer in women whose cancer cells express the protein HER2. “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... For other uses, see Cancer (disambiguation). ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Haemophilia (also spelled as hemophilia, from the Greek haima blood and philia to love[1]) is a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the bodys ability to control blood clotting or coagulation. ... Internal and external views of an arm with a compound fracture, both before and after surgery A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone becomes cracked, splintered, or bisected as a result of physical trauma. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Herceptin (or Trastuzumab) is an anti-cancer therapy that acts on the erbB2 receptor. ... HER2/neu (also known as ErbB-2) is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and is notable for its role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and as a target of treatment. ...


Modern biotechnology can be used to manufacture existing medicines relatively easily and cheaply. The first genetically engineered products were medicines designed to treat human diseases. To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a plasmid vector inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli. Insulin, widely used for the treatment of diabetes, was previously extracted from the pancreas of abattoir animals (cattle and/or pigs). The resulting genetically engineered bacterium enabled the production of vast quantities of synthetic human insulin at relatively low cost[9], although the cost savings was used to increase profits for manufacturers, not passed on to consumers or their healthcare providers. According to a 2003 study undertaken by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) on the access to and availability of insulin in its member countries, synthetic 'human' insulin is considerably more expensive in most countries where both synthetic 'human' and animal insulin are commercially available: e.g. within European countries the average price of synthetic 'human' insulin was twice as high as the price of pork insulin[10]. Yet in its position statement, the IDF writes that "there is no overwhelming evidence to prefer one species of insulin over another" and "[modern, highly-purified] animal insulins remain a perfectly acceptable alternative[11]. Building 32, one of Genentech headquarters newer buildings, is located on the San Francisco Bay in South San Francisco, California Genentech Inc. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ... E. coli redirects here. ...


Modern biotechnology has evolved, making it possible to produce more easily and relatively cheaply human growth hormone, clotting factors for hemophiliacs, fertility drugs, erythropoietin and other drugs.[12] Most drugs today are based on about 500 molecular targets. Genomic knowledge of the genes involved in diseases, disease pathways, and drug-response sites are expected to lead to the discovery of thousands more new targets.[12] Human growth hormone can refer to: For physiology of human growth hormone, see growth hormone. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive, carry or deliver a healthy child. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ...


Genetic testing

Genetic testing involves the direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. A scientist scans a patient’s DNA sample for mutated sequences. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 445 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Agarose gel electrophoresis Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 445 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Agarose gel electrophoresis Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Gel electrophoresis is a technique used for the separation of deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or protein molecules using an electric current applied to a gel matrix. ... Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a persons ancestry. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


There are two major types of gene tests. In the first type, a researcher may design short pieces of DNA (“probes”) whose sequences are complementary to the mutated sequences. These probes will seek their complement among the base pairs of an individual’s genome. If the mutated sequence is present in the patient’s genome, the probe will bind to it and flag the mutation. In the second type, a researcher may conduct the gene test by comparing the sequence of DNA bases in a patient’s gene to disease in healthy individuals or their progeny.


Genetic testing is now used for:

  • Determining sex
  • Carrier screening, or the identification of unaffected individuals who carry one copy of a gene for a disease that requires two copies for the disease to manifest
  • Prenatal diagnostic screening
  • Newborn screening
  • Presymptomatic testing for predicting adult-onset disorders
  • Presymptomatic testing for estimating the risk of developing adult-onset cancers
  • Confirmational diagnosis of symptomatic individuals
  • Forensic/identity testing

Some genetic tests are already available, although most of them are used in developed countries. The tests currently available can detect mutations associated with rare genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Huntington’s disease. Recently, tests have been developed to detect mutation for a handful of more complex conditions such as breast, ovarian, and colon cancers. However, gene tests may not detect every mutation associated with a particular condition because many are as yet undiscovered, and the ones they do detect may present different risks to different people and populations.[12] Sickle-shaped red blood cells Sickle cell anemia (American English), sickle cell anaemia (British English) or sickle cell disease is a genetic disease in which red blood cells may change shape under certain circumstances. ... Huntingtons disease, known historically as Huntingtons chorea and chorea maior, is a rare inherited neurological disorder affecting up to approximately 1 person per 10,000 people of Western European descent and 1 per 1,000,000 of Asian and African descent. ...


Controversial questions
The bacterium E. coli is routinely genetically engineered.
The bacterium E. coli is routinely genetically engineered.

Several issues have been raised regarding the use of genetic testing: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2598x1889, 899 KB) Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2598x1889, 899 KB) Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ...


1. Absence of cure. There is still a lack of effective treatment or preventive measures for many diseases and conditions now being diagnosed or predicted using gene tests. Thus, revealing information about risk of a future disease that has no existing cure presents an ethical dilemma for medical practitioners.


2. Ownership and control of genetic information. Who will own and control genetic information, or information about genes, gene products, or inherited characteristics derived from an individual or a group of people like indigenous communities? At the macro level, there is a possibility of a genetic divide, with developing countries that do not have access to medical applications of biotechnology being deprived of benefits accruing from products derived from genes obtained from their own people. Moreover, genetic information can pose a risk for minority population groups as it can lead to group stigmatization.


At the individual level, the absence of privacy and anti-discrimination legal protections in most countries can lead to discrimination in employment or insurance or other misuse of personal genetic information. This raises questions such as whether genetic privacy is different from medical privacy.[13]


3. Reproductive issues. These include the use of genetic information in reproductive decision-making and the possibility of genetically altering reproductive cells that may be passed on to future generations. For example, germline therapy forever changes the genetic make-up of an individual’s descendants. Thus, any error in technology or judgment may have far-reaching consequences. Ethical issues like designer babies and human cloning have also given rise to controversies between and among scientists and bioethicists, especially in the light of past abuses with eugenics. Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...


4. Clinical issues. These center on the capabilities and limitations of doctors and other health-service providers, people identified with genetic conditions, and the general public in dealing with genetic information.


5. Effects on social institutions. Genetic tests reveal information about individuals and their families. Thus, test results can affect the dynamics within social institutions, particularly the family.


6. Conceptual and philosophical implications regarding human responsibility, free will vis-à-vis genetic determinism, and the concepts of health and disease.


Gene therapy

Main article: Gene therapy
Gene therapy using an Adenovirus vector. A new gene is inserted into an adenovirus vector, which is used to introduce the modified DNA into a human cell. If the treatment is successful, the new gene will make a functional protein.
Gene therapy using an Adenovirus vector. A new gene is inserted into an adenovirus vector, which is used to introduce the modified DNA into a human cell. If the treatment is successful, the new gene will make a functional protein.

Gene therapy may be used for treating, or even curing, genetic and acquired diseases like cancer and AIDS by using normal genes to supplement or replace defective genes or to bolster a normal function such as immunity. It can be used to target somatic (i.e., body) or germ (i.e., egg and sperm) cells. In somatic gene therapy, the genome of the recipient is changed, but this change is not passed along to the next generation. In contrast, in germline gene therapy, the egg and sperm cells of the parents are changed for the purpose of passing on the changes to their offspring. Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one. ... Gene therapy using an Adenovirus vector File links The following pages link to this file: Gene therapy Categories: National Institutes of Health images ... Gene therapy using an Adenovirus vector File links The following pages link to this file: Gene therapy Categories: National Institutes of Health images ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...


There are basically two ways of implementing a gene therapy treatment:


1. Ex vivo, which means “outside the body” – Cells from the patient’s blood or bone marrow are removed and grown in the laboratory. They are then exposed to a virus carrying the desired gene. The virus enters the cells, and the desired gene becomes part of the DNA of the cells. The cells are allowed to grow in the laboratory before being returned to the patient by injection into a vein. For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ...


2. In vivo, which means “inside the body” – No cells are removed from the patient’s body. Instead, vectors are used to deliver the desired gene to cells in the patient’s body.


Currently, the use of gene therapy is limited. Somatic gene therapy is primarily at the experimental stage. Germline therapy is the subject of much discussion but it is not being actively investigated in larger animals and human beings.


As of June 2001, more than 500 clinical gene-therapy trials involving about 3,500 patients have been identified worldwide. Around 78% of these are in the United States, with Europe having 18%. These trials focus on various types of cancer, although other multigenic diseases are being studied as well. Recently, two children born with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (“SCID”) were reported to have been cured after being given genetically engineered cells. Severe combined immunodeficiency, or SCID, is a genetic disorder in which both arms (B cells and T cells) of the adaptive immune system are crippled, due to a defect in one of several possible genes. ...


Gene therapy faces many obstacles before it can become a practical approach for treating disease.[14] At least four of these obstacles are as follows:


1. Gene delivery tools. Genes are inserted into the body using gene carriers called vectors. The most common vectors now are viruses, which have evolved a way of encapsulating and delivering their genes to human cells in a pathogenic manner. Scientists manipulate the genome of the virus by removing the disease-causing genes and inserting the therapeutic genes. However, while viruses are effective, they can introduce problems like toxicity, immune and inflammatory responses, and gene control and targeting issues.


2. Limited knowledge of the functions of genes. Scientists currently know the functions of only a few genes. Hence, gene therapy can address only some genes that cause a particular disease. Worse, it is not known exactly whether genes have more than one function, which creates uncertainty as to whether replacing such genes is indeed desirable.


3. Multigene disorders and effect of environment. Most genetic disorders involve more than one gene. Moreover, most diseases involve the interaction of several genes and the environment. For example, many people with cancer not only inherit the disease gene for the disorder, but may have also failed to inherit specific tumor suppressor genes. Diet, exercise, smoking and other environmental factors may have also contributed to their disease.


4. High costs. Since gene therapy is relatively new and at an experimental stage, it is an expensive treatment to undertake. This explains why current studies are focused on illnesses commonly found in developed countries, where more people can afford to pay for treatment. It may take decades before developing countries can take advantage of this technology.


Human Genome Project

DNA Replication image from the Human Genome Project (HGP)
DNA Replication image from the Human Genome Project (HGP)

The Human Genome Project is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (“DOE”) that aims to generate a high-quality reference sequence for the entire human genome and identify all the human genes. DNA replication. ... DNA replication. ... DNA replication. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ...


The DOE and its predecessor agencies were assigned by the U.S. Congress to develop new energy resources and technologies and to pursue a deeper understanding of potential health and environmental risks posed by their production and use. In 1986, the DOE announced its Human Genome Initiative. Shortly thereafter, the DOE and National Institutes of Health developed a plan for a joint Human Genome Project (“HGP”), which officially began in 1990.


The HGP was originally planned to last 15 years. However, rapid technological advances and worldwide participation accelerated the completion date to 2003 (making it a 13 year project). Already it has enabled gene hunters to pinpoint genes associated with more than 30 disorders.[15]


Cloning

Cloning involves the removal of the nucleus from one cell and its placement in an unfertilized egg cell whose nucleus has either been deactivated or removed.


There are two types of cloning:


1. Reproductive cloning. After a few divisions, the egg cell is placed into a uterus where it is allowed to develop into a fetus that is genetically identical to the donor of the original nucleus.


2. Therapeutic cloning.[16] The egg is placed into a Petri dish where it develops into embryonic stem cells, which have shown potentials for treating several ailments.[17] Man looking at fungus inside of petri dishes A Petri dish is a shallow glass or plastic cylindrical dish that biologists use to culture microbes. ...


In February 1997, cloning became the focus of media attention when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute announced the successful cloning of a sheep, named Dolly, from the mammary glands of an adult female. The cloning of Dolly made it apparent to many that the techniques used to produce her could someday be used to clone human beings.[18] This stirred a lot of controversy because of its ethical implications.


Agriculture

Improve yield from crops

Using the techniques of modern biotechnology, one or two genes may be transferred to a highly developed crop variety to impart a new character that would increase its yield (30). However, while increases in crop yield are the most obvious applications of modern biotechnology in agriculture, it is also the most difficult one. Current genetic engineering techniques work best for effects that are controlled by a single gene. Many of the genetic characteristics associated with yield (e.g., enhanced growth) are controlled by a large number of genes, each of which has a minimal effect on the overall yield (31). There is, therefore, much scientific work to be done in this area. For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ...


Reduced vulnerability of crops to environmental stresses

Crops containing genes that will enable them to withstand biotic and abiotic stresses may be developed. For example, drought and excessively salty soil are two important limiting factors in crop productivity. Biotechnologists are studying plants that can cope with these extreme conditions in the hope of finding the genes that enable them to do so and eventually transferring these genes to the more desirable crops. One of the latest developments is the identification of a plant gene, At-DBF2, from thale cress, a tiny weed that is often used for plant research because it is very easy to grow and its genetic code is well mapped out. When this gene was inserted into tomato and tobacco see RNA interference cells, the cells were able to withstand environmental stresses like salt, drought, cold and heat, far more than ordinary cells. If these preliminary results prove successful in larger trials, then At-DBF2 genes can help in engineering crops that can better withstand harsh environments (32). Researchers have also created transgenic rice plants that are resistant to rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV). In Africa, this virus destroys majority of the rice crops and makes the surviving plants more susceptible to fungal infections (33). Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... In biology, agricultural science, physiology, and ecology, a limiting factor is one that controls a process, such as organism growth or species population size or distribution. ... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is a plant pathogenic virus. ...


Increased nutritional qualities of food crops

Proteins in foods may be modified to increase their nutritional qualities. Proteins in legumes and cereals may be transformed to provide the amino acids needed by human beings for a balanced diet (34). A good example is the work of Professors Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer on the so-called Goldenrice(discussed below). Ingo Potrykus - retired since April 1999 - was full Professor of Plant Sciences, specifically of Biotechnology of Plants, at the Institute of Plant Sciences of the ETH Zurich since June 1, 1987. ...


Improved taste, texture or appearance of food

Modern biotechnology can be used to slow down the process of spoilage so that fruit can ripen longer on the plant and then be transported to the consumer with a still reasonable shelf life. This improves the taste, texture and appearance of the fruit. More importantly, it could expand the market for farmers in developing countries due to the reduction in spoilage.


The first genetically modified food product was a tomato which was transformed to delay its ripening (35). Researchers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam are currently working on delayed-ripening papaya in collaboration with the University of Nottingham and Zeneca (36). The University of Nottingham is a leading research university in the city of Nottingham, in the East Midlands of England. ... AstraZeneca PLC, is a large Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical company formed on 6 April 1999 by the merger of Swedish Astra AB and British Zeneca Group PLC. Zeneca was part of Imperial Chemical Industries prior to a demerger in 1993. ...


Biotechnology in cheese production[19]: enzymes produced by micro-organisms provide an alternative to animal rennet – a cheese coagulant - and an alternative supply for cheese makers. This also eliminates possible public concerns with animal-derived material, although there is currently no plans to develop synthetic milk, thus making this argument less compelling. Enzymes offer an animal-friendly alternative to animal rennet. While providing comparable quality, they are theoretically also less expensive.


About 85 million tons of wheat flour is used every year to bake bread[20]. By adding an enzyme called maltogenic amylase to the flour, bread stays fresher longer. Assuming that 10-15% of bread is thrown away, if it could just stay fresh another 5–7 days then 2 million tons of flour per year would be saved. That corresponds to 40% of the bread consumed in a country such as the USA. This means more bread becomes available with no increase in input. In combination with other enzymes, bread can also be made bigger, more appetizing and better in a range of ways.


Reduced dependence on fertilizers, pesticides and other agrochemicals

Most of the current commercial applications of modern biotechnology in agriculture are on reducing the dependence of farmers on agrochemicals. For example, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a soil bacterium that produces a protein with insecticidal qualities. Traditionally, a fermentation process has been used to produce an insecticidal spray from these bacteria. In this form, the Bt toxin occurs as an inactive protoxin, which requires digestion by an insect to be effective. There are several Bt toxins and each one is specific to certain target insects. Crop plants have now been engineered to contain and express the genes for Bt toxin, which they produce in its active form. When a susceptible insect ingests the transgenic crop cultivar expressing the Bt protein, it stops feeding and soon thereafter dies as a result of the Bt toxin binding to its gut wall. Bt corn is now commercially available in a number of countries to control corn borer (a lepidopteran insect), which is otherwise controlled by spraying (a more difficult process). Agrichemical (or agrochemical) is a generic term for the various synthetic chemical products manufactured and sold for use in agriculture. ... Binomial name Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Binomial name Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Binomial name (Hübner, 1796) The European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) is a pest of maize, and is native to Europe although it is found in North America as well. ...


Crops have also been genetically engineered to acquire tolerance to broad-spectrum herbicide. The lack of cost-effective herbicides with broad-spectrum activity and no crop injury was a consistent limitation in crop weed management. Multiple applications of numerous herbicides were routinely used to control a wide range of weed species detrimental to agronomic crops. Weed management tended to rely on preemergence — that is, herbicide applications were sprayed in response to expected weed infestations rather than in response to actual weeds present. Mechanical cultivation and hand weeding were often necessary to control weeds not controlled by herbicide applications. The introduction of herbicide tolerant crops has the potential of reducing the number of herbicide active ingredients used for weed management, reducing the number of herbicide applications made during a season, and increasing yield due to improved weed management and less crop injury. Transgenic crops that express tolerance to glyphosphate, glufosinate and bromoxynil have been developed. These herbicides can now be sprayed on transgenic crops without inflicting damage on the crops while killing nearby weeds (37). An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... Chemical structure of ammonium glufosinate Glufosinate or its ammonium salt is an active ingredient in several nonselective systemic herbicides - Basta, Rely, Finale, Challenge and Liberty. ...


From 1996 to 2001, herbicide tolerance was the most dominant trait introduced to commercially available transgenic crops, followed by insect resistance. In 2001, herbicide tolerance deployed in soybean, corn and cotton accounted for 77% of the 626,000 square kilometres planted to transgenic crops; Bt crops accounted for 15%; and "stacked genes" for herbicide tolerance and insect resistance used in both cotton and corn accounted for 8% (38). Soy redirects here. ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...


Production of novel substances in crop plants

Biotechnology is being applied for novel uses other than food. For example, oilseed can be modified to produce fatty acids for detergents, substitute fuels and petrochemicals.[citation needed] Potatos, tomatos, rice, tobacco, lettuce, safflowers, and other plants have been genetically-engineered to produce insulin[citation needed] and certain vaccines. If future clinical trials prove successful, the advantages of edible vaccines would be enormous, especially for developing countries. The transgenic plants may be grown locally and cheaply. Homegrown vaccines would also avoid logistical and economic problems posed by having to transport traditional preparations over long distances and keeping them cold while in transit. And since they are edible, they will not need syringes, which are not only an additional expense in the traditional vaccine preparations but also a source of infections if contaminated.[21] In the case of insulin grown in transgenic plants, it is well-established that the gastrointestinal system breaks the protein down therefore this could not currently be administered as an edible protein. However, it might be produced at significantly lower cost than insulin produced in costly, bioreactors. For example, Calgary, Canada-based SemBioSys Genetics, Inc. reports that its safflower-produced insulin will reduce unit costs by over 25% or more and reduce the capital costs associated with building a commercial-scale insulin manufacturing facility by approximately over $100 million compared to traditional biomanufacturing facilities[1]. Vegetable oil or vegoil is fat extracted from plant sources. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Binomial name L. Lettuce and chicory output in 2005 Vit. ... Binomial name Carthamus tinctorius (Mohler, Roth, Schmidt & Boudreaux, 1967) Safflower is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual, usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


Criticism

There is another side to the agricultural biotechnology issue however. It includes increased herbicide usage and resultant herbicide resistance, "super weeds," residues on and in food crops, genetic contamination of non-GM crops which hurt organic and conventional farmers, damage to wildlife from glyphosate, etc.[2][3] An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... It has been suggested that Roundup be merged into this article or section. ...


Biological engineering

Main article: Bioengineering

Biotechnological engineering or biological engineering is a branch of engineering that focuses on biotechnologies and biological science. It includes different disciplines such as biochemical engineering, biomedical engineering, bio-process engineering, biosystem engineering and so on. Because of the novelty of the field, the definition of a bioengineer is still undefined. However, in general it is an integrated approach of fundamental biological sciences and traditional engineering principles. Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) deals with engineering biological processes in general. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Biological engineering (a. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ...


Bioengineers are often employed to scale up bio processes from the laboratory scale to the manufacturing scale. Moreover, as with most engineers, they often deal with management, economic and legal issues. Since patents and regulation (e.g. FDA regulation in the U.S.) are very important issues for biotech enterprises, bioengineers are often required to have knowledge related to these issues. A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a government to an inventor or applicant for a limited amount of time (normally maximum 20 years from the filing date, depending on extension). ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


The increasing number of biotech enterprises is likely to create a need for bioengineers in the years to come. Many universities throughout the world are now providing programs in bioengineering and biotechnology (as independent programs or specialty programs within more established engineering fields)..


Bioremediation and Biodegradation

Main article: Microbial biodegradation

Biotechnology is being used to engineer and adapt organisms especially microorganisms in an effort to find sustainable ways to clean up contaminated environments. The elimination of a wide range of pollutants and wastes from the environment is an absolute requirement to promote a sustainable development of our society with low environmental impact. Biological processes play a major role in the removal of contaminants and biotechnology is taking advantage of the astonishing catabolic versatility of microorganisms to degrade/convert such compounds. New methodological breakthroughs in sequencing, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and imaging are producing vast amounts of information. In the field of Environmental Microbiology, genome-based global studies open a new era providing unprecedented in silico views of metabolic and regulatory networks, as well as clues to the evolution of degradation pathways and to the molecular adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. Functional genomic and metagenomic approaches are increasing our understanding of the relative importance of different pathways and regulatory networks to carbon flux in particular environments and for particular compounds and they will certainly accelerate the development of bioremediation technologies and biotransformation processes.[22] Interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in recent years as mankind strives to find sustainable ways to cleanup contaminated environments. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... The Lachine Canal, in Montreal, is badly polluted Pollution is the release of harmful environmental contaminants, or the substances so released. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... For the journal Proteomics, see Proteomics (journal). ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in recent years as mankind strives to find sustainable ways to cleanup contaminated environments. ... Carbon flux is the net difference between sequestration and respiration of carbon dioxide. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Marine environments are especially vulnerable since oil spills of coastal regions and the open sea are poorly containable and mitigation is difficult. In addition to pollution through human activities, millions of tons of petroleum enter the marine environment every year from natural seepages. Despite its toxicity, a considerable fraction of petroleum oil entering marine systems is eliminated by the hydrocarbon-degrading activities of microbial communities, in particular by a remarkable recently discovered group of specialists, the so-called hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB).[23]


Notable researchers and individuals

Sir Frederick Grant Banting, KBE, MC, MD, FRSC (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, doctor and Nobel laureate noted as one of the co-discovers of insulin. ... Professor Dr. Lap-chee Tsui BA, MA, PhD, O.C., O.Ont. ... Tak Wah Mak (麥德華; pinyin: Mài Déhuá) (born October 4, 1946) is a Canadian immunologist, molecular biologist, and academic. ... Lorne Lorne Allan Babiuk, O.C., S.O.M., Ph. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Sir Paul M. Nurse, FRS, (b. ... See also Jacques-Louis Monod, French-born composer and cousin of Jacques Monod. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... Professor M.D. Leena Palotie (née Peltonen, born June 16, 1952 in Helsinki, Finland) is a pioneering Finnish researcher of genetics. ... Dr. Kári Stefánsson Dr. Kári Stefánsson, M.D. and Dr.Med. ... India Today Cover Dr. Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw (b. ... Biocon is Indias leading biotechnology enterprise. ... Professor Timothy OBrien, MD PhD is Director of The Regenerative Medicine Institute (REMEDI). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Francisco Bolívar Zapata (Mexico City, México 1948) is a Mexican biochemist and professor. ... Luis Herrera-Estrella, (born June 21, 1956) is a Mexican geneticist and director of the Plant Biotechnology Unit at the Centre for Research and Advanced Studies, in Irapuato, Mexico. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... David Botstein (b. ... Craig Venter, 2007 J. Craig Venter (born John Craig Venter October 14, 1946, Salt Lake City) is an American biologist and businessman. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Eric Lander Eric Steven Lander (b. ... Leroy Hood is an American biologist. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... James J. Collins, Ph. ... Roger N. Beachy (1944) is an American biologist and the founding president of the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in St. ... Herbert (Herb) Boyer (born 1936) is a Co-recipient of the 1996 Lemelson-MIT Prize and a co-founder of Genentech. ... Dr. Michael D. West is the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Scientific Officer, and former CEO of Advanced Cell Technology Corporation, which specializes in Stem Cell research. ... Dr. Thomas Okarma is the current CEO of Geron Corporation, a biotechnology company. ... For other people named James Watson, see James Watson (disambiguation). ...

See also

Biotechnology Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... The term Bioeconomy refers to all economic activity derived from: a) the scientific and research activity focused on understanting mechanisms and processes at the genetic and molecular levels, and b) the application of this knowledge to any industrial process. ... This article or section should be merged with Bionics (engineering) Biomimetics (also known as bionics and biognosis) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to modern technology. ... Biotechnology industrial park (BIP, also called Bio-industrial park, Eco-industrial Clusters) is a special form of industrial park that specialized in biotechnology. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Biotechnology is a technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... The following is a list of the top 100 biotechnology companies ranked by revenue. ... This is a list of emerging technologies. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... EuropaBio is an association of European biotech companies. ... The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) is a small non-profit international organization that helps developing nations acquire useful biotechnology applications to help them address agricultural challenges. ...

References

  1. ^ "The Convention on Biological Diversity (Article 2. Use of Terms)." United Nations. 1992. Retrieved on February 6, 2008.
  2. ^ Bunders, J.; Haverkort, W.; Hiemstra, W. "Biotechnology: Building on Farmer's Knowledge." 1996, Macmillan Education, Ltd. ISBN 0333670825
  3. ^ Springham, D.; Springham, G.; Moses, V.; Cape, R.E. "Biotechnology: The Science and the Business." Published 1999, Taylor & Francis. p. 1. ISBN 9057024071
  4. ^ "Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980). No. 79-139." United States Supreme Court. June 16, 1980. Retrieved on May 4, 2007.
  5. ^ IBISWorld
  6. ^ The Recession List - Top 10 Industries to Fly and Fl... (ith anincreasing share accounted for by ...)
  7. ^ Gerstein, M. "Bioinformatics Introduction." Yale University. Retrieved on May 8, 2007.
  8. ^ a b U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program, supra note 6.
  9. ^ W. Bains, Genetic Engineering For Almost Everybody: What Does It Do? What Will It Do? (London: Penguin Books, 1987), 99.
  10. ^ IDF 2003; "Diabetes Atlas,: 2nd ed."; International Diabetes Federation, Brussels.
  11. ^ IDF March 2005; "Position Statement." International Diabetes Federation, Brussels.
  12. ^ a b c U.S. Department of State International Information Programs, “Frequently Asked Questions About Biotechnology”, USIS Online; available from http://usinfo.state.gov/ei/economic_issues/biotechnology/biotech_faq.html, accessed 13 Sept 2007. Cf. C. Feldbaum, “Some History Should Be Repeated”, 295 Science, 8 February 2002, 975.
  13. ^ The National Action Plan on Breast Cancer and U.S. National Institutes of Health-Department of Energy Working Group on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) have issued several recommendations to prevent workplace and insurance discrimination. The highlights of these recommendations, which may be taken into account in developing legislation to prevent genetic discrimination, may be found at http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/ elsi/legislat.html.
  14. ^ Ibid
  15. ^ U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program, supra note 6
  16. ^ A number of scientists have called for the use the term “nuclear transplantation,” instead of “therapeutic cloning,” to help reduce public confusion. The term “cloning” has become synonymous with “somatic cell nuclear transfer,” a procedure that can be used for a variety of purposes, only one of which involves an intention to create a clone of an organism. They believe that the term “cloning” is best associated with the ultimate outcome or objective of the research and not the mechanism or technique used to achieve that objective. They argue that the goal of creating a nearly identical genetic copy of a human being is consistent with the term “human reproductive cloning,” but the goal of creating stem cells for regenerative medicine is not consistent with the term “therapeutic cloning.” The objective of the latter is to make tissue that is genetically compatible with that of the recipient, not to create a copy of the potential tissue recipient. Hence, “therapeutic cloning” is conceptually inaccurate. B. Vogelstein, B. Alberts, and K. Shine, “Please Don’t Call It Cloning!”, Science (15 February 2002), 1237
  17. ^ D. Cameron, “Stop the Cloning”, Technology Review, 23 May 2002’. Also available from http://www.techreview.com. [hereafter “Cameron”]
  18. ^ M.C. Nussbaum and C.R. Sunstein, Clones And Clones: Facts And Fantasies About Human Cloning (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1998), 11. However, there is wide disagreement within scientific circles whether human cloning can be successfully carried out. For instance, Dr. Rudolf Jaenisch of Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research believes that reproductive cloning shortcuts basic biological processes, thus making normal offspring impossible to produce. In normal fertilization, the egg and sperm go through a long process of maturation. Cloning shortcuts this process by trying to reprogram the nucleus of one whole genome in minutes or hours. This results in gross physical malformations to subtle neurological disturbances. Cameron, supra note 30
  19. ^ EuropaBio - An animal friendly alternative for cheeze makers
  20. ^ EuropaBio - Biologically better bread
  21. ^ Pascual DW (2007). "Vaccines are for dinner". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 (26): 10757–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704516104. PMID 17581867. 
  22. ^ Diaz E (editor). (2008). Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology, 1st ed., Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-17-2. 
  23. ^ Martins VAP et al (2008). "Genomic Insights into Oil Biodegradation in Marine Systems", Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-17-2. 

UN redirects here. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Yale redirects here. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • Friedman, Y. Building Biotechnology: Starting, Managing, and Understanding Biotechnology Companies. ISBN 978-0973467635.
  • Oliver, Richard W. The Coming Biotech Age. ISBN 0-07-135020-9.
  • Zaid, A; H.G. Hughes, E. Porceddu, F. Nicholas (2001). Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture - A Revised and Augmented Edition of the Glossary of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering. Available in English, French, Spanish and Arabic. Rome: FAO. ISBN 92-5-104683-2. 

For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Genes, Technology and Policy
Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Biotechnology at:
The Department of Biotechnology
  • A report on Agricultural Biotechnology focusing on the impacts of "Green" Biotechnology with a special emphasis on economic aspects
  • Russian Biotechnology Organization
Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... AI redirects here. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... A processors core Computing is a very broad topic that has become pandemic to modern uses of technology. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Engineering physics (EP) is an academic degree, usually at the level of Bachelor of Science. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre (one millionth of a metre, or 10-6 metre, or 1μm). ... Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Zoography, also known as descriptive zoology, is the applied science of describing animals and their habitats. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... The know-how that goes into a given medium. ... Graphic redirects here. ... Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of technology involved with the musical arts, particularly the use of electronic devices and computer software to facilitate playback, recording, composition, storage, and performance. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as voice recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words in the form of digital data, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Visual technology is the engineering discipline dealing with visual representation. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Computational finance (also known as financial engineering) is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining information technology (IT) – or informatics – with management concepts. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... This article is about the use of technology in education delivery. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. ... The food technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Audio engineering is a part of audio science dealing with the recording and reproduction of sound through mechanical and electronic means. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... Biological engineering (a. ... Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent radio and television broadcasting. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... The Petronas Twin Towers, designed by Thornton-Tomasetti and Ranhill Bersekutu Sdn Bhd engineers, and Cesar Pelli, were the worlds tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004. ... Computer engineering (or Computer Systems Engineering) encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science[1]Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... In physics or engineering, cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Metallurgical engineering- Designing, creating, or producing metals by various methods, for various applications, from metallic elements described on the Chemical Periodic Table of the Elements. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Steamer New York in c. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Fire protection engineering (also known as fire engineering or fire safety engineering) is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
cen-chemjobs: Job Seeker - Biotechnology (1409 words)
Biotechnology is the application of biological organisms, systems, or processes by various industries to learning about the science of life and the improvement of the value of such things as crops, livestock, and pharmaceuticals.
Biotechnology is a source of great promise for innovations ranging from improving the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary diseases, to safer drugs, to more environmentally friendly herbicides and pesticides, to microbial processes to clean up the environment.
In addition, as more biotechnology products now in development reach the phase when they are ready for market, there will be increasing demand for chemical engineers to work on some of the production and scale-up problems of making biotechnology products in bulk, as well as bachelor's chemists for sales and marketing.
Biotechnology Fact Sheet (899 words)
Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary field based on a combination of biology and technology to design and produce new molecules, plants, animals, and microorganisms with improved characteristics.
Biotechnology offers seemingly unlimited opportunities to combine genes from related or unrelated species to produce useful organisms with desirable properties that were not previously found in nature.
Biotechnology may be thought of as a collection of technologies using animal and/or plant cells, biological molecules, molecular biology processes and genetic engineering for applications in medicine, agriculture and the pharmaceutical industry.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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