FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bionic

Bionics (also known as Biomimetics, Biognosis or Biomimicry, a short form of Biomechanics - from the Greek word "bios" - pronounced "vios" - which means life, and the word mechanics) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. Biomechanics is the study of the mechanics and other physical aspects of living organisms and their parts. ... The Greek language (Greek Ελληνικά, IPA – Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of some 3,000 years. ... In laymans terms, a method is a series of steps taken to accomplish an objective. ... For alternative meanings, see nature (disambiguation). ...


This technology transfer is desirable because evolutionary pressure typically forces natural systems to become highly optimized and efficient. A classical example is the development of dirt- and water-repellent paint (coating) from the observeration that the surface of the lotus flower plant is practically unsticky for anything (lotus effect). Examples of bionics results in engineering include hulls of boats imitating the skin membrane of dolphins, sonar, radar and medical ultrasound imaging imitating echolocation of bats. Technology transfer is the process of developing practical applications for the results of scientific research. ... Genera Barclaya Wall. ... The F70 type frigates (here, Motte-Picquet) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C tugged sonars Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation under water to navigate or to detect other watercraft. ... M*A*S*H, see Corporal Walter (Radar) OReilly. ... See: Animal echolocation: animals emitting sound waves and listening to the echo in order to locate objects or navigate. ... Families Pteropodidae Emballonuridae Rhinopomatidae Craseonycteridae Rhinolophidae Nycteridae Megadermatidae Vespertilionidae Molossidae Antrozoidae Natalidae Myzopodidae Thyropteridae Furipteridae Noctilionidae Mystacinidae Mormoopidae Phyllostomidae Bats are flying mammals in the order Chiroptera with forelimbs developed as wings. ...


In the field of computer science, bionics approach has produced Cybernetics, Artificial neuron, Artificial Neural Networks, Swarm intelligence. Evolutionary computation was also motivated by bionics idea but it took the idea further by simulating evolution 'in silico' and producing well optimized solutions that had never appeared in nature. Cybernetics is a theory of the communication and control of regulatory feedback. ... The artificial neuron (also called node) is the basic unit of an artificial neural network, simulating a biological neuron. ... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ... Swarm intelligence (SI) is an artificial intelligence technique based around the study of collective behaviour in decentralised, self-organised, systems. ... An evolutionary algorithm (also EA, evolutionary computation, artificial evolution) is a generic term used to indicate any population-based optimization algorithm that uses mechanisms inspired by biological evolution, such as reproduction, mutation and recombination (see genetic operators). ...


It is estimated by Julian Vincent, professor of biomimetics at the University of Bath in the UK, that "at present there is only a 10% overlap between biology and technology in terms of the mechanisms used." The University of Bath was established in 1966 near Bath, England, since which it has graduated around 50,000 students. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = reasoned account). ... Technology ( Gr. ...

Contents

Methods

Often bionics approach emphasizes imitation of a biological structure rather than a mere implementation of the same function. For example, in computer science, cybernetics tries to model actual organic structures that make us intelligent, while artificial intelligence tries to model the intelligent function regardless of the particular way it can be achieved. Cybernetics is a theory of the communication and control of regulatory feedback. ... Artificial intelligence (also known as machine intelligence and often abbreviated as AI) is intelligence exhibited by any manufactured (i. ...


The conscious copying of examples and mechanisms from natural organisms and ecologies is a form of applied case-based reasoning, treating nature itself as a database of solutions that already work. Proponents argue that all natural life forms minimize and ecological niches remove failures. Case-based reasoning (CBR), broadly construed, is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems. ... In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ...


Although almost all engineering could be said to be a form of biomimicry, the modern origins of this field are usually attributed to Buckminster Fuller and its later codification as a field of study to Lynn Margulis. Engineering is the application of science to the needs of humanity. ... In the US postage stamp commemerating Buckminster Fuller and his contributions to architecture and science, some of his inventions are visible. ... Lynn Margulis (born 1938) is a biologist and a professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ...


Roughly, we can distinguish three biological levels in biology after which technology can be modelled:

  • Mimicking natural methods of manufacture of chemical compounds to create new ones
  • Imitating mechanisms found in nature (velcro)
  • Studying organizational principles from social behaviour of organisms, such as the flocking behaviour of birds or the emergent behaviour of bees and ants

Velcro is a brand name of fabric hook-and-loop fasteners used for connecting objects. ...

Examples of biomimetics

  • Velcro is the most famous example of biomimetics. In 1948, the Swiss engineer George de Mestral was cleaning his dog of burrs picked up on a walk when he realized how the hooks of the burrs clung to the fur.
  • Leonardo da Vinci 's flying machines and ships are early examples of drawing from nature in engineering.
  • Julian Vincent drew from the study of pinecones when he developed in 2004 "smart" clothing that adapts to changing temperatures. "I wanted a nonliving system which would respond to changes in moisture by changing shape," he said. "There are several such systems in plants, but most are very small -- the pinecone is the largest and therefore the easiest to work on." Pinecones respond to warmer temperatures by opening their scales (to disperse their seeds). The smart fabric does the same thing, opening up when it is warm, and shutting tight when cold.
  • "Morphing airplane wings" that change shape according to the speed and duration of flight have been designed in 2004 by biomimetic scientists from Penn State University. The morphing wings were inspired by different bird species that have differently shaped wings according to the speed at which they fly. In order to change the shape and underlying structure of the airplane wings, the researchers needed to make the overlaying skin also be able to change, which their design does by covering the wings with fish-inspired scales that could slide over each other.
  • Nanostructures and physical mechanisms that produce the shining color of butterfly wings were reproduced in silicon by Greg Parker, professor of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton and research student Luca Plattner in the field of photonics, which is eletronics using photons as the information carrier instead of electrons.

Velcro is a brand name of fabric hook-and-loop fasteners used for connecting objects. ... Georges de Mestral (June 19, 1907 - February 8, 1990) was an electrical engineer who invented Velcro. ... Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. ... For the Macintosh operating system, which was called System up to version 7. ... The Pennsylvania State University The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related land-grant university in Pennsylvania, with over 80,000 students at 24 campuses throughout the state. ... The University of Southampton is a British university, with a reputation for quality research. ... Photonics is the science and technology of generating and controlling light, and, in particular, using light to carry information. ... In physics, the photon (from Greek φοτος, meaning light) is a quantum of excitation of the quantised electromagnetic field and is one of the elementary particles studied by quantum electrodynamics (QED) which is the oldest part of the Standard Model of particle physics. ... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ... The term neuromorphic was coined by Carver Mead, in the late 80s to describe Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) systems containing electronic analog circuits that mimic neuro-biological architectures present in the nervous system. ... A Microchip is, properly, an integrated circuit. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Cross section of the cochlea. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Connectivity is the property of a device such as a PC, peripheral, PDA, mobile phone, robot, home appliance, or car that enables it to be connected, generally to a PC or another device without the need of a PC - autonomously. ...

Specific uses of the term

In medicine

Bionics is a term which refers to flow of ideas from biology to engineering and vice versa. Hence, there are two slightly different points of view regarding the meaning of the word. Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = reasoned account). ... Engineering is the application of science to the needs of humanity. ...


In medicine, Bionics means the replacement or enhancement of organs or other body parts by mechanical versions. Bionic implants differ from mere prostheses by mimicking the original function very closely, or even surpassing it. In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ...


Bionics' German equivalent "Bionik" always takes the broader scope in that it tries to develop engineering solutions from biological models. This approach is motivated by the fact that biological solutions will always be optimized by evolutionary forces. Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... This article is about biological evolution. ...


While the technologies that make bionic implants possible are still in a very early stage, a few bionic items already exist, the best known being the cochlear implant, a device for deaf people. Some versions come quite close to "normal" hearing; they can even work better than natural ears at background noise filtering. By 2004 fully functional artificial hearts have been developed. Significant further progress is expected to take place with the advent of nanotechnologies. A well known example of a proposed nanodevice is a respirocyte, an artificial red cell, designed (though not built yet) by Robert Freitas. Cochlear implants are hearing devices that can help people with certain kinds of hearing impairment or who are entirely deaf. ... The word deaf, can have very different meanings based on the background of the person speaking or the context in which the word is used. ... For an alternative meaning, see ear (botany). ... An artificial heart is a device that is implanted into the body to replace the original biological heart. ... Robert A. Freitas Jr. ...


Bionics are a common element of science fiction, with The Six Million Dollar Man as the probably best-known example. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Six Million Dollar Man was an American television series about a cyborg working for a U.S. secret service called OSI. The show was based on the book Cyborg from Martin Caidin, and aired on the American Broadcasting Company from 1973 to 1978. ...


Politics

A political form of biomimcry is bioregional democracy, wherein political borders conform to natural ecoregions rather than human cultures or the outcomes of prior conflicts. Bioregional democracy (or the Bioregional State) is a set of Electoral Reforms designed to force the political process in a democracy to better represent body and environment concerns, e. ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...


Critics of these approaches often argue that ecological selection itself is a poor model of minimizing manufacturing complexity or conflict, and that the free market relies on conscious cooperation, agreement, and standards as much as on efficiency - more analogous to sexual selection. Charles Darwin himself contended that both were balanced in natural selection - although his contemporaries often avoided frank talk about sex, or any suggestion that free market success was based on persuasion not value. Ecological selection (or environmental selection or survival selection or individual selection or asexual selection) refers to natural selection minus sexual selection, i. ... Conflict is a state of opposition between two parties. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the tufted coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... Charles Darwin, about the same time as the publication of The Origin of Species. ... Alternative meaning Natural Selection (computer game). ...


Advocates, especially in the anti-globalization movement, argue that the mating-like processes of standardization, financing and marketing, are already examples of runaway evolution - rendering a system that appeals to the consumer but which is inefficient at use of energy and raw materials. Biomimicry, they argue, is an effective strategy to restore basic efficiency. Anti-globalization (anti-globalisation) is a political stance of opposition to the perceived negative aspects of globalization. ... Fisherian runaway refers to a model of the evolution of sexual selection first proposed by Ronald Fisher in 1915 Categories: Stub ...


Biomimicry is also the second principle of Natural Capitalism. Natural capitalism is a set of trends and economic reforms to reward energy and material efficiency - and remove professional standards and accounting conventions that prevent such efficiencies. ...


Other uses

In a more specific meaning, it is a creativity technique that tries to use biological prototypes to get ideas for engineering solutions. This approach is motivated by the fact that biological organisms and their organs have been well optimized by evolution. Creativity techniques are heuristic methods to facilitate creativity of a person or a group of people. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... This article is about biological evolution. ...


A less common and maybe more recent meaning of the term "bionics" refers to merging organism and machine. This approach results in a hybrid systems combining biological and engineering parts, which can also be referred as cybernetic organism (cyborg). The term cyborg, a portmanteau of cybernetic organism, is used to designate a creature which is a mixture of organic and mechanical parts. ...


See also: implant, prosthesis. The term implant has different meanings: in Scientology, see Implant (Scientology) in medicine, see prosthesis This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ...


Quotes

  • "There are millions of years of research that can help us, in nature," -Anja-Karina Pahl, professor at Bath University
  • "Nature has been conducting evolutionary experiments for millions of years, so if we're lucky enough to find something close to what we require in nature, then it's very likely to have been highly optimized, and we're unlikely to do much better." -Greg Parker
  • "Mankind and industry can only benefit from bringing closer the study of nature and the development of new technologies and designs." -Luca Plattner

The University of Bath was established in 1966 near Bath, England, since which it has graduated around 50,000 students. ...

See also

Compare with: Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies theories and methods of the physical sciences to questions of biology. ... This is a list of important publications in biology, organized by field. ... The term cyborg, a portmanteau of cybernetic organism, is used to designate a creature which is a mixture of organic and mechanical parts. ...

Biotechnology is technology based on agriculture, food science, and medicine. ...

External link

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bionics Instrument, Gas Detection & Analysis - Gas detectors - Home (170 words)
Bionics Instrument is a manufacturer and supplier of gas detection systems and water analysers.
In many industries people are relying on the gas warning systems and analysers of Bionics Instrument every day.
Bionics Instrument has been promoting on-site live gas calibration for more than 20 years already.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m