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Encyclopedia > Biome
Biomes
Terrestrial biomes
Tundra
Taiga/boreal forests
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Temperate coniferous forests
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Montane grasslands and shrublands
Deserts and xeric shrublands
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub
Mangrove
Aquatic biomes
Continental shelf
Littoral/intertidal zone
Riparian
Pond
Coral reef
Kelp forest
Pack ice
Hydrothermal vents
Cold seeps
Benthic zone
Pelagic zone
Neritic zone
Other biomes
Endolithic zone
Ecology Portal

A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. Biomes are defined based on factors such as plant structures (such as trees, shrubs, and grasses), leaf types (such as broadleaf and needleleaf), plant spacing (forest, woodland, savanna), and climate. Unlike ecozones, biomes are not defined by genetic, taxonomic, or historical similarities. Biomes are often identified with particular patterns of ecological succession and climax vegetation. In Ecology, a biome is a major regional group of distinctive plant and animal communities well adapted to the regions physical environment. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... Temperate mixed forest in Yunnan, southwest China. ... Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes. ... A restored Illinois grassland ecosystem at Morton Arboretum. ... Montane grasslands and shrublands is a biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. ... In isolation, Hawaiis Silverswords have adapted to xeric microclimates within volcanic craters, trapping and channeling dew and protecting leaves with reflective hairs. ... A Mediterranean forest. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... The rocky shoreline of Newport, Rhode Island showing a clear line where high tide occurs. ... A riparian zone schematic from the Everglades. ... Two people reflected in a fish pond A pond is typically a man made body of water smaller than a lake. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Kelp Forest Kelp forests are a type of marine ecosystem established around colonies of kelp; they contain rich biodiversity. ... An icebreaker navigates some through young (1 year) sea ice Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... Hydrothermal vents are fissures in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... Tubeworms, soft corals and chemosynthetic mussels at a seep located 3,000 metres down on the Florida Escarpment. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... The neritic zone spans from the low-tide line to the edge of the continental shelf in oceans. ... Endolith lifeform found inside an Antarctic rock An endolith or cryptoendolith is an organism (archaea, bacterium, or fungus) that lives inside rock, coral, animal shells, or in the pores between mineral grains. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... In ecology, a community is an assemblage of populations of different species, interacting with one another. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Soil biology is the study of microbial and faunal activity and ecology in soil. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ... Secondary succession: trees are colonizing uncultivated fields and meadows. ... Climax vegetation is the vegetation which establishes itself on a given site for given climatic conditions in the absence of anthropic action after a long time (it is the asymptotic or quasi equilibrium state of the local ecosystem). ...


The biodiversity characteristic of each biome, especially the diversity of fauna and subdominant plant forms, is a function of abiotic factors and the biomass productivity of the dominant vegetation. Species diversity tends to be higher in terrestrial biomes with higher net primary productivity, moisture availability, and temperature.[1] Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the eco-industrial use of the term, which includes dead material used for biofuels, see biomass An Antarctic krill, whose species comprises roughly 0. ... Aerial view of mixed aspen-spruce forest in Alaska Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover life forms, structure, spatial extent or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics. ... Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ... Ecohydrology is a sub-discipline of hydrology that focuses on ecological processes involved in the hydrological cycle. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...


Ecoregions are grouped into both biomes and ecozones. An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...


A fundamental classification of biomes is into:

  1. Terrestrial (land) biomes
  2. Freshwater biomes
  3. Marine biomes

Biomes are often given local names. For example, a Temperate grassland or shrubland biome is known commonly as steppe in central Asia, prairie in North America, and pampas in South America. Tropical grasslands are known as savanna or veldt in southern Africa and outback or scrub in Australia. Sometimes an entire biome may be targeted for protection, especially under an individual nation's Biodiversity Action Plan. A restored Illinois grassland ecosystem at Morton Arboretum. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... The pampas (from Quechua for plain) are the fertile lowlands that extend across c. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about grassland. ... For information on the town of Veldt, see Veldt Township, Minnesota Veld or Veldt is an open area of land, typically in South Africa or southern Africa, comparable to the Australian outback. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Outback (disambiguation). ... Scrubland is plant community characterized by scrub vegetation. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ...


Climate is a major factor determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes. Among the important climatic factors are:

  • latitude: Arctic, boreal, temperate, subtropical, tropical.
  • humidity: humid, semi-humid, semi-arid, and arid.
    • seasonal variation: Rainfall may be distributed evenly throughout the year or be marked by seasonal variations.
    • dry summer, wet winter: Most regions of the earth receive most of their rainfall during the summer months; Mediterranean climate regions receive their rainfall during the winter months.
  • elevation: Increasing elevation causes a distribution of habitat types similar to that of increasing latitude.

Biodiversity generally increases away from the poles towards the equator and increases with humidity. This article is about the geographical term. ... The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ...


The most widely used systems of classifying biomes correspond to latitude (or temperature zoning) and humidity. This article is about the geographical term. ...

Contents

Map of Biomes

Terrestrial biomes classified by vegetation      Ice desert      Tundra      Taiga      Temperate broadleaf      Temperate steppe      Subtropical rainforest      Mediterranean      Monsoon forest      Desert      Xeric shrubland      Dry steppe      Semidesert      Grass savanna      Tree savanna      Subtropical dry forest      Tropical rainforest      Alpine tundra      Montane forests
Terrestrial biomes classified by vegetation
     Ice desert      Tundra      Taiga      Temperate broadleaf      Temperate steppe      Subtropical rainforest      Mediterranean      Monsoon forest      Desert      Xeric shrubland      Dry steppe      Semidesert      Grass savanna      Tree savanna      Subtropical dry forest      Tropical rainforest      Alpine tundra      Montane forests

Bailey system

Robert G. Bailey developed a biogeographical classification system for the United States in a map published in 1975. Bailey subsequently expanded the system to include the rest of North America in 1981 and the world in 1989. The Bailey system is based on climate and is divided into four domains (Polar, Humid Temperate, Dry, and Humid Tropical), with further divisions based on other climate characteristics (subarctic, warm temperate, hot temperate, and subtropical; marine and continental; lowland and mountain).

  • 100 Polar Domain
    • 120 Tundra Division
    • M120 Tundra Division - Mountain Provinces
    • 130 Subarctic Division
    • M130 Subarctic Division - Mountain Provinces
  • 200 Humid Temperate Domain
    • 210 Warm Continental Division
    • M210 Warm Continental Division - Mountain Provinces
    • 220 Hot Continental Division
    • M220 Hot Continental Division - Mountain Provinces
    • 230 Subtropical Division
    • M230 Subtropical Division - Mountain Provinces
    • 240 Marine Division
    • M240 Marine Division - Mountain Provinces
    • 250 Prairie Division
    • 260 Mediterranean Division
    • M260 Mediterranean Division - Mountain Provinces
  • 300 Dry Domain
    • 310 Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division
    • M310 Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division - Mountain Provinces

WWF system

A team of biologists convened by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed an ecological land classification system that identified fourteen biomes, called major habitat types, and further divided the world's land area into 825 terrestrial ecoregions. This classification is used to define the Global 200 list of ecoregions identified by the WWF as priorities for conservation. The WWF major habitat types are as follows: Note: After losing a court case in 2002 on the use of the initials WWF, the organization previously known as the World Wrestling Federation has rebranded itself as World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE. WWF - The Conservation Organization was formerly known as World Wildlife Fund and Worldwide Fund for Nature. ... Ecological land classification is defined as being a cartographical delineation of distinct ecological areas, identified by their geology, topography, soils, vegetation, climate conditions, living species, water resources, as well as anthropic factors. ... Ecoregions are defined by the World Wildlife Fund as relatively large units of land or water containing a distinct assemblage of natural communities and species, with boundaries that approximate the original extent of natural communities prior to major land-use change. Terrestrial ecoregions are land ecoregions, as distinct from freshwater... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...

For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... Temperate mixed forest in Yunnan, southwest China. ... A restored Illinois grassland ecosystem at Morton Arboretum. ... A Mediterranean forest. ... Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Trinidad and Tobago dry forest on Chacachacare showing the dry-season deciduous nature of the vegetation The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes. ... Montane grasslands and shrublands is a biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. ... In isolation, Hawaiis Silverswords have adapted to xeric microclimates within volcanic craters, trapping and channeling dew and protecting leaves with reflective hairs. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Flooded grasslands and savannas are a biome, generally located at subtropical and tropical latitudes, where flooding is very frequent. ...

Freshwater biomes

According to the World Wildlife Fund: [2]

  • Large lakes
  • Large river deltas
  • Polar freshwaters
  • Montane freshwaters
  • Temperate coastal rivers
  • Temperate floodplain rivers and wetlands
  • Temperate upland rivers
  • Tropical and subtropical coastal rivers
  • Tropical and subtropical floodplain rivers and wetlands
  • Tropical and subtropical upland rivers
  • Xeric freshwaters and endorheic basins
  • Oceanic islands

Marine biomes

Global 200 marine major habitat types

  • Polar
  • Temperate shelves and seas
  • Temperate upwelling
  • Tropical upwelling
  • Tropical coral

Other marine habitat types

 Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... The rocky shoreline of Newport, Rhode Island showing a clear line where high tide occurs. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Kelp Forest Kelp forests are a type of marine ecosystem established around colonies of kelp; they contain rich biodiversity. ... An icebreaker navigates some through young (1 year) sea ice Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... A hydrothermal vent A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... Tubeworms, soft corals and chemosynthetic mussels at a seep located 3,000 metres down on the Florida Escarpment. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... The neritic zone spans from the low-tide line to the edge of the continental shelf in oceans. ...

Anthropogenic biomes

Humans have fundamentally altered global patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. As a result, vegetation forms predicted by conventional biome systems are rarely observed across most of Earth's land surface. Anthropogenic biomes provide an alternative view of the terrestrial biosphere based on global patterns of sustained direct human interaction with ecosystems, including agriculture, human settlements, urbanization, forestry and other uses of land. Anthropogenic biomes offer a new way forward in ecology and conservation by recognizing the irreversible coupling of human and ecological systems at global scales and moving us toward an understanding how best to live in and manage our biosphere and the anthropogenic biosphere we live in. Anthropogenic Biomes (Ellis & Ramankutty 2008) For more than a century, the biosphere has been described in terms of global ecosystem units called biomes, which are vegetation types like tropical rainforests and grasslands that are identified in relation to global climate patterns. ... Anthropogenic Biomes (Ellis & Ramankutty 2008) For more than a century, the biosphere has been described in terms of global ecosystem units called biomes, which are vegetation types like tropical rainforests and grasslands that are identified in relation to global climate patterns. ...


Major Anthropogenic Biomes

  • Dense Settlements
  • Villages
  • Croplands
  • Rangelands
  • Forested

Other biomes

The Endolithic biome, consisting entirely of microscopic life in rock pores and cracks, kilometers beneath the surface, has only recently been discovered and does not fit well into most classification schemes. Endolith lifeform found inside an Antarctic rock An endolith or cryptoendolith is an organism (archaea, bacterium, or fungus) that lives inside rock, coral, animal shells, or in the pores between mineral grains. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ...


See also

Leslie Holdridges Life Zone Classification system is essentially a climate classification scheme. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Ecotopes are the smallest ecologically-distinct landscape features in a landscape mapping and classification system. ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... A biosphere reserve is an international conservation designation given by UNESCO under its Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB). ... The World Network of Biosphere Reserves was established at the International Conference on Biosphere Reserves in Seville in 1995. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Genetic pollution, genetic contamination or genetic swamping happens when original set of naturally evolved (wild) region specific genes / gene pool of wild animals and plants become hybridized with domesticated and feral varieties or with the genes of other nonnative wild species or subspecies from neighboring or far away regions. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

References

  1. ^ Pidwirny, Michael (2006-10-16). "Biomes". Encyclopedia of Earth. Ed. Sidney Draggan. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment. Retrieved on 2006-11-16. 
  2. ^ "Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: Major Habitat Types" [1]. Accessed May 12, 2008.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Trinidad and Tobago dry forest on Chacachacare showing the dry-season deciduous nature of the vegetation The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Temperate mixed forest in Yunnan, southwest China. ... Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... A Mediterranean forest. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes. ... A restored Illinois grassland ecosystem at Morton Arboretum. ... Flooded grasslands and savannas are a biome, generally located at subtropical and tropical latitudes, where flooding is very frequent. ... Montane grasslands and shrublands is a biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. ... In isolation, Hawaiis Silverswords have adapted to xeric microclimates within volcanic craters, trapping and channeling dew and protecting leaves with reflective hairs. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ... The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... The Australasia Ecozone The Australasian ecozone – is an ecological region that is coincident, but not synonymous (by some definitions), with the geographic region of Australasia. ... The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... Oceania is the smallest of the worlds terrestrial ecozones, and unique in not including any continental land mass. ... The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The world's biomes (674 words)
Biomes are defined as "the world's major communities, classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment" (Campbell 1996).
The freshwater and marine biomes are probably the most important of all the biomes.
The original biomes pages were created in fall 1996 by the Biomes Group, Biology 1B class, section 115, at UC Berkeley.
Biome - MSN Encarta (831 words)
A biome is composed of many ecosystems—smaller communities of plants and animals and their habitats (the physical parts of their environment that affect them).
Although not necessarily associated with marine environments, the term biome is sometimes used by ecologists to describe marine life zones such as the littoral zone, found in shallow water; the pelagic zone in the open ocean; and the benthic zone on the ocean floor.
The chaparral biome is dominated by dense thickets of mostly small-leafed evergreen shrubs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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