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Encyclopedia > Biomolecule
A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

A biomolecule is a molecule that naturally occurs in living organisms. Biomolecules consist primarily of carbon and hydrogen, along with nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. Other elements sometimes are incorporated but are much less common. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Download high resolution version (695x702, 67 KB)Image created by uploader from PDB file: Source: Sperm whale (Physeter catodon) Authors: S.E.V. Phillips Reference: Structure and refinement of oxymyoglobin at 1. ... Download high resolution version (695x702, 67 KB)Image created by uploader from PDB file: Source: Sperm whale (Physeter catodon) Authors: S.E.V. Phillips Reference: Structure and refinement of oxymyoglobin at 1. ... An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. ... Side view of an α-helix of alanine residues in atomic detail. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM (May 19, 1914 – February 6, 2002) was an Austrian-British molecular biologist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jan. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...

Contents

Explanation

All known forms of life are composed solely of biomolecules. For example, humans possess skin and hair. The main component of hair is keratin, an agglomeration of proteins which are themselves polymers built from amino acids. Amino acids are some of the most important building blocks used in nature to construct larger molecules. Another type of building block are the nucleotides, each of which consists of three components: either a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar and a phosphate group. These nucleotides mainly form the nucleic acids. This article is about life in general. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring [1]. It is isomeric with two other forms of diazine. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Besides the polymeric biomolecules, numerous organic molecules are absorbed by living systems. Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ...


Types of biomolecules

A diverse range of biomolecules exist, including:

Some common lipids. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Glycolipids are carbohydrate-attached lipids. ... Sterols, or steroid alcohols are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group in the 3-position of the A-ring. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) A vitamin is a nutrient that is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ...

Nucleosides and nucleotides

Nucleosides are molecules formed by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose ring. Examples of these include cytidine, uridine, adenosine, guanosine, thymidine and inosine. Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Cytidine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when cytosine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. ... Uridine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when uracil is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. ... Adenosine is a nucleoside composed of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... The chemical structure of Guanosine Guanosine is a nucleoside comprising guanine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... The chemical structure of deoxythymidine Thymidine (more precisely called deoxythymidine can also be labelled deoxyribosylthymine, and thymine deoxyriboside) is a chemical compound, more precisely a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. ... Inosine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ...


Nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in the cell, producing nucleotides, which are the molecular building blocks of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). A phosphorylated serine residue Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein molecule or a small molecule. ... In biochemistry, a kinase is a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific target molecules (substrates); the process is termed phosphorylation. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ...


Saccharides

Monosaccharides are carbohydrates in the form of simple sugars. Examples of monosaccharides are the hexoses glucose, fructose, and galactose and pentoses, ribose, and deoxyribose Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ...


Disaccharides are formed from two monosaccharides joined together. Examples of disaccharides include sucrose, maltose, and lactose Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ...


Monosaccharides and disaccharides are sweet, water soluble, and crystalline.


Polysaccharides are polymerized monosaccharides, complex, unsweet carbohydrates. Examples are starch, cellulose, and glycogen. They are generally large and often have a complex, branched, connectivity. They are insoluble in water and do not form crystals. Shorter polysaccharides, with 2-15 monomers, are sometimes known as oligosaccharides. Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ...


Lipids

Lipids are chiefly fatty acid esters, and are the basic building blocks of biological membranes. Another biological role is energy storage (e.g., triglycerides). Most lipids consist of a polar or hydrophilic head (typically glycerol) and one to three nonpolar or hydrophobic fatty acid tails, and therefore they are amphiphilic. Fatty acids consist of unbranched chains of carbon atoms that are connected by single bonds alone (saturated fatty acids) or by both single and double bonds (unsaturated fatty acids). The chains are usually 14-24 carbon groups long, but it is always an even number. Some common lipids. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... An amphipathic (a. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. ...


For lipids present in biological membranes, the hydrophilic head is from one of three classes:

  • Glycolipids, whose heads contain an oligosaccharide with 1-15 saccharide residues.
  • Phospholipids, whose heads contain a positively charged group that is linked to the tail by a negatively charged phosphate group.
  • Sterols, whose heads contain a planar steroid ring, for example, cholesterol.

Other lipids include prostaglandins and leukotrienes which are both 20-carbon fatty acyl units synthesized from arachidonic acid. They are also known as fatty acids Glycolipids are carbohydrate-attached lipids. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Sterols, or steroid alcohols are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group in the 3-position of the A-ring. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... Leukotrienes are autocrine and paracrine eicosanoid lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase. ... Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). ...


Hormones

Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands, where they are secreted into the bloodstream. They perform a wide range of roles in the various organs including the regulation of metabolic pathways and the regulation of membrane transport processes. For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ...


Hormones may be grouped into three structural classes:

  • The steroids are one class of such hormones. They perform a variety of functions, but they are all made from cholesterol.
  • Simple amines or amino acids.
  • Peptides or proteins.

This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ...

Amino acids

Amino acids are molecules that contain both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. (In biochemistry, the term amino acid is used when referring to those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to the same carbon, plus proline which is not actually an amino acid). In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Proline is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH[CH2)3]. L-Proline is one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. ...


Amino acids are the building blocks of long polymer chains. With 2-10 amino acids such chains are called peptides, with 10-100 they are often called polypeptides, and longer chains are known as proteins. These protein structures have many structural and functional roles in organisms. A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


There are twenty amino acids that are encoded by the standard genetic code, but there are more than 500 natural amino acids. When amino acids other than the set of twenty are observed in proteins, this is usually the result of modification after translation (protein synthesis). Only two amino acids other than the standard twenty are known to be incorporated into proteins during translation, in certain organisms: For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Translation is the second stage of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ...

  • Selenocysteine is incorporated into some proteins at a UGA codon, which is normally a stop codon.
  • Pyrrolysine is incorporated into some proteins at a UAG codon. For instance, in some methanogens in enzymes that are used to produce methane.

Besides those used in protein synthesis, other biologically important amino acids include carnitine (used in lipid transport within a cell), ornithine, GABA and taurine. Skeletal formula of L-selenocysteine Space-filling model of L-selenocysteine Selenocysteine is an amino acid that is present in several enzymes (for example glutathione peroxidases, tetraiodothyronine 5 deiodinases, thioredoxin reductases, formate dehydrogenases, glycine reductases and some hydrogenases). ... RNA codons. ... Pyrrolysine is a naturally-occurring genetically-coded amino acid. ... Methanogens are archaea that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Ornithine is an amino acid, whose structure is: NH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CHNH2-COOH Ornithine is one of the products of the action of the enzyme arginase on L-arginine, creating urea. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic acid. ...


Protein structure

The particular series of amino acids that form a protein is known as that protein's primary structure. Proteins have several, well-classified, elements of local structure and these are termed secondary structure. The overall 3D structure of a protein is termed its tertiary structure. Proteins often aggregate into macromolecular structures, or quaternary structure. A protein primary structure is a chain of amino acids. ... A representation of the 3D structure of the myoglobin protein. ... 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... In biochemistry and chemistry, the tertiary structure of a protein or any other macromolecule is its three-dimensional structure, as defined by the atomic coordinates. ... In biochemistry, many proteins are actually assemblies of more than one protein (polypeptide) molecule, which in the context of the larger assemblage are known as protein subunits. ...


Metalloproteins

A metalloprotein is a molecule that contains a metal cofactor. The metal attached to the protein may be an isolated ion or may be a complex organometallic compound or organic compound, such as the porphyrin group found in hemoproteins. In some cases, the metal is coordinated with both a side chain of the protein and an inorganic nonmetallic ion. This type of protein-metal-nonmetal structure is found in iron-sulfur clusters. In biochemistry, a metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that also contains a metal cofactor. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... A cofactor is the following: In mathematics a cofactor is the minor of an element of a square matrix. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Organometallic have classically been compounds having bonds between one or more metal atoms and one or more carbon atoms of an organyl group. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... A hemoprotein, or heme protein, is a protein containing a heme prosthetic group, either covalently or noncovalently bound to the protein itself. ... The term Side chain can have different meanings depending on the context: In chemistry and biochemistry a side chain is a part of a molecule attached to a core structure. ... An iron-sulfur cluster is a structural motif found in certain metalloproteins, such as the ferredoxins, as well as NADH dehydrogenase and Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase of the electron transfer system. ...


Vitamins

A vitamin is a compound that cannot be synthesized by a given organism but is nonetheless vital to its survival or health (for example coenzymes). These compounds must be absorbed, or eaten, but typically only in trace quantities. When originally discovered by a Polish doctor, he believed them to all be basic. He therefore named them vital amines. The l was dropped to form the word vitamines. Retinol (Vitamin A) A vitamin is a nutrient that is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Coenzymes are a small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
biomolecule - Search Results - MSN Encarta (0 words)
A biomolecule is a chemical compound that naturally occurs in living organisms.
Biomolecules consist primarily of carbon and hydrogen, along with nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur.
The Biomolecule Toolkit is a library for modeling biological macromolecules such as proteins, DNA...
SurModics | Bringing Innovation Together (0 words)
Immunoassay stabilizers that maintain the activity of antibodies, enzymes, and antigens in the dry state.
StabilCoat, StabilGuard, immunoassay stabilizer, biomolecule stabilizer, SC01, SC05, stabilize antibodies, stabilize enzymes, stabilize antigens, dry stabilization, blocking agent
StabilCoat Plus™ Immunoassay Stabilizer and StabilGuard Choice™ Biomolecule Stabilizer are formulated to improve the performance of protein arrays used in in vitro diagnostics and drug discovery.
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