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Encyclopedia > Biological warfare
Weapons of mass destruction
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Biological warfare
Chemical warfare
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Radiological weapons For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Image File history File links WMD_world_map. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. ...

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For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism.

Biological warfare (BW), also known as a germ warfare, biological weapons, and bioweapons, is the use of any pathogen (bacterium, virus or other disease-causing organism) as a weapon of war. Note that using nonliving toxic products, even if produced by living organisms (e.g., toxins), is considered Chemical warfare under the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention. A biological weapon may be intended to kill, incapacitate or seriously impede an adversary. It may also be defined as the material or defense against such employment. For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ...


The creation and stockpiling of biological weapons ("offensive BW") was outlawed by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), signed by over 100 countries. The BWC remains in force. The rationale behind the agreement is to avoid the devastating impact of a successful biological attack which could conceivably result in millions, possibly even billions, of deaths and cause severe disruptions to societies and economies. Oddly enough, the convention prohibits only creation and storage, but not usage, of these weapons. However, the consensus among military analysts is that, except in the context of bioterrorism, BW is of little military use. Many countries pursue "defensive BW" research (defensive or protective applications) which are not prohibited by the BWC. As a tactical weapon, the main military problem with a BW attack is that it would take days to be effective, and therefore, unlike a nuclear or chemical attack, would not immediately stop an opposing force. As a strategic weapon, BW is again militarily problematic, although with a possible exception with the Soviets, the weaponized biological agents did not spread from person to person. Spread is less of a concern for terrorists, but it was very much a concern for post-WWII BW development by major powers. Biological Weapons Convention Opened for signature April 10, 1972 at Moscow, Washington and London Entered into force March 26, 1975 Conditions for entry into force ??? Parties ??? The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... This article is about nuclear war as a form of actual warfare, including history. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ...

Contents

History

Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
Military history
Eras
Prehistoric · Ancient · Medieval
Gunpowder · Industrial · Modern
Battlespace
Air · Information · Land · Sea · Space
Weapons
Armor · Artillery · Biological · Cavalry
Chemical · Electronic · Infantry ·
Nuclear · Psychological
Tactics

Attrition · Guerilla · Maneuver
Siege · Total war · Trench For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Formations · Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ...

Lists
Battles · Commanders · Operations
Sieges · Theorists · Wars
War crimes · Weapons · Writers

Biological warfare has been practiced repeatedly throughout history. Before the 20th century, the use of biological agents took three major forms: This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... A sampling of Bacillus anthracis—Anthrax A biological agent is an infectious disease that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. ...

  • Deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material
  • Use of microorganisms, toxins or animals, living or dead, in a weapon system
  • Use of biologically inoculated fabrics

For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

The Ancient World

During the 6th Century B.C, the Assyrians poisoned enemy wells with ergot, a fungus that would make the enemy delusional, and Solon of Athens used the poisonous herb Veratrum to poison the water supply of Phocaea during his siege of the city. During the 4th century B.C. Scythian archers used arrows with tips covered with animal feces to cause the wounds of the enemies to get infected.[1] In 204 B.C, Hannibal of Carthage had clay pots filled with venomous snakes and instructed his soldiers to throw the pots onto the decks of Pergamene ships[2]. Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other peoples from the Fertile Crescent. ... This article is about persons held as enemy combatants. ... Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Species See text. ... Satellite photo showing location of the ancient cities of Phocaea, Cyme and Smyrna Phocaea (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Hannibal Barca (247 BC – c. ... A venomous snake is a snake that uses modified saliva, venom, delivered through fangs in its mouth to immobilize or kill its prey. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river...


Medieval Biological Warfare

The Mongol Empire established commercial and political connections between the Eastern and Western areas of the world. It is probable that the Mongol armies and merchant caravans inadvertently brought the plague from central Asia to the Middle East and Europe. The Black Death swept through Eurasia, killing approximately one third to one half of the population and changing the course of Asian and European history. Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Look up plague in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...


During the Middle Ages, victims of the bubonic plague were used for biological attacks, often by flinging their corpses and excrement over castle walls using catapults. In 1346, the bodies of Tatar warriors of the Golden Horde who had died of plague were thrown over the walls of the besieged Crimean city of Kaffa (now Theodosia). It has been speculated that this operation may have been responsible for the advent of the Black Death in Europe.[3] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... Replica catapult at Château des Baux, France For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Warriors may refer to Warriors (book series) is a series of fantasy novels written by Kate Cary and Cherith Baldry, under the pen name Erin Hunter. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Theodosia (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Greek: Θεοδωσία; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... Theodosia (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Greek: Θεοδωσία; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ...


In 1422, during the siege of the Bohemian castle of Karlstein, Hussite attackers used catapults to throw in dead bodies (albeit not plague-infested) and 2000 carriage-loads of dung over the walls.[1] The last known incident of using plague corpses for biological warfare occurred in 1710, when Russian forces attacked the Swedes by flinging plague-infected corpses over the city walls of Reval(Tallinn).[4] However, during the 1785 siege of La Calle, Tunisian forces flung diseased clothing into the city.[1] The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Karlštejn Karlštejn (German: Karlstein) is a large Gothic castle founded in the 14th century by Charles IV. The castle served as a place for safekeeping the Empire coronation jewels, holy relics and other royal treasures. ... The Hussites comprised a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... Dung can refer to: (what lana belchers face looks like) Look up dung in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The city of Tallinn is the capital city and main seaport of Estonia. ... La Calle is a seaport of Algeria, in the arrondissement of Bona, department of Constantine, 56 miles by rail east of Bona and 10 miles west of the Tunisian frontier. ...


Modern Times

The 17th Century

Though not germ warfare, which implies the deliberate use of germs against an enemy, the inadvertent spread of diseases across the Atlantic during the European age of exploration did tremendous damage to the indigenous populations of North and South America. The effects of the "Columbian exchange" of diseases upon the Native Americans was catastrophic, reducing the population of affected tribes by as much as 50-90%.[5] When the Pilgrims arrived in the New World in 1620, the native population of the Plymouth area had already been virtually eliminated by diseases that traveled with European fishing expeditions to the waters of the Northeast. The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs in Mexico and the English predominance in North America might not have occurred if not for the devastating effect of diseases that had been previously unknown in the Americas and against which the local populations had not built up any immunities. In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ...


The 18th Century

Amherst's suggestion
Amherst's suggestion

The Native American population was decimated after contact with the Old World due to the introduction of many different fatal diseases. There is, however, only one documented case of alleged germ warfare, involving British commander Lord Jeffrey Amherst and a Swiss-British officer, Colonel Henry Bouquet, whose correspondence included a reference to the idea of giving smallpox-infected blankets to Indians as part of an incident known as Pontiac's Rebellion which occurred during the Siege of Fort Pitt late in the French and Indian War (1756-1763). Historians have been unable to establish whether or not this plan was implemented, particularly in light of the fact that smallpox was already present in the region. (Attempts by missionaries to provide inoculation to local tribespeople were usually met with suspicion, thus leaving the native population completely vulnerable to epidemics.) Despite the lack of historical evidence, the claim that British and American soldiers used germ warfare against North American tribes has remained fairly strong in certain oral traditions and in popular culture. Such oral histories of smallpox infested blankets being used are especially strong in the oral traditions of native nations along the west coast of Canada.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 424 pixelsFull resolution (813 × 431 pixel, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) You will Do well to try to Inoculate the Indians by means of Blanketts, as well as to try every other method that can serve to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 424 pixelsFull resolution (813 × 431 pixel, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) You will Do well to try to Inoculate the Indians by means of Blanketts, as well as to try every other method that can serve to... Native Americans redirects here. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... Jeffrey Amherst by Joshua Reynolds Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, he himself spelled his name as Jeffery) (January 29, 1717 - August 3, 1797) served as an officer in the British army Born in Sevenoaks, England, he became a soldier aged about 14. ... Henry Bouquet (1719 – September 2, 1765) was a noted British army officer in the French and Indian War and Pontiacs War. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a... Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and...


The 19th Century

It can be difficult to separate malice from ignorance. In 1834 Cambridge Diarist Richard Henry Dana (Two Years Before the Mast; available in Project Gutenberg) visited San Francisco on a merchant ship. His ship traded many items including blankets with Mexicans and Russians who had established outposts on the northern side of the San Francisco Bay. Local histories document that the California smallpox epidemic began at the Russian fort soon after they left. Blankets were a popular trading item, and the cheapest source of them was second-hand blankets which were often contaminated. Richard Henry Dana Richard Henry Dana Jr. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Native peoples in Aptos gave Spaniards gifts of freshly cut flowers wrapped in leaves of poison oak. The natives themselves were immune to poison oak, and they also used it for other purposes such as dying their baskets. Aptos is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Cruz County, California, United States. ... Binomial name Toxicodendron diversilobum Western poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum or, previously, Rhus diversiloba) is found only on the Pacific Coast of the United States and of Canada. ...


During the American Civil War, General Sherman reported that Confederate forces shot farm animals in ponds upon which the Union depended for drinking water. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... “General Sherman” redirects here. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion...


The 20th Century

Before and during World War II


The Geneva Protocol of 1925 banned the use of biological weapons under international law. During the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II, Unit 731 of the Imperial Japanese Army conducted human experimentation on thousands, mostly Chinese and Korean. In military campaigns, the Japanese army used biological weapons on Chinese soldiers and civilians. This employment was ineffective due to inefficient delivery systems. However, new information has surfaced within the last decade, which alleges a more active Japanese usage. For example, firsthand accounts testify the Japanese infected civilians through the distribution of plagued foodstuffs, such as dumplings and vegetables. There are also reports of contaminated water supplies. Such estimates report over 580,000 victims, largely due to plague and cholera outbreaks.[citation needed] In addition, repeated seasonal outbreaks after the conclusion of the war bring the death toll much higher. The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons. ... The Second Sino-Japanese War was a major invasion of eastern China by Japan preceding and during World War II. It ended with the surrender of Japan in 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Human experimentation involves medical experiments performed on human beings. ...


In response to biological weapons development in Germany and Japan, the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada initiated a BW development program in 1941 that resulted in the weaponization of anthrax, brucellosis, and botulism toxin. The center for U.S. military BW research was Fort Detrick, Maryland, where USAMRIID is currently based; the first director was pharmaceutical executive George W. Merck. Some biological and chemical weapons research and testing was also conducted at "Dugway Proving Grounds" in Utah, at a munition manufacturing complex in Terre Haute, Indiana, and at a tract on Horn Island, Mississippi [6]. Research carried out in the United Kingdom during World War II left Gruinard island in Scotland contaminated with anthrax for the next 48 years. Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Fort Detrick is a United States Army Medical Command installation located in Frederick, Maryland, USA. Its 1,200 acres support a multi-governmental community that conducts biomedical research and development, medical materiel management, global medical communications and the study of foreign plant pathogens. ... The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases is based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. ... George W. Merck (1894 - 1957), the son of George Merck, was an American scientist and president of Merck & Co. ... Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a US Army facility located approximately 85 miles (140 km) southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah in southern Tooele County. ... Terre Haute (IPA: ) is a city in Vigo County, Indiana near the states western border with Illinois. ... Horn Island is a long, thin barrier island off the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, near Pascagoula. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Gruinard Island is a small Scottish island, located in Gruinard Bay, about halfway between Gairloch and Ullapool. ... This article is about the country. ...


From 1946 to 1972


During the Cold War, US conscientious objectors were used as consenting test subjects for biological agents in a program known as Operation Whitecoat.[7] There were also many unpublicized tests carried out on the public during the Cold War.[8] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. ... Operation Whitecoat was secret biological tests performed on Seventh Day Adventists. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

E120 biological bomblet, developed before the U.S. signed the Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention

Considerable research on the topic was performed by the United States (see US Biological Weapon Testing), the Soviet Union, and probably other major nations throughout the Cold War era, though it is generally believed that such weapons were never used after World War II. This view was challenged by China and North Korea, who accused the United States of large-scale field testing of biological weapons, including the use of disease-carrying insects against them during the Korean War (1950-1953).[9] [10] According to [11], recently revealed documents indicate that this was disinformation produced by Soviet intelligence. The relevance of these documents to this question has been disputed [12]. Image File history File links E120_biological_bomblet_cutaway. ... Image File history File links E120_biological_bomblet_cutaway. ... The United States government performed experiments related to biological warfare on consenting and non-consenting military personnel and occasionally civilians, especially during the Cold War. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ...


Richard Nixon signed an executive order on November 1969, which stopped production of biological weapons in the U.S. and allowed only scientific research of lethal biological agents and defensive measures, as immunization and biosafety. The biological munition stockpiles were destroyed, and approximately 2,200 researchers lost their jobs [6]. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... A child being immunized against polio. ... Biosafety: prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health. ...


In 1972, the U.S. signed the Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention, which banned the "development, production and stockpiling of microbes or their poisonous products except in amounts necessary for protective and peaceful research." By 1996, 137 countries had signed the treaty. It is, however, believed that since the signing of the Convention the number of countries capable of producing such weapons has increased. Biological Weapons Convention Opened for signature April 10, 1972 at Moscow, Washington and London Entered into force March 26, 1975 Conditions for entry into force ??? Parties ??? The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to...


After signing the Biological Weapons Convention

Main article: Soviet program of biological weapons

Soviet Union continued research and production of offensive biological weapons in a program called biopreparat, despite having signed the convention. The United States was unaware of the program until Dr. Vladimir Pasechnik defected in 1989, and Dr. Kanatjan Alibekov, the first deputy director of Biopreparat defected in 1992. // 1928 - Revolutionary Military Council signed a decree about weaponization of typhus. ... Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, all biological weapons programs were grouped under the single organization of Biopreparat (Russian: Биопрепарат) from 1973. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Dr. Kanatjan Alibekov (or Americanized Ken Alibek) was born in Kazakhstan. ... Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, all biological weapons programs were grouped under the single organization of Biopreparat (Russian: Биопрепарат) from 1973. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Beginning on September 18, 2001, several letters were received by members of the U.S. Congress and media outlets containing anthrax. The attack killed five people. The identity of the perpetrator remains unknown as of 2007. See 2001 anthrax attacks. is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its FBI case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001. ...


References for this section include (Eitzen & Takafuji, 1997)


Biological weapons characteristics

The international biological hazard symbol.
The international biological hazard symbol.

Ideal characteristics of biological weapons are high infectivity, high potency, availability of vaccines, and delivery as an aerosol. Image File history File links Biohazard_symbol. ... Image File history File links Biohazard_symbol. ...


Diseases most likely to be considered for use as biological weapons are contenders because of their lethality (if delivered efficiently), and robustness (making aerosol delivery feasible). Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ...


The biological agents used in biological weapons can often be manufactured quickly and easily. The primary difficulty is not the production of the biological agent but delivery in an effective form to a vulnerable target.


For example, anthrax is considered an effective agent for several reasons. First, it forms hardy spores, perfect for dispersal aerosols. Second, pneumonic (lung) infections of anthrax usually do not cause secondary infections in other people. Thus, the effect of the agent is usually confined to the target. A pneumonic anthrax infection starts with ordinary "cold" symptoms and quickly becomes lethal, with a fatality rate that is 80% or higher. Finally, friendly personnel can be protected with suitable antibiotics.


A mass attack using anthrax would require the creation of aerosol particles of 1.5 to 5 micrometres. Too large and the aerosol would be filtered out by the respiratory system. Too small and the aerosol would be inhaled and exhaled. Also, at this size, nonconductive powders tend to clump and cling because of electrostatic charges. This hinders dispersion. So, the material must be treated with silica to insulate and discharge the charges. The aerosol must be delivered so that rain and sun does not rot it, and yet the human lung can be infected. There are other technological difficulties as well.


Diseases considered for weaponization, or known to be weaponized include anthrax, ebola, Marburg virus, bubonic plague, cholera, tularemia, brucellosis, Q fever, machupo, Coccidioides mycosis, Glanders, Melioidosis, Shigella, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus, Psittacosis, yellow fever, Japanese B encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, and smallpox [6] Naturally-occurring toxins that can be used as weapons include ricin, SEB, botulism toxin, saxitoxin, and many mycotoxins. The organisms causing these diseases are known as select agents. Their possession, use, and transfer are regulated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Select Agent Program. For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. ... Virus first isolated in Boilivia in 1963. ... Coccidioides mycosis is a fungal disease. ... Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ... Melioidosis, also known as pseudoglanders and Whitmores disease (after Capt Alfred Whitmore) is an uncommon infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water. ... Species S. boydii S. dysenteriae S. flexneri S. sonnei This article is about the bacteria. ... Binomial name Wolbach, 1919 Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis -- also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis -- is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma psittaci and contracted from parrots, macaws, cockatiels, and parakeets. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese Encephalitis (日本脳炎 Nihon-nōen) is a disease caused by the mosquito borne Japanese Encephalitis Virus. ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Castor beans The protein ricin (pronounced ) is a toxin from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is the toxin commonly associated with food poisoning. ... Botulin toxin or botox is the toxic compound produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin found in marine dinoflagellates (algae). ... Mycotoxin (from Gk. ... In the United States, select agents are pathogens or biological toxins which have been declared by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. The Centers for... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Attacking crops and animals

Biological warfare can also specifically target plants to destroy crops or defoliate vegetation. The United States and Britain discovered plant growth regulators (i.e., herbicides) during the Second World War, and initiated a Herbicidal Warfare program that was eventually used in Malaya and Vietnam in counter insurgency. Though herbicides are chemicals, they are often grouped with biological warfare as bioregulators in a similar manner as biotoxins.Scorched earth tactics or destroying livestock and farmland were carried out in the Vietnam war and Eelam War in Sri Lanka.[citation needed] A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... Herbicidal warfare is a form of chemical warfare in which the objective is to destroy the plant-based ecosystem of an area for the purpose of disrupting agricultural food production or destroying plants which provide cover to an enemy. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri...


The United States developed an anti-crop capability during the Cold War that used plant diseases (bioherbicides, or mycoherbicides) for destroying enemy agriculture. It was believed that destruction of enemy agriculture on a strategic scale could thwart Sino-Soviet aggression in a general war. Diseases such as wheat blast and rice blast were weaponized in aerial spray tanks and cluster bombs for delivery to enemy water sheds in agricultural regions to initiate epiphytotics (epidemics among plants). When the United States renounced its offensive biological warfare program in 1969 and 1970, the vast majority of its biological arsenal was composed of these plant diseases.[citation needed] A bioherbicide is a herbicide that is based on a living organism, such as fungi, bacteria or protozoa. ... A mycoherbicide is a bioherbicide based on a fungus. ... Binomial name Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Hebert) M.E. Barr Synonyms Magnaporthe grisea, also commonly know as rice blast fungus, is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a disease affecting rice, and can also infect a number of other agriculturally important cereals including wheat, rye and barley, causing diseases called... Binomial name Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Hebert) M.E. Barr Synonyms Magnaporthe grisea, also commonly know as rice blast fungus, is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a disease affecting rice, and can also infect a number of other agriculturally important cereals including wheat, rye and barley, causing diseases called...


In 1980s Soviet Ministry of Agriculture had successfully developed variants of foot-and-mouth disease and rinderpest against cows, African swine fever for pigs, and psittacosis to kill chicken. These agents were prepared to spray them down from tanks attached to airplanes over hundreds of miles. The secret program was code-named "Ecology". [6] Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Rinderpest (RP) is a inflectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and some species of wildlife, it is commonly reffered to as cattle plague. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis -- also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis -- is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma psittaci and contracted from parrots, macaws, cockatiels, and parakeets. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Attacking animals is another area of biological warfare intended to eliminate animal resources for transportation and food. In the First World War German agents were arrested attempting to inoculate draft animals with anthrax, and they were believed to be responsible for outbreaks of glanders in horses and mules. The British tainted small feed cakes with anthrax in the Second World War as a potential means of attacking German cattle for food denial, but never employed the weapon. In the 1950s the United States had a field trial with hog cholera.[citation needed] Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ... Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera is a highly contagious disease of pigs and wild boar. ...


The role of public health departments and disease surveillance

It is important to note that all of the classical and modern biological weapons organisms are animal diseases, the only exception being smallpox. Thus, in any use of biological weapons, it is highly likely that animals will become ill either simultaneously with, or perhaps earlier than humans. Indeed, in the largest biological weapons accident known -- the anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg) in the Soviet Union in 1979, sheep became ill with anthrax as far as 200 kilometers from the release point of the organism from a military facility in the southeastern portion of the city (known as Compound 19 and still off limits to visitors today, see Sverdlovsk Anthrax leak). Photograph of snow-covered Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood, built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were murdered. ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... Spores of anthrax were accidentally released from a military facility in the city of Sverdlovsk (formerly, and now again, Yekaterinburg) 900 miles East of Moscow on April 2, 1979. ...


Thus, a robust surveillance system involving human clinicians and veterinarians may identify a bioweapons attack early in the course of an epidemic, permitting the prophylaxis of disease in the vast majority of people (and/or animals) exposed but not yet ill. For example in the case of anthrax, it is likely that by 24 - 36 hours after an attack, some small percentage of individuals (those with compromised immune system or who had received a large dose of the organism due to proximity to the release point) will become ill with classical symptoms and signs (including a virtually unique chest X-ray finding, often recognized by public health officials if they receive timely reports). By making these data available to local public health officials in real time, most models of anthrax epidemics indicate that more than 80% of an exposed population can receive antibiotic treatment before becoming symptomatic, and thus avoid the moderately high mortality of the disease. Frontal chest X-ray. ...


Identification of bioweapons


Biodefense fully integrates the sustained efforts of the national and homeland security, medical, public health, intelligence, diplomatic, and law enforcement communities. Biological weapons agents as part of a long-term campaign of aggression and terror. Health care providers and public health officers are among the first lines of defense. In the United States, private, local, and state capabilities are being augmented by and coordinated with Federal assets, to provide layered defenses against biological weapons attacks. The traditional approach toward protecting agriculture, food, and water, focusing on the natural or unintentional introduction of a disease being strengthened by focused efforts to address current and anticipated future biological weapons threats that may be deliberate, multiple, and repetitive. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ...


The growing threat of biowarfare agents and bioterrorism has led to the development of specific field tools that perform on-the-spot analysis and identification of encountered suspect materials. One such technology, being developed by researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), employs a "sandwich immunoassay", in which fluorescent dye-labeled antibodies aimed at specific pathogens are attached to silver and gold nanowires.[13] Researchers at Ben Gurion University in Israel are developing a different device called the BioPen, essentially a "Lab-in-a-Pen", which can detect known biological agents in under 20 minutes using an adaptation of the ELISA, a similar widely employed immunological technique, that in this case incorporates fiber optics.[14] For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... The Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (אוניברסיטת בן-גוריון בנגב) was founded in 1969, in Beer Sheva, Israel. ... Elisa (born Elisa Toffoli on 19 December 1977) is an Italian singer and solo artist, writing and performing within several genres, notably rock, blues, soul and ambient. ...


See also

BW institutions and programs by country

According to the United States Office of Technology Assessment, since disbanded, seventeen countries believed to possess biological weapons in 1995: Libya, North Korea, South Korea, Iraq, Taiwan, Syria, Israel, Iran, China, Egypt, Vietnam, Laos, Cuba, Bulgaria, India, South Africa, and Russia. [6][15] The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was an office of the United States Congress from 1972 to 1995. ...


United States

The United States government performed experiments related to biological warfare on consenting and non-consenting military personnel and occasionally civilians, especially during the Cold War. ... Fort Detrick is a United States Army Medical Command installation located in Frederick, Maryland, USA. Its 1,200 acres support a multi-governmental community that conducts biomedical research and development, medical materiel management, global medical communications and the study of foreign plant pathogens. ... USAMRIID banner The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID, pronounced U-Sam-Rid) is a military research institute for medicine based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland used for research of infectious disease that may have defensive applications against biological warfare that would protect the citizens of... The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) is a highly classified government biodefense research laboratory created by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and located at the governments sprawling biodefense campus at Fort Detrick in Frederick, MD, USA. Created quietly a few months after the 2001... Building 470, called the “Pilot Plant” or sometimes “Anthrax Tower”, was a notorious seven-story steel and brick building at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Maryland, USA, used in the small-scale production of biological warfare (BW) agents. ... The One-Million-Liter Test Sphere, also known as the Test Sphere, the Horton Test Sphere, the Cloud Study Chamber, Building 527, and the “Eight Ball” (or “8-ball”), is a biological warfare (BW) chamber and testing facility located on Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA. It was constructed and utilized by... Project Bacchus was a covert investigation by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency US Defense Department) to determine whether it is possible to construct a bioweapons production facility with off-the-shelf equipment. ... Project Clear Vision was a covert investigation of soviet-built biological bomblets conducted by the Battelle Memorial Institute under contract with the CIA. The legality of this project under the Biological Weapons Convention is highly disputed. ... Operation Whitecoat was secret biological tests performed on Seventh Day Adventists. ... Project SHAD stands for Project Shipboard Hazard and Defense, a series of Cold War-era tests by the U.S. military of biological weapons and chemical weapons, and their behaviour. ...

United Kingdom

Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, or often known more simply as Porton Down, is a United Kingdom government facility for military research, including CBRN defence. ... Gruinard Island is a small Scottish island, located in Gruinard Bay, about halfway between Gairloch and Ullapool. ... RRH Portreath is a Remote Radar Head operated by the Royal Air Force. ...

Soviet Union and Russia

Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, all biological weapons programs were grouped under the single organization of Biopreparat (Russian: Биопрепарат) from 1973. ... Spores of anthrax were accidentally released from a military facility in the city of Sverdlovsk (formerly, and now again, Yekaterinburg) 900 miles East of Moscow on April 2, 1979. ... The Vector State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, also known as the Vector Institute is a highly sophisticated biological research center in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia. ... It has been suggested that Vozrozhdeniye Island be merged into this article or section. ...

Japan

Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... Zhongma fortress was a prison fortress built by Ishii Shiro and his men for experimenting in biological warfare. ... Unit 100 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of chemical weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Unit Ei 1644, also known as Unit 1644 was a medical research unit of the Japanese Imperial Army based in Nanjing, China. ...

Iraq

Al Hakum was at one time Iraqs most sophisticated and largest biological weapons factory. ... The Salman Pak (al-Salman) facility was an Iraqi military facility located approximately 15 miles south of Baghdad on a peninsula formed by a broad eastward bend of the Tigris River, near the town of Salman Pak. ...

Treaties banning or restricting BW

The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons. ... Biological Weapons Convention Opened for signature April 10, 1972 at Moscow, Washington and London Entered into force March 26, 1975 Conditions for entry into force ??? Parties ??? The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to...

People

Bioweaponeers

Anton Dilger (1884 - 17 October 1918) was a German-American physician and the main proponent of the German biological warfare sabotage program during World War I. He was born in Front Royal, Virginia, and died in Madrid, Spain. ... Sir Paul Fildes (1882-1971) was a pathologist and microbiologist who worked at Porton Down during the Second World War. ... Dr. Rihab Taha Dr. Rihab Rashid Taha al-Azawi is a British-educated Iraqi microbiologist who worked in Saddam Husseins biological weapons program and is known as Dr. Germ and Toxic Taha by the propaganda of U.S. and British governments. ... William C. Patrick III is a now retired microbiologist and former bioweaponeer for the U.S. Army. ... Dr. Kenneth Alibek was born Kanatjan Alibekov in Kazakhstan. ...

Writers and activists

Dr. Matthew Stanley Meselson (born 1930) is an American geneticist and molecular biologist whose research was important in showing how DNA replicates, recombines and is repaired in cells. ... Jeanne Harley Guillemin is a medical anthropologist, a Professor of Sociology at Boston College and a senior fellow in the Security Studies Program at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... Richard Preston (b. ...

Other

Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... A biosecurity guarantee attempts to ensure that ecologies sustaining either people or animals are maintained. ... A sampling of Bacillus anthracis—Anthrax A biological agent is an infectious disease that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. ... The international biological hazard symbol Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... An ethnic bioweapon aims to harm only or primarily persons of specific ethnicities or genotypes. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... There are a number of theories about AIDS that make claims about the origin and/or nature of HIV and AIDS that differ radically from mainstream beliefs. ... Just a Couple of Days is the debut novel by author Tony Vigorito. ... For other uses, see Disaster (disambiguation). ... Human infectious diseases grouped by causative agent and alphabetically arranged. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article is about large epidemics. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Hobbes, Nicholas (2003). Essential Militaria. Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1843542292. 
  2. ^ History-world.org:Hannibal. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  3. ^ Wheelis M. Biological warfare at the 1346 siege of Caffa. Emerg Infect Dis, Center for Disease Control, 2002 Sep;8. On line serial.
  4. ^ Biological Warfare
  5. ^ The Story Of... Smallpox
  6. ^ a b c d e Kenneth Alibek and S. Handelman. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World - Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran it. 1999. Delta (2000) ISBN 0-385-33496-6 [1].
  7. ^ BBC News, 13 February 2006, 15:31 GMT Hidden history of US germ testing
  8. ^ American Experience biological weapons timeline, 15 December 2006
  9. ^ Ed Regis, "Wartime Lies? Two historians contend that the United States engaged in germ warfare nearly 50 years ago", New York Times, (June 27, 1999)
  10. ^ The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea (first chapter on line).
  11. ^ Unmasking an Old Lie. A Korean War charge is exposed as a hoax By Bruce B. Auster, 8 November 1998, U.S. News & World Report
  12. ^ [2] Twelve Newly Released Soviet-era Documents and allegations of U. S. germ warfare during the Korean War by Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman
  13. ^ Physorg.com, "Encoded Metallic Nanowires Reveal Bioweapons", 12:50 EST, August 10, 2006.
  14. ^ Iddo Genuth and Lucille Fresco-Cohen, "BioPen Senses BioThreats", The Future of Things, November 13, 2006
  15. ^ Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Assessing the Risks, Office of Technology Assessment, August 1993, OTA-ISC-559, <http://www.wws.princeton.edu/ota/disk1/1993/9341_n.html>. Retrieved on 2007-05-27

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Kenneth Alibek was born Kanatjan Alibekov in Kazakhstan. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was an office of the United States Congress from 1972 to 1995. ...

Further reading

  • Alibek, K. and S. Handelman. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World -- Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran it. Delta (2000) ISBN 0-385-33496-6
  • Crosby, Alfred W., Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (New York, 1986).
  • Eitzen, Edward M., Jr., M.D., M.P.H., FACEP, FAAP; and Takafuji, Ernest T., M.D., M.P.H.; Brigadier General Russ Zajtchuk, MC, U.S. Army. (ed.) (1997). Historical Overview of Biological Warfare. In Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, pp. 415-423. Office of The Surgeon General, Washington, DC.
  • Endicott, Stephen and Edward Hagerman, The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea, Indiana University Press (1998). ISBN 0253334721
  • Keith, Jim (1999). Biowarfare In America. Illuminet Press. ISBN 1-881532-21-6. 
  • Knollenberg, Bernhard, "General Amherst and Germ Warfare," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 41 (1954-1955), 489-494.
  • Mangold, Tom and Goldberg, Jeff (1999). Plague Wars: a true story of biological warfare. Macmillan, London. ISBN 0-333-71614-0. 
  • Orent, Wendy (2004). Plague, The Mysterious Past and Terrifying Future of the World's Most Dangerous Disease. Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York, NY. ISBN 0-7432-3685-8. 
  • Woods, Lt Col Jon B. (ed.), USAMRIID’s Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook, 6th edition, U.S. Army Medical Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland (April 2005).
  • Zelicoff, Alan and Bellomo, Michael (2005). Microbe: Are we Ready for the Next Plague?. AMACOM Books, New York, NY. ISBN 0-8144-0865-6. 

Dr. Kenneth Alibek was born Kanatjan Alibekov in Kazakhstan. ... Jim Keith, born 1949, co-author of the non-fiction book The Octopus: Secret Government and the Death of Danny Casolaro, about a writer who died mysteriously while investigating an international conspiracy, died himself under suspicious circumstances in 1999. ... The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases is based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Biological warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2271 words)
Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war.
However, the consensus among military analysts is that, except in the context of bioterrorism, biological warfare is of little military use.
As a tactical weapon, the main military problem with a biological warfare attack is that it would take days to be effective, and therefore, unlike a nuclear or chemical attack, would not immediately stop an opposing force.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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