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Encyclopedia > Biomechanics

'Biomechanics' is the application of mechanical principles on living organisms. This includes research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms and the application of engineering principles to and from biological systems. This research and analysis can be carried forth on multiple levels, from the molecular, wherein biomaterials such as collagen and elastin are considered, all the way up to the tissue and organ level. Some simple applications of Newtonian mechanics can supply correct approximations on each level, but precise details demand the use of continuum mechanics. Biomechanical is a English Metalband. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... In surgery, a biomaterial is a synthetic material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... Continuum mechanics is a branch of physics (specifically mechanics) that deals with continuous matter, including both solids and fluids (i. ...

Chinstrap Penguin

Giovanni Alfonso Borelli wrote the first book on biomechanics, De Motu Animalium, or On the Movement of Animals. He not only saw animals' bodies as mechanical systems, but pursued questions such as the physiological difference between imagining performing an action and actually doing it. Some simple examples of biomechanics research include the investigation of the forces that act on limbs, the aerodynamics of bird and insect flight, the hydrodynamics of swimming in fish, the anchorage and mechanical support provided by tree roots, and locomotion in general across all forms of life, from individual cells to whole organisms. The biomechanics of human beings is a core part of kinesiology. chinstrap penguin larger image on http://www. ... chinstrap penguin larger image on http://www. ... Giovanni Alfonso Borelli. ... On the Gait of Animals (or De Incessu Animalium, or On the Progression of Animals) is a text by Aristotle on the details of gait and movement in various species of animals. ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Flight (disambiguation). ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... In a general sense, locomotion simply means active movement or travel, applying not just to biological individuals. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Look up kinesiology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Applied mechanics, most notably thermodynamics and continuum mechanics, and mechanical engineering disciplines such as fluid mechanics and solid mechanics, play prominent roles in the study of biomechanics. By applying the laws and concepts of physics, biomechanical mechanisms and structures can be simulated and studied. Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Continuum mechanics is a branch of physics (specifically mechanics) that deals with continuous matter, including both solids and fluids (i. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... This box:      Fluid mechanics is the study of how fluids move and the forces on them. ... Solid mechanics is the branch of physics and mathematics that concern the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e. ...


It has been shown that applied loads and deformations can affect the properties of living tissue. There is much research in the field of growth and remodeling as a response to applied loads. For example, the effects of elevated blood pressure on the mechanics of the arterial wall, the behavior of cardiomyocytes within a heart with a cardiac infarct, and bone growth in response to exercise, and the acclimative growth of plants in response to wind movement, have been widely regarded as instances in which living tissue is remodelled as a direct consequence of applied loads. Load may mean: Look up Load in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In engineering mechanics, deformation is a change in shape due to an applied force. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found within the heart. ... In medicine, infarction is necrosis of tissue due to upstream obstruction of its arterial blood supply. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ...


Relevant mathematical tools include linear algebra, differential equations, vector and tensor calculus, numerics and computational techniques such as the finite element method. Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with the study of vectors, vector spaces (also called linear spaces), linear maps (also called linear transformations), and systems of linear equations. ... Visualization of airflow into a duct modelled using the Navier-Stokes equations, a set of partial differential equations. ... Vector calculus (also called vector analysis) is a field of mathematics concerned with multivariate real analysis of vectors in two or more dimensions. ... For more technical Wiki articles on tensors, see the section later in this article. ... Mathematically, the finite element method (FEM) is used for finding approximate solution of partial differential equations (PDE) as well as of integral equations such as the heat transport equation. ...


The study of biomaterials is of crucial importance to biomechanics. For example, the various tissues within the body, such as skin, bone, and arteries each possess unique material properties. The passive mechanical response of a particular tissue can be attributed to characteristics of the various proteins, such as elastin and collagen, living cells, ground substances such as proteoglycans, and the orientations of fibers within the tissue. For example, if human skin were largely composed of a protein other than collagen, many of its mechanical properties, such as its elastic modulus, would be different. In surgery, a biomaterial is a synthetic or natural material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Elastin is a protein in connective tissue that is elastic and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Proteoglycans represent a special class of glycoprotein that are heavily glycosylated. ... This article is about the organ. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ...


Chemistry, molecular biology, and cell biology have much to offer in the way of explaining the active and passive properties of living tissues. For example, in muscle contractions, the binding of myosin to actin is based on a biochemical reaction involving calcium ions and ATP. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle A muscle contraction (also known as a muscle twitch or simply twitch) occurs when a muscle fiber generates tension through the action of actin and myosin cross-bridge cycling. ... Myosin is a motor protein filament found in muscle tissue. ... G-Actin (PDB code: 1j6z). ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ...

Contents

Applications

The study of biomechanics ranges from the inner workings of a cell to the movement and development of limbs, to the mechanical properties of soft tissue, and bones. As we develop a greater understanding of the physiological behavior of living tissues, researchers are able to advance the field of tissue engineering, as well as develop improved treatments for a wide array of pathologies. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... A limb (from the Old English lim) is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus tentacles or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or animal body; a large or main branch of a tree; a representative, branch or member of a group or organization. ... In medicine, the term soft tissue refers to tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ...


Biomechanics as a sports science, kinesiology, applies the laws of mechanics and physics to human performance in order to gain a greater understanding of performance in athletic events through modeling, simulation, and measurement. Sports science is a discipline that studies the application of scientific principles and techniques with the aim of improving sporting performance. ...


Continuum mechanics

It is often appropriate to model living tissues as continuous media. For example, at the tissue level, the arterial wall can be modeled as a continuum. This assumption breaks down when the length scales of interest approach the order of the micro structural details of the material. The basic postulates of continuum mechanics are conservation of linear and angular momentum, conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and the entropy inequality. Solids are usually modeled using "reference" or "Lagrangian" coordinates, whereas fluids are often modeled using "spatial" or "Eulerian" coordinates. Using these postulates and some assumptions regarding the particular problem at hand, a set of equilibrium equations can be established. The kinematics and constitutive relations are also needed to model a continuum Continuum mechanics is a branch of physics (specifically mechanics) that deals with continuous matter, including both solids and fluids (i. ... Look up continuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In physics, length scale is a particular length or distance determined with the precision of one order (or a few orders) of magnitude. ... In physics, momentum is a physical quantity related to the velocity and mass of an object. ... In physics, angular momentum intuitively measures how much the linear momentum is directed around a certain point called the origin; the moment of momentum. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... This article is about the law of conservation of energy in physics. ... For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kinematics (Greek κινειν,kinein, to move) is a branch of mechanics which describes the motion of objects without the consideration of the masses or forces that bring about the motion. ... In structural analysis, constitutive relations connect applied stresses or forces to strains or deformations. ...



Second and fourth order tensors are crucial in representing many quantities in electromechanical. In practice, however, the full tensor form of a fourth-order constitutive matrix is rarely used. Instead, simplifications such as isotropy, transverse isotropy, and incompressibility reduce the number of independent components. Commonly-used second-order tensors include the Cauchy stress tensor, the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the deformation gradient tensor, and the Green strain tensor. A reader of the mechanic's literature would be well-advised to note precisely the definitions of the various tensors which are being used in a particular work. Isotropy (the opposite of anisotropy) is the property of being independent of direction. ... That is the material has one plane of symmetry or the transverse. ... The bulk modulus (or incompressibility) K of a fluid or solid is the inverse of the compressibility: where P is pressure and V is volume. ... Figure 1  Stress tensor In physics, stress is the internal distribution of forces within a body that balance and react to the loads applied to it. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Biomechanics of circulation

Under most circumstances, blood flow can be modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations. Whole blood can often be assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. However, this assumption fails when considering flows within arterioles. At this scale, the effects of individual red blood cells becomes significant, and whole blood can no longer be modeled as a continuum. When the diameter of the blood vessel is slightly larger than the diameter of the red blood cell the Fahraeus–Lindqvist effect occurs and there is a decrease in wall shear stress. However, as the diameter of the blood vessel decreases further, the red blood cells have to squeeze through the vessel and often can only pass in single file. In this case, the inverse Fahraeus–Lindqvist effect occurs and the wall shear stress increases. A micrograph of red blood cells, taken from the site http://www. ... A micrograph of red blood cells, taken from the site http://www. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... The Navier-Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, are a set of equations which describe the motion of fluid substances such as liquids and gases. ... A Newtonian fluid (named for Isaac Newton) is a fluid that flows like water—its shear stress is linearly proportional to the velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the plane of shear. ...


Biomechanics of the bones

Bones are anisotropic but are approximately transversely isotropic. In other words, bones are stronger along one axis than across that axis, and are approximately the same strength no matter how they are rotated around that axis. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... That is the material has one plane of symmetry or the transverse. ...


The stress-strain relations of bones can be modeled using Hooke's law, in which they are related by elastic moduli, e.g. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio or the Lamé parameters. The constitutive matrix, a fourth order tensor, depends on the isotropy of the bone. Hookes law accurately models the physical properties of common mechanical springs for small changes in length. ... An elastic modulus, or modulus of elasticity, is the mathematical description of an object or substances tendency to be deformed when a force is applied to it. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... In linear elasticity, the Lamé parameters are the two parameters λ, also called Lamés first parameter. ... In mathematics, a tensor is (in an informal sense) a generalized linear quantity or geometrical entity that can be expressed as a multi-dimensional array relative to a choice of basis; however, as an object in and of itself, a tensor is independent of any chosen frame of reference. ...

σij = Cijklεkl

Biomechanics of the muscle

There are three main types of muscles:

  • Skeletal muscle (striated): Unlike cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle can develop a sustained condition known as tetany through high frequency stimulation, resulting in overlapping twitches and a phenomenon known as wave summation. At a sufficiently high frequency, tetany occurs, and the contracticle force appears constant through time. This allows skeletal muscle to develop a wide variety of forces. This muscle type can be voluntary controlled. Hill's Model is the most popular model used to study muscle.
  • Cardiac muscle (striated): Cardiomyocytes are a highly specialized cell type. These involuntarily contracted cells are located in the heart wall and operate in concert to develop synchronized beats. This is attributable to a refractory period between twitches.
  • Smooth muscle (smooth - lacking striations): The stomach, vasculature, and most of the digestive tract are largely composed of smooth muscle. This muscle type is involuntary and is controlled by the enteric nervous system.

A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... Tetany is the point at which signals from nerves (action potentials) are arriving to skeletal muscle rapidly enough in succession to cause a steady contraction, and not just a series of individual twitches. ... Hills model refers to either Hills equation for tetanized muscle, or to the 3-element model. ... Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found within the heart. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ...

Biomechanics of soft tissues

Soft tissues such as tendon, ligament and cartilage are combinations of matrix proteins and fluid. In each of these tissues the main strength bearing element is collagen, although the amount and type of collagen varies according to the function each tissue must perform. Elastin is also a major load-bearing constituent within skin, the vasculature, and connective tissues. The function of tendons is to connect muscle with bone and is subjected to tensile loads. Tendons must be strong to facilitate movement of the body while at the same time remaining compliant to prevent damage to the muscle tissues. Ligaments connect bone to bone and therefore are stiffer than tendons but are relatively close in their tensile strength. Cartilage, on the other hand, is primarily loaded in compression and acts as a cushion in the joints to distribute loads between bones. The compressive strength of collagen is derived mainly from collagen as in tendons and ligaments, however because collagen is comparable to a "wet noodle" it must be supported by cross-links of glycosaminoglycans that also attract water and create a nearly incompressible tissue capable of supporting compressive loads. Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... For other uses, see Tendon (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures:[1] Fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ...


Recently, research is growing on the biomechanics of other types of soft tissues such as skin and internal organs. This interest is spurred by the need for realism in the development of medical simulation. This article is about the general term. ...


Viscoelasticity

Viscoelasticity is readily evident in many soft tissues, where there is energy dissipation, or hysteresis, between the loading and unloading of the tissue during mechanical tests. Some soft tissues can be preconditioned by repetitive cyclic loading to the extent where the stress-strain curves for the loading and unloading portions of the tests nearly overlap. The most commonly used model for viscoelasticity is the Quasilinear Viscoelasticity theory (QLV). Viscoelasticity, also known as anelasticity, describes materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing plastic deformation. ... In linear algebra and numerical analysis a preconditioner is a matrix P such that P-1A has a lower condition number than A. This is useful, for instance, when solving a linear system for x using iterative methods, since the number of iterations usually increases with the condition number. ... A stress-strain curve is a graph derived from measuring load (stress - σ) versus extension (strain - ε) for a sample of a material. ...


Nonlinear theories

Hooke's law is linear, but many, if not most problems in biomechanics, involve highly nonlinear behavior, particularly for soft tissues. Proteins such as collagen and elastin, for example, exhibit such a behavior. Some common material models include the Neo-Hookean behavior, often used for modeling elastin, and the famous Fung-elastic exponential model. Non linear phenomena in the biomechanics of soft tissue arise not only from the material properties but also from the very large strains (100% and more) that are characteristic of many problems in soft tissues. Hookes law accurately models the physical properties of common mechanical springs for small changes in length. ...


BioMechanics In Sport

Biomechanics is the science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces. At the highest levels of sports in which techniques play a major role, improvement comes so often from careful attention to detail that no coach can afford to leave these details to chance or guesswork. For such coaches knowledge of biomechanics might be regarded as essential.


Speed and Velocity

Speed and velocity describe the rate at which a body moves from one location to another. These two terms are often thought, incorrectly, to be the same. Average speed of a body is obtained by dividing the distance by the time taken where as the average Velocity is obtained by dividing the displacement by the time taken e.g. consider a swimmer in a 50m race in a 25m length pool who completes the race in 60 seconds - distance is 50m and displacement is 0m (swimmer is back where they started) so speed is 50/60= 0.83m/s and velocity is 0/60=0 m/s


Example

Let us consider the horizontal and vertical components of velocity of the shot in Figure 1. Figure 2 indicates the angle of release of the shot at 35° and the velocity at release as 12 m/sec. · Vertical component Vv = 12 x sin 35° = 6.88 m/sec · Horizontal component Vh = 12 x cos 35° = 9.82 m/sec Let us now consider the distance the shot will travel horizontally (its displacement). Range (R) = ((v² × sinØ × cosØ) + (v × cosØ × sqrt((v × sinØ)² + 2gh))) ÷ g Where v = 12, Ø = 35, h = 2m (height of the shot above the ground at release) and g = 9.81 · R = ((12² × sin35 × cos35) + (12 × cos35 × sqrt((12 × sin35)² + 2x9.81x2))) ÷ 9.81 · R = 16.22m The time of flight of the shot can be determined from the equation (2 × v × sinØ) ÷ g · Time of flight = (2 x 12 x sin 35) ÷ 9.81 = 1.4 seconds


See also

Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Biomineralisation (or biomineralization) is the process in which living organism produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues in living organisms. ... Dr. E. Lloyd Du Brul with the Du Brul collection of skulls and dental artifacts. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  • Dudley, R. 2000. The Biomechanics of Insect Flight: Form, Function, Evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Fung, Y. C. Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissue. (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. ISBN 0-387-97947-6.
  • Gans, C. 1974. Biomechanics: An Approach to Vertebrate Biology. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. ISBN-10: 0472080164, ISBN-13: 978-0472080168.
  • Humphrey, J. D. "Cardiovascular Solid Mechanics: Cells, Tissues, and Organs." New York: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95168-7.
  • Vogel, S. 2003. Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11297-5
  • Ikada, Yoshito. Bio Materials: An Approach to Artificial Organs (バイオマテリアル: 人工臓器へのアプローチ)
  • Biomechanics of Bone

External links

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Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Penn State Biomechanics Laboratory (381 words)
The Biomechanics Laboratory at Penn State was founded in 1967 by Dr. Richard Nelson, and has since been at the forefront of the development of biomechanics within the field of exercise and sport science.
The Center was dedicated to the discovery and development of biomechanical solutions for pathological conditions of the feet and lower extremities and as such extended the techniques developed in sports medicine to other populations and to health-related problems reaching beyond the competitive arena.
The Biomechanics Laboratory and Center for Locomotion Studies moved to new adjoining facilities in the Recreation Building on the University Park campus in 1997.
Biomechanics Summary (2330 words)
Biomechanics is the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms.
Some simple examples of biomechanics research include the investigation of the forces that act on limbs, the aerodynamics of bird and insect flight, the hydrodynamics of swimming in fish and locomotion in general across all forms of life, from individual cells to whole organisms.
Biomechanics as a Sports science applies the laws of mechanics and physics to human performance, in order to gain a greater understanding of performance in athletic events through modeling, simulation and measurement.
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