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Encyclopedia > Biosphere
A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE.
A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE.

The biosphere is the part of the Earth, including air, land, surface rocks, and water, within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform. From the broadest biophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. This biosphere is postulated to have evolved, beginning through a process of biogenesis or biopoesis, at least some 3.5 billion years ago. Biosphere may refer to: Biosphere, the part of a planets shell where all life occurs Montreal Biosphère, a geodesic dome in Montreal, Canada Biosphere 2, an artificial closed ecological system in Oracle, Arizona Biosphere (musician), a Norwegian musician see also Bio-Dome a movie based on the idea. ... Image File history File links SeaWiFS Global Biosphere September 1997 - August 1998 This composite image gives an indication of the magnitude and distribution of global primary production, both oceanic (mg/m3 chlorophyll a) and terrestrial (normalized difference land vegetation index). ... Image File history File links SeaWiFS Global Biosphere September 1997 - August 1998 This composite image gives an indication of the magnitude and distribution of global primary production, both oceanic (mg/m3 chlorophyll a) and terrestrial (normalized difference land vegetation index). ... A false color image showing the Chesapeake Bay and the city of Baltimore. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... SeaWiFS stands for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Aerial view of Goddard Space Flight Center. ... GeoEye is a space imaging firm based in Dulles, Virginia. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Air redirects here. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain, and as such, is typically an element of topography. ... The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about life in general. ... Geophysiology (Geo, earth + physiology, the study of living bodies) is the study of interaction among living organisms on the Earth operating under the hypothesis that the Earth itself acts as a single living organism (Gaia). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle, a key process of the hydrosphere. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Biogenesis is the process of lifeforms producing other lifeforms, e. ... For the definition, see Life. ...


Biomass accounts for about 3.7 kg carbon per square meter of the earth's surface averaged over land and sea, making a total of about 1900 gigatonnes of carbon. For the eco-industrial use of the term, which includes dead material used for biofuels, see biomass An Antarctic krill, whose species comprises roughly 0. ... A gigaton (or gigatonne) is a metric unit of mass, equal to 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) metric tons, 1,000,000,000,000 (1 trillion) kilograms, or 1 quadrillion grams. ...

Contents

Origin and use of the term

The term "biosphere" was coined by geologist Eduard Suess in 1875, which he defined as:[1] Eduard Suess (August 20, 1831 – April 26, 1914) was a 19th century geologist who was an expert on the geography of the Alps. ...

The place on earth's surface where life dwells.

While this concept has a geological origin, it is an indication of the impact of both Darwin and Maury on the earth sciences. The biosphere's ecological context comes from the 1920s (see Vladimir I. Vernadsky), preceding the 1935 introduction of the term "ecosystem" by Sir Arthur Tansley (see ecology history). Vernadsky defined ecology as the science of the biosphere. It is an interdisciplinary concept for integrating astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, biogeography, evolution, geology, geochemistry, hydrology and, generally speaking, all life and earth sciences. For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Matthew Fontaine Maury Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806 – February 1, 1873), nicknamed Pathfinder of the Seas, was an oceanographer who made important contributions to charting wind and ocean currents. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience or the geosciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (Владимир Иванович Вернадский) (March 12, 1863, N.S. [ February 28, O.S. ] – January 6, 1945) was a Russian mineralogist and geochemist who first popularized the concept of the noosphere and deepened the idea biosphere to the meaning largely recognized by todays scientific community. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Sir Arthur George Tansley (1871 - 1955) was an English botanist who was a pioneer in the science of plant ecology. ... Ecology is generally spoken of as a new science, really not coming into prominence before the middle of the 20th Century. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ...


Narrow definition

A familiar scene on Earth which simultaneously shows the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
A familiar scene on Earth which simultaneously shows the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

Some life scientists and earth scientists use biosphere in a more limited sense. For example, geochemists define the biosphere as being the total sum of living organisms (the "biomass" or "biota" as referred to by biologists and ecologists). In this sense, the biosphere is but one of four separate components of the geochemical model, the other three being lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. The narrow meaning used by geochemists is one of the consequences of specialization in modern science. Some might prefer the word ecosphere, coined in the 1960s, as all encompassing of both biological and physical components of the planet. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 364 KB) 90 mile beach, Lakes Entrance File links The following pages link to this file: Tourism Beach Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Lakes Entrance, Victoria Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/90 mile beach ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 364 KB) 90 mile beach, Lakes Entrance File links The following pages link to this file: Tourism Beach Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Lakes Entrance, Victoria Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/90 mile beach ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... For the eco-industrial use of the term, which includes dead material used for biofuels, see biomass An Antarctic krill, whose species comprises roughly 0. ... It has been suggested that Biota (taxonomy) be merged into this article or section. ... The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle, a key process of the hydrosphere. ... Air redirects here. ...


The Second International Conference on Closed Life Systems defined biospherics as the science and technology of analogs and models of Earth's biosphere; i.e., artificial Earth-like biospheres. Others may include the creation of artificial non-Earth biospheres — for example, human-centered biospheres or a native Martian biosphere — in the field of biospherics. An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ...


Gaia's biosphere

The concept that the biosphere is itself a living organism, either actually or metaphorically, is known as the Gaia hypothesis. For other uses, see Gaia. ...


James Lovelock, an atmospheric scientist from the United Kingdom, proposed the Gaia hypothesis to explain how biotic and abiotic factors interact in the biosphere. This hypothesis considers Earth itself a kind of living organism. Its atmosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere are cooperating systems that yield a biosphere full of life. in the early 1970s, Lynn Margulis, a microbiologist from the United States, added to the hypothesis specifically noting the ties between the biosphere and other Earth systems. For example, when carbon dioxide levels increase in the atmosphere, plants grow more quickly. As their growth continue, they remove more and more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Dr. James Ephraim Lovelock, CH, CBE, FRS (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, author, researcher, environmentalist, and futurologist who lives in Cornwall, in the south west of Great Britain. ... Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Many scientists are now devoting their careers to organizing new fields of study, such as geobiology and geomicrobiology, to examine these intriguing relationships. Broadly defined, geobiology is an interdisciplinary field of scientific research that explores interactions between the biosphere and lithosphere or atmosphere. ... Geomicrobiology is a science that combines geology and microbiology, and studies the interaction of microscopic organisms with their inorganic environment, such as in sedimentary rocks. ...


Extent of Earth's biosphere

Nearly every part of the planet, from the polar ice caps to the Equator, supports life of some kind. Recent advances in microbiology have demonstrated that microbes live deep beneath the Earth's terrestrial surface, and that the total mass of microbial life in so-called "uninhabitable zones" may, in biomass, exceed all animal and plant life on the surface. Location of the polar regions Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple. ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ...


The actual thickness of the biosphere on earth is hard to measure. Birds typically fly at altitudes of 650 to 2000 meters, and fish that live deep underwater can be found down to -8,372 meters in the Puerto Rico Trench. Location map Puerto Rico trench - USGS The Puerto Rico Trench is an oceanic trench located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. ...


There are more extreme examples for life on the planet: Rüppell's Vulture has been found at altitudes of 11,300 meters; Bar-headed Geese migrate at altitudes of at least 8,300 meters (over Mount Everest); Yaks live at elevations between 3,200 to 5,400 meters above sea level; mountain goats live up to 3,050 meters. Herbivorous animals at these elevations depend on lichens, grasses, and herbs but the biggest tree is the Tine palm or mountain coconut found 3,400 meters above sea level. Binomial name Gyps rueppellii (Brehm, 1852) The Rüppells Vulture (Gyps rueppellii) is a large vulture that ranges across much of central Africa, including Ethiopia, the Sudan, Tanzania and Guinea. ... Binomial name Anser indicus (Latham, 1790) Synonyms Eulabeia indica The Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus) is a goose which breeds in Central Asia in colonies of thousands near mountain lakes. ... Everest redirects here. ...


Microscopic organisms live at such extremes that, taking them into consideration puts the thickness of the biosphere much greater, but at minimum it extends from 5,400 meters above sea level to at least 9,000 meters below sea level.


Our biosphere is divided into a number of biomes, inhabited by broadly similar flora and fauna. On land, biomes are separated primarily by latitude. Terrestrial biomes lying within the Arctic and Antarctic Circles are relatively barren of plant and animal life, while most of the more populous biomes lie near the equator. Terrestrial organisms in temperate and Arctic biomes have relatively small amounts of total biomass, smaller energy budgets, and display prominent adaptations to cold, including world-spanning migrations, social adaptations, homeothermy, estivation and multiple layers of insulation. A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... Zoomable PDF of the map this is based on The Antarctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... Estivation or aestivation (from Latin aestas, summer) is a state of dormancy similar to hibernation. ...


Specific biospheres

When the word Biosphere is followed by a number, it is usually referring to a specific system. Thus:

  • Biosphere 1 - The planet Earth
  • Biosphere 2 - A laboratory in Arizona which contains 3.15 acres (13,000 m²) of closed ecosystem.
  • BIOS-3 was a closed ecosystem at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, in what was then the Soviet Union.
  • Biosphere J - An experiment in Japan.

This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Biosphere 2 Biosphere 2 is a 3. ... BIOS-3 was a closed ecosystem at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, in what was then the Soviet Union. ...

Hyperbaric biosphere

In 1999, Carl Baugh patented a small "hyperbaric biosphere" chamber, designed to emulate the conditions thought by him to exist on the early earth, providing double atmospheric pressure, enhanced oxygen, and protection from ultraviolet radiation, while magnetic coils attempt to make up for earth's reduced magnetic field;[2] a much larger hyperbaric biosphere is currently under construction in the same location.[3] Carl Baugh Carl Edward Baugh (born October 21, 1936) is an American young earth creationist. ... Diving bell A diving bell is a cable suspended watertight chamber, open at the bottom, that is lowered underwater to operate as a base or a means of transport for a small number of divers. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... A coil is a series of loops. ... The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind. ...


See also

Back-contamination is the informal but widely-employed name for the introduction of microbial extraterrestrial organisms into Earths biosphere. ... A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... A biosphere reserve is an international conservation designation given by UNESCO under its Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB). ... The cryosphere, derived from the Greek word kryos for frost or icy cold, is the term which collectively describes the portions of the Earth’s surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets, and frozen ground... Air redirects here. ... In the most general sense, the geosphere is the region of space that is dominated by geogenic matter (originating from and bound to the Earth). ... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle, a key process of the hydrosphere. ... In human spaceflight, the life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in outer space. ... The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth. ... The noosphere can be seen as the sphere of human thought being derived from the Greek νους (nous) meaning mind in the style of atmosphere and biosphere. In the original theory of Vernadsky, the noosphere is the third in a succession of phases of development of the Earth, after the geosphere... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about Thomas Gold, an Austrian astrophysicist. ... The Biosphère is a geodesic dome on Ile Sainte-Hélène in Montréal, Canada. ...

References

  1. ^ Seuss, E. (1875) Die Entstehung Der Alpen [The Origin of the Alps]. Vienna: W. Braunmuller.
  2. ^ "Closed ecological system and method for supporting life", retrieved October 1, 2007.
  3. ^ The Austin Chronicle, August 5, 2005, "Creationism Alive and Kicking in Glen Rose", retrieved January 21, 2008.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

  • GLOBIO.info, an ongoing programme to map the past, current and future impacts of human activities on the biosphere
  • Paul Crutzen Interview Freeview video of Paul Crutzen Nobel Laureate for his work on decomposition of ozone talking to Harry Kroto Nobel Laureate by the Vega Science Trust.
This article is about the physical universe. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earths history. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Geological time scale. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about life in general. ... For the definition, see Life. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... For other uses, see Wilderness (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biosphere - MSN Encarta (536 words)
The biosphere is the part of the Earth, including air, land, surface rocks, and water, within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform.
Biosphere, Earth’s zone of air, soil, and water that is capable of supporting life, traditionally thought of as a zone reaching about 10 km (about 6 mi) into the atmosphere and down to the deepest ocean floor.
Earth’s biosphere can be divided into three main habitable zones: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere (water in the oceans, rivers, and lakes), and the lithosphere (soil and the upper level of the crust).
Biosphere - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (835 words)
From the broadest geophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere (rocks), hydrosphere (water), and atmosphere (air).
This biosphere is generally thought to have evolved, beginning through a process of biogenesis or biopoesis, at least some 3.5 billion years ago.
For example, geochemists define the biosphere as being the total sum of living organisms (the "biomass" or "biota" as referred to by biologists and ecologists).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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