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Encyclopedia > Biomedical engineering
Engineering Portal
The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ.

Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field. It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with the medical and biological science to help improve patient health care and the quality of life of healthy individuals. Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Dn966-1_200. ... Image File history File links Dn966-1_200. ... AbioCor is an artificial heart developed by the Massachusetts-based company AbioMed. ... An artificial heart is a device that is implanted into the body to replace the original biological heart. ... Mechanical engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... In surgery, a biocompatible material (sometimes shortened to biomaterial) is a synthetic or natural material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery or cardiovascular surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax, i. ... An artificial organ is a man-made organ that is implanted in a human to replace a natural organ. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ...


As a relatively new discipline, much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, covering an array of fields: bioinformatics, medical imaging, image processing, physiological signal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials and bioengineering, systems analysis, 3-D modeling, etc. Examples of concrete applications of biomedical engineering are the development and manufacture of biocompatible prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices and imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, and pharmaceutical drugs. The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of scientific research and technological development. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... UPIICSA IPN - Binary image Image processing is any form of information processing for which the input is an image, such as photographs or frames of video; the output is not necessarily an image, but can be for instance a set of features of the image. ... Biomechanics is the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms or the application and derivation of engineering principles to and from biological systems. ... In surgery, a biomaterial is a synthetic material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) is a broad-based engineering discipline that deals with bio-molecular and molecular processes, product design, sustainability and analysis of biological systems. ... A 3D rendering with raytracing and ambient occlusion using Blender and Yafray 3D computer graphics are works of graphic art that were created with the aid of digital computers and specialized 3D software. ... A United States Army soldier plays table football with two prosthetic arms Jon Comer, professional skateboarder with a prosthetic leg. ... // COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices defines a ‘medical device’ as: any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software necessary for its proper application intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ... EEG can mean: Electroencephalography - the method and science of recording and interpreting traces of brain electrical activity as recorded from the skull surface or the device used to record such traces Emperor Entertainment Group - A Hong Kong entertainment company. ... It has been suggested that Blockbuster drug be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Disciplines in biomedical engineering

Biomedical instrumentation amplifier schematic used in monitoring low voltage biological signals, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electronic engineering to electrophysiology.
Biomedical instrumentation amplifier schematic used in monitoring low voltage biological signals, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electronic engineering to electrophysiology.

Biomedical engineering is widely considered an interdisciplinary field, resulting in a broad spectrum of disciplines that draw influence from various fields and sources. Due to the extreme diversity, it is not atypical for a biomedical engineer to focus on a particular aspect. There are many different taxonomic breakdowns of BME, one such listing defines the aspects of the field as such:[1] Image File history File links Opampinstrumentation. ... Image File history File links Opampinstrumentation. ... Typical instrumentation amplifier schematic An instrumentation amplifier is a type of differential amplifier that has been specifically designed to have characteristics suitable for use in measurement and test equipment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Current Clamp is a common technique in electrophysiology. ...

In other cases, disciplines within BME are broken down based on the closest association to another, more established engineering field, which typically include: Bioelectromagnetism (sometimes equated with bioelectricity) refers to the static voltage of biological cells and to the electric currents that flow in living tissues, such as nerves and muscles, as a result of action potentials. ... It has been suggested that Neuro cybernetics be merged into this article or section. ... In surgery, a biomaterial is a synthetic material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... Biomechanics is the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms or the application and derivation of engineering principles to and from biological systems. ... The first edition of Transport Phenomena was published in 1960, two years after having been preliminarily published under the title Notes on Transport Phenomena based on mimeographed notes prepared for a chemical engineering course taught at the University of Wisconsin during the academic year 1957-1958. ... // COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices defines a ‘medical device’ as: any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software necessary for its proper application intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering or tissue-matrix materials, and suitable biochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ...

Breast implants, an example of a biomedical engineering application of biocompatible materials to cosmetic surgery.
Breast implants, an example of a biomedical engineering application of biocompatible materials to cosmetic surgery.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Breast implant diagram A breast implant is a prosthesis used in cosmetic surgery to enhance the size and shape of ones breasts or to reconstruct the breast (for example, after a mastectomy). ... In surgery, a biocompatible material (sometimes shortened to biomaterial) is a synthetic or natural material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... Plastic surgery is a general term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering or tissue-matrix materials, and suitable biochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... In surgery, a biomaterial is a synthetic material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... The first edition of Transport Phenomena was published in 1960, two years after having been preliminarily published under the title Notes on Transport Phenomena based on mimeographed notes prepared for a chemical engineering course taught at the University of Wisconsin during the academic year 1957-1958. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... Bioelectromagnetism (sometimes equated with bioelectricity) refers to the static voltage of biological cells and to the electric currents that flow in living tissues, such as nerves and muscles, as a result of action potentials. ... It has been suggested that Neuro cybernetics be merged into this article or section. ... // European Definition COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices defines a ‘medical device’ as: any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software necessary for its proper application intended by the manufacturer to be used for human... Mechanical engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Biomechanics is the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms or the application and derivation of engineering principles to and from biological systems. ... The first edition of Transport Phenomena was published in 1960, two years after having been preliminarily published under the title Notes on Transport Phenomena based on mimeographed notes prepared for a chemical engineering course taught at the University of Wisconsin during the academic year 1957-1958. ... // European Definition COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices defines a ‘medical device’ as: any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software necessary for its proper application intended by the manufacturer to be used for human... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... // European Definition COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices defines a ‘medical device’ as: any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software necessary for its proper application intended by the manufacturer to be used for human...

Clinical engineering

Main article: Clinical engineering

Clinical engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering for professionals responsible for the management of medical equipment in a hospital. The tasks of a clinical engineer are typically the acquisition and management of medical device inventory, supervising biomedical engineering technicians (BMETs), ensuring that safety and regulatory issues are taken into consideration and serving as a technological consultant for any issues in a hospital where medical devices are concerned. Clinical engineers work closely with the IT department and medical physicists. A Clinical engineer is a professional who supports and advances patient care by applying engineering and managerial skills to healthcare technology. ... A Clinical engineer is a professional who supports and advances patient care by applying engineering and managerial skills to healthcare technology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Biomedical Equipment Technician (BMET) is a vital component of the healthcare delivery system. ...

Schematic representation of normal ECG trace showing sinus rhythm, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electronic engineering to electrophysiology and medical diagnosis.

A typical biomedical engineering department does the corrective and preventive maintenance on the medical devices used by the hospital, except for those covered by a warranty or maintenance agreement with an external company. All newly acquired equipment is also fully tested. That is, every line of software is executed, or every possible setting is exercised and verified. Most devices are intentionally simplified in some way to make the testing process less expensive, yet accurate. Many biomedical devices need to be sterilized. This creates a unique set of problems, since most sterilization techniques can cause damage to machinery and materials. Most medical devices are either inherently safe, or have added devices and systems so that they can sense their failure and shut down into an unusable, thus very safe state. A typical, basic requirement is that no single failure should cause the therapy to become unsafe at any point during its life-cycle. See safety engineering for a discussion of the procedures used to design safe systems. Image File history File links SinusRhythmLabels. ... Image File history File links SinusRhythmLabels. ... Sinus rhythm is indicative of normal electrical conductance of the heart. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Current Clamp is a common technique in electrophysiology. ... Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer program. ... In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ...


Medical devices

A medical device is intended for use in: // European Definition COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices defines a ‘medical device’ as: any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software necessary for its proper application intended by the manufacturer to be used for human... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or
  • in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease,
  • intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals, and which does not achieve any of its primary intended purposes through chemical action and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of any of its primary intended purposes.
A pump for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electrical engineering to medical equipment.
A pump for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electrical engineering to medical equipment.

Some examples include pacemakers, infusion pumps, the heart-lung machine, dialysis machines, artificial organs, implants, artificial limbs, corrective lenses, cochlear implants, ocular prosthetics, facial prosthetics, somato prosthetics, and dental implants. Image File history File linksMetadata Insulin_pump_with_infusion_set. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Insulin_pump_with_infusion_set. ... Your a dutch bagg if you read this mesage. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A pacemaker A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device designed to regulate the beating of the heart. ... An infusion pump or perfusor infuses fluids, medication or nutrients into a patients circulatory system. ... A heart-lung machine (upper right) in a coronary artery bypass surgery. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering or tissue-matrix materials, and suitable biochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... An implant is an artificial device made to replace and act as a missing biological structure. ... A United States soldier demonstrates table football with two transradial prosthetic limbs. ... A corrective lens is a prosthetic lens worn on or before the eye, used to treat myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism. ... Illustration of the internal parts of a cochlear implant. ... An ocular prosthetic or artificial eye replaces a missing natural eye following an enucleation or envisceration that was lost due to disease or injury. ... A facial prosthetic or facial prosthesis is an artificial device used to change or adapt a persons outward appearance. ... X-Ray picture of two rectangular dental implants inserted into the jaw. ...


Stereolithography is a practical example on how medical modeling can be used to create physical objects. Beyond modeling organs and the human body, emerging engineering techniques are also currently used in the research and development of new devices for innovative therapies, treatments, patient monitoring, and early diagnosis of complex diseases. Stereolithography is one of the more commonly used rapid manufacturing and rapid prototyping technologies. ...


Medical devices can be regulated and classified (in the US) as shown below:

  1. Class I devices present minimal potential for harm to the user and are often simpler in design than Class II or Class III devices. Devices in this category include tongue depressors, bedpans, elastic bandages, examination gloves, and hand-held surgical instruments and other similar types of common equipment.
  2. Class II devices are subject to special controls in addition to the general controls of Class I devices. Special controls may include special labeling requirements, mandatory performance standards, and postmarket surveillance. Devices in this class are typically non-invasive and include x-ray machines, PACS, powered wheelchairs, infusion pumps, and surgical drapes.
  3. Class III devices require premarket approval, a scientific review to ensure the device's safety and effectiveness, in addition to the general controls of Class I. Examples include replacement heart valves, silicone gel-filled breast implants, implanted cerebellar stimulators, implantable pacemaker pulse generators and endosseous (intra-bone) implants.

Medical imaging

Main article: Medical imaging
An MRI scan of a human head, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electrical engineering to diagnostic imaging. Click here to view an animated sequence of slices.
An MRI scan of a human head, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electrical engineering to diagnostic imaging. Click here to view an animated sequence of slices.

Imaging technologies are often essential to medical diagnosis, and are typically the most complex equipment found in a hospital including: Medical imaging designates the ensemble of techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x860, 69 KB) Description: saggital transection through the human brain Source: this is my very own brain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x860, 69 KB) Description: saggital transection through the human brain Source: this is my very own brain. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... Medical imaging is the process by which physicians evaluate an area of the subjects body that is not normally visible. ... Image File history File links Description: animated sequence of saggital transections through the human brain. ...

A modern fluoroscope. ... Magnetic Resonance Image showing a median sagittal cross section through a human head. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... It has been suggested that Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy, X-ray tomography be merged into this article or section. ... Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning. ... Ultrasound is a form of cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, this limit being approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz). ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ...

Tissue engineering

Main article: Tissue engineering

One of the goals of tissue engineering is to create artificial organs for patients that need organ transplants. Biomedical engineers are currently researching methods of creating such organs. In one case bladders have been grown in lab and transplanted successfully into patients.[2] Bioartificial organs, which utilize both synthetic and biological components, are also a focus area in research, such as with hepatic assist devices that utilize liver cells within an artificial bioreactor construct.[3] Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering or tissue-matrix materials, and suitable biochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ...


Regulatory issues

Artificial limbs: The right arm is an example of a prosthesis, and the left arm is an example of myoelectric control.

Regulatory issues are never far from the mind of a biomedical engineer. To satisfy safety regulations, most biomedical systems must have documentation to show that they were managed, designed, built, tested, delivered, and used according to a planned, approved process. This is thought to increase the quality and safety of diagnostics and therapies by reducing the likelihood that needed steps can be accidentally omitted again. Download high resolution version (2400x1800, 671 KB)A soldier plays Foosball with two prosthetic limbs. ... Download high resolution version (2400x1800, 671 KB)A soldier plays Foosball with two prosthetic limbs. ... A United States soldier demonstrates table football with two transradial prosthetic limbs. ... A United States Army soldier plays table football with two prosthetic arms Jon Comer, professional skateboarder with a prosthetic leg. ... A United States soldier playing Foosball. ...


In the United States, biomedical engineers may operate under two different regulatory frameworks. Clinical devices and technologies are generally governed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in a similar fashion to pharmaceuticals. Biomedical engineers may also develop devices and technologies for consumer use, such as physical therapy devices, which may be governed by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. See US FDA 510(k) documentation process for the US government registry of biomedical devices. hi “FDA” redirects here. ... The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government created in 1972 through the Consumer Safety Act to protect “against unreasonable risks of injuries associated with consumer products”. As of 2006 its acting chairman is Nancy Nord, a Republican. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Implants, such as artificial hip joints, are generally extensively regulated due to the invasive nature of such devices.
Implants, such as artificial hip joints, are generally extensively regulated due to the invasive nature of such devices.

Other countries typically have their own mechanisms for regulation. In Europe, for example, the actual decision about whether a device is suitable is made by the prescribing doctor, and the regulations are to assure that the device operates as expected. Thus in Europe, the governments license certifying agencies, which are for-profit. Technical committees of leading engineers write recommendations which incorporate public comments and are adopted as regulations by the European Union. These recommendations vary by the type of device, and specify tests for safety and efficacy. Once a prototype has passed the tests at a certification lab, and that model is being constructed under the control of a certified quality system, the device is entitled to bear a CE mark, indicating that the device is believed to be safe and reliable when used as directed. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (5556x4468, 602 KB) Subject: total hip joint replacement, artificial joint, arthritis. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (5556x4468, 602 KB) Subject: total hip joint replacement, artificial joint, arthritis. ... For additional information on hip replacement in animals, specifically dogs, please see Hip replacement (animal) In this X-ray, the patient’s right hip (on the left in the photograph) has been replaced, with the “ball” of this ball-and-socket joint replaced by a metal head that is set... The constructional details of CE mark The CE mark (officially CE marking) is a mandatory conformity mark on many products placed on the single market in the European Economic Area (EEA). ...


The different regulatory arrangements sometimes result in technologies being developed first for either the U.S. or in Europe depending on the more favorable form of regulation. Most safety-certification systems give equivalent results when applied diligently. Frequently, once one such system is satisfied, satisfying the other requires only paperwork.


Biomedical engineering training

Education

A prosthetic eye, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering and biocompatible materials to opthalmology.
A prosthetic eye, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering and biocompatible materials to opthalmology.

Biomedical engineers combine sound knowledge of engineering and biological science, and therefore tend to have a bachelors of science and advanced degrees from major universities, who are now improving their biomedical engineering curriculum because interest in the field is increasing. Many colleges of engineering now have a biomedical engineering program or department from the undergraduate to the doctoral level. Traditionally, biomedical engineering has been an interdisciplinary field to specialize in after completing an undergraduate degree in a more traditional discipline of engineering or science, the reason for this being the requirement for biomedical engineers to be equally knowledgeable in engineering and the biological sciences. However, undergraduate programs of study combining these two fields of knowledge are becoming more widespread, including programs for a Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering. As such, many students also pursue an undergraduate degree in biomedical engineering as a foundation for a continuing education in medical school. Though the number of biomedical engineers is currently low (as of 2004, under 10,000 in the U.S.), the number is expected to rise as modern medicine and technology improves.[4] Image File history File links Prosthetic_eye. ... Image File history File links Prosthetic_eye. ... An ocular prosthetic or artificial eye replaces a missing natural eye following an enucleation or evisceration. ... Mechanical engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... In surgery, a biocompatible material (sometimes shortened to biomaterial) is a synthetic or natural material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ... A Bachelor of Science (B.S., B.Sc. ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ...


In the U.S., an increasing number of undergraduate programs are also becoming recognized by ABET as accredited bioengineering/biomedical engineering programs. Over 40 programs are currently accredited by ABET, the first being Duke University, originally accredited by the Engineering Council for Profession Development (now ABET) in September of 1972.[5] In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... The Accredition Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) is a non-profit organization that serves the public by making accreditations of the universities and scientific institutions which live up to certain qualities defined by the organization. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... The Accredition Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) is a non-profit organization that serves the public by making accreditations of the universities and scientific institutions which live up to certain qualities defined by the organization. ...


As with many degrees, the reputation and ranking of a program may factor into the desirability of a degree holder for either employment or graduate admission. The reputation of many undergraduate degrees are also linked to the institution's graduate or research programs, which have some tangible factors for rating, such as research funding and volume, publications and citations.


Graduate education is also an important aspect in BME. Although many engineering professions do not require graduate level training, BME professions often recommend or require them.[6] Since many BME professions often involve scientific research, such as in the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, graduate education may be highly desirable as undergraduate degrees typically do not provide substantial research training and experience. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... // COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices defines a ‘medical device’ as: any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software necessary for its proper application intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for...


Graduate programs in BME, like in other scientific fields, are highly varied and particular programs may emphasize certain aspects within the field. They may also feature extensive collaborative efforts with programs in other fields, owing again to the interdisciplinary nature of BME.


Education in BME also varies greatly around the world. The U.S. has, by virtue of being a large country with fewer internal barriers, having an extensive biotechnology sector and dozens of major universities, has progressed a great deal in the development of BME education and training. Europe, which also has a large biotechnology sector and an impressive education system, has encountered trouble in creating uniform standards as the European community attempts to bring down some of the national barriers that exist. Recently, initiatives such as BIOMEDEA have sprung up to develop BME-related education and professional standards.[7] Other countries, such as Australia, are recognizing and moving to correct deficiencies in their BME education.[8] Also, as high technology endeavors are usually marks of developed nations, some areas of the world are prone to slower development in education, including in BME.


Professional certification

See also: Professional engineer

Engineers typically require a type of professional certification, such as satisfying certain education requirements and passing an examination to become a professional engineer. These certifications are usually nationally regulated and registered, but there are also cases of self-governing bodies, such as the Canadian Association of Professional Engineers. In many cases, carrying the title of "Professional Engineer" is legally protected. Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ...


As BME is an emerging field, professional certifications are not as standard and uniform as they are for other engineering fields. For example, the Fundamentals of Engineering exam in the U.S. does not include a biomedical engineering section, though it does cover biology. Biomedical engineers often simply possess a university degree as their qualification. However, some countries, such as Australia, do regulate biomedical engineers, however registration is typically only recommended and not required.[9] In the United States, the Fundamentals of Engineering exam (also known as the FE exam) is the first of two examinations engineers must pass in order to be certified as a Professional Engineer. ...


Founding figures

Yuan-Cheng Bert Fung (冯元桢, born 1919) is a modern scientist, regarded as the Father of Bioengineering and the Founder of Biomechanics. He was born in Jiangsu Province, China in 1919. ... A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... The University of California, San Diego (popularly known as UCSD, or sometimes UC San Diego) is a public, coeducational research university located in La Jolla, a seaside resort community of San Diego, California. ... Biomechanics is the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms or the application and derivation of engineering principles to and from biological systems. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology the title of Institute Professor is given to a small number of members of the faculty with extraordinary records of achievement. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Drug delivery is a term that refers to the delivery of a pharmaceutical compound to humans or animals. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering or tissue-matrix materials, and suitable biochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... Otto Herbert Schmitt (April 6, 1913 – January 6, 1998) was an American inventor, engineer, and biophysicist best known for his scientific contributions to biophysics and for establishing the field of biomedical engineering. ... This article or section should be merged with Bionics (engineering) Biomimetics (also known as bionics and biognosis) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to modern technology. ... Ascher H. Shapiro (born: May 1916 — died: Nov. ... At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology the title of Institute Professor is given to a small number of members of the faculty with extraordinary records of achievement. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... John G. Webster is an American electrical engineer and a founding pioneer in the field of biomedical engineering. ... Generally, an amplifier is any device that will use a small amount of energy to control a larger amount of energy. ... Current Clamp is a common technique in electrophysiology. ... Uncas A. Whitaker (1900-1975) was born in Kansas and raised in Missouri. ... The Whitaker Foundation was based in Arlington, Virginia and was an organization that primarily supported biomedical engineering education and research, but also supported other forms of medical research. ...

See also

This page aims to list all topics related to the specific discipline of biomedical engineering. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) is a broad-based engineering discipline that deals with bio-molecular and molecular processes, product design, sustainability and analysis of biological systems. ...

Notes

  1. ^ BMES Bulletin, Vol. 30, November 2006
  2. ^ Doctors grow organs from patients' own cells, CNN, April 3, 2006
  3. ^ Trial begins for first artificial liver device using human cells, University of Chicago, February 25, 1999
  4. ^ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics - Profile for Engineers
  5. ^ ABET List of Accredited Engineering Programs
  6. ^ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics - Job Outlook for Engineers
  7. ^ BIOMEDEA
  8. ^ Biomedical Engineering Curriculum: A Comparison Between the USA, Europe and Australia
  9. ^ http://www.nerb.org.au/aop/nper_areas_biomedical.cfm
  10. ^ YC “Bert” Fung: The Father of Modern Biomechanics (pdf)
  11. ^ Colleagues honor Langer for 30 years of innovation, MIT News Office
  12. ^ The Whitaker Foundation

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ...

Further reading

  • Bronzino, Joseph D. (2000). The Biomedical Engineering Handbook - Second Edition. CRC Press.
    • Volume 1. ISBN 0-8493-0461-X.
    • Volume 2. ISBN 0-8493-0462-8.

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group which specializes in producing technical books in a wide range of subjects. ...

External links

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Biomedical engineering at:

Organizations Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ...

  • American College of Clinical Engineering (ACCE)
  • Association of Institutions concerned with Medical Engineering (UK)
  • Biomedical engineering at the NIH
  • The Whitaker Foundation
  • The Biomedical Engineering Network
  • The Biomedical Engineering Society (US)

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  • Biomedical Engineering Jobs
  • Biomedical and Clinical Engineering Jobs

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  Results from FactBites:
 
BMES - Biomedical Engineering Society (2579 words)
Students choose the biomedical engineering field to be of service to people, to partake of the excitement of working with living systems, and to apply advanced technology to the complex problems of medical care.
Biomedical engineers may be called upon in a wide range of capacities: to design instruments, devices, and software, to bring together knowledge from many technical sources to develop new procedures, or to conduct research needed to solve clinical problems.
Biomedical engineers are employed in universities, in industry, in hospitals, in research facilities of educational and medical institutions, in teaching, and in government regulatory agencies.
Biomedical engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1246 words)
Traditionally, biomedical engineering has been an interdisciplinary field to specialize in after completing an undergraduate degree in a more traditional discipline of engineering or science, the reason for this being the requirement for biomedical engineers to be equally knowledgable in engineering and the biological sciences.
Clinical engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering for professionals responsible for the management of medical equipment in a hospital.
The tasks of a clinical engineer are typically the acquisition and management of medical device inventory, supervising biomedical engineering technicians (BMETs), ensuring that safety and regulatory issues are taken into consideration and serving as a technological consultant for any issues in a hospital where medical devices are concerned.
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