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Encyclopedia > Biological pigment
The Blue Morpho butterfly, native to Central America, derives its distinctive blue coloring from iridescence rather than from pigmentation.

In biology, a pigment or biochrome is any material resulting in color of plant or animal cells, which is the result of selective color absorption. Many biological structures, such as skin, eyes, fur and hair contain pigments (such as melanin) in specialized cells called chromatophores. Download high resolution version (807x730, 119 KB)Photograph of a Blue Morpho butterfly (Morpho menelaus) by Gregory Phillips. ... Download high resolution version (807x730, 119 KB)Photograph of a Blue Morpho butterfly (Morpho menelaus) by Gregory Phillips. ... Binomial name Morpho menelaus Linnaeus, 1758 The Blue Morpho (Morpho menelaus) is a beautifully iridescent tropical butterfly of the Central and South American regions. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... In physics, absorption is the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make transition between two electronic energy levels. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... For the musical, see Hair (musical). ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Chromatophores or pigment cells are color changing cells used most notably by Cephalopods such as squid and octopuses. ...


Pigment color differs from structural color in that it is the same for all viewing angles, whereas structural color is the result of selective reflection or iridescence, usually because of multilayer structures. For example, butterfly wings typically contain structural color, although many butterflies have cells that contain pigment as well. This article is about the perceptual property. ... Look up reflection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The iridescence of the Blue Morpho butterfly wings. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ...

Contents

Biological pigments

Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... An X-ray diffraction image for the protein myoglobin. ... Luciferin is a generic name for light-emitting pigments found in organisms capable of bioluminescence, like fireflies, deep-sea fish and microbes. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... A rhodopsin molecule (yellow) with bound retinal (orange), embedded in a cell membrane (lipids shown as green, head groups as red/blue). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Canthaxanthin is a food additive used for farmed salmon raised in environments where astaxanthin sources are not available. ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. ... Lutein (LOO-teen) (from Latin lutea meaning yellow) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Phytochrome is a photoreceptor, a pigment that plants use to detect light. ... Phycobiliproteins are water-soluble proteins present in cyanobacteria and certain algae (rhodophytes, cryptomonads, glaucocystophytes) that capture light energy which is then passed on to chlorophylls during photosynthesis. ... A chemically conjugated system, is a system of atoms covalently bonded with alternating single and double bonds (e. ... Enol (or, more officially, but less commonly: alkenol) is an alkene with hydroxyl group on one of the carbon atoms of the double bond. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...

Pigments in plants

Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule.
Anthocyanin gives these pansies their dark purple pigmentation.

Among the most important molecules for plant function are the pigments. Plant pigments include a variety of different kinds of molecules, including porphyrins, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. The light that is absorbed may be used by the plant to power chemical reactions, while the reflected wavelengths of light determine the color the pigment will appear to the eye. Pigments also serve to attract pollinators. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x694, 155 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chlorophyll ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x694, 155 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chlorophyll ... Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3504x2336, 1493 KB) Summary Orange and violet pansies. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3504x2336, 1493 KB) Summary Orange and violet pansies. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Binomial name Viola tricolor hortensis Viola * wittrockiana The Pansy or Pansy Violet is a cultivated garden flower. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term reflection (also spelt reflexion) can refer to several different concepts: In mathematics, reflection is the transformation of a space. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... Colo has several meanings: the name of a gorilla; see Colo (gorilla) short for colocation centre short for co-locate (verb) the name of a volcano in Indonesia; see Colo (volcano) the name of a river in Australia; see Colo River the name of a city; see Colo, Iowa This... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ...


Chlorophyll is the primary pigment in plants; it is a porphyrin that absorbs red and blue wavelengths of light while reflecting green. It is the presence and relative abundance of cholophyll that gives plants their green color. All land plants and green algae possess two forms of this pigment: cholorphyll a and cholorphyll b. Kelps, diatoms, and other photosynthetic heterokonts contain chlorophyll c instead of b, while red algae possess only chlorophyll a. All chlorophylls serve as the primary means plants use to intercept light in order to fuel photosynthesis. Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ... Insert non-formatted text hereLink title Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae For other uses, see Kelp (disambiguation). ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... Typical classes Colored groups Chrysophyceae (golden algae) Synurophyceae Actinochrysophyceae (axodines) Pelagophyceae Phaeothamniophyceae Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) Bolidophyceae Raphidophyceae Eustigmatophyceae Xanthophyceae (yellow-green algae) Phaeophyceae (brown algae) Colorless groups Oomycetes (water moulds) Hypochytridiomycetes Bicosoecea Labyrinthulomycetes (slime nets) Opalinea Proteromonadea The heterokonts or stramenopiles are a major line of eukaryotes containing about 10,500... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae (Rhodophyta, IPA: , from Greek: (rhodon) = rose + (phyton) = plant, thus red plant) are a large group, about 5000 - 6000 species [1] of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


Carotenoids are red, orange, or yellow tetraterpenoids. They function as accessory pigments in plants, helping to fuel photosynthesis by gathering wavelengths of light not readily absorbed by chlorophyll. The most familiar carotenoids are carotene (an orange pigment found in carrots), lutein (a yellow pigment found in fruits and vegetables), and lycopene (the red pigment responsible for the color of tomatoes). Carotenoids have been shown to act as antioxidants and to promote healthy eyesight in humans. The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Chemical structure of the terpenoid isopentenyl pyrophosphate. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... This article is about the cultivated vegetable. ... Lutein (LOO-teen) (from Latin lutea meaning yellow) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ...


Anthocyanins (literally "flower blue") are water-soluble flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They occur in all tissues of higher plants, providing color in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits, though not always in sufficient quantities to be noticeable. Anthocyanins are most visible in the petals of flowers, where they may make up as much as 30% of the dry weight of the tissue.[1] They are also responsible for the purple color seen on the underside of tropical shade plants such as Tradescantia zebrina; in these plants, the anthocyanin catches light that has passed through the leaf and reflects it back towards regions bearing chlorophyll, in order to maximize the use of available light. Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Molecular structure of flavone The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites based around a phenylbenzopyrone structure. ... In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name (Rose) D. Hunt Tradescantia zebrina, formerly known as Zebrina pendula, is a Tradescantia species known as Wandering Jew (a common name which it shares with Tradescantia fluminensis and Tradescantia pallida). ...


Betalains are red or yellow pigments. Like anthocyanins they are water-soluble, but unlike anthocyanins they are indole-derived compounds synthesized from tyrosine. This class of pigments is found only in the Caryophyllales (including cactus and amaranth), and never co-occur in plants with anthocyanins. Betalains are responsible for the deep red color of beets, and are used commercially as food-coloring agents. The red color of beets comes from betalain pigments. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Families Achatocarpaceae Aizoaceae (Fig-marigold family) Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) Ancistrocladaceae Asteropeiaceae Barbeuiaceae Basellaceae (basella family) Cactaceae (cactus family) Caryophyllaceae (carnation family) Dioncophyllaceae Droseraceae (sundew family) Drosophyllaceae Frankeniaceae Molluginaceae (carpetweed family) Nepenthaceae Nyctaginaceae (four-oclock family) Physenaceae Phytolaccaceae (pokeweed family) Plumbaginaceae (plumbago family) Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Portulacaceae (purslane family) Rhabdodendraceae... Subfamilies Cactoideae Maihuenioideae Opuntioideae Pereskioideae See also taxonomy of the Cactaceae A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses or cactus) is any member of the succulent plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas. ... For other uses, see Amaranth (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ...


Pigments in animals

The monarch butterfly's distinctive pigmentation reminds potential predators that it is poisonous.

Pigments in animals may serve to protect tissues from ultraviolet radition, such as melanin in the skin. Pigments may also aid in sexual reproduction, identifying species and gender of animals to potential mates, or signalling readiness to breed. Image File history File links Monarch_butterfly. ... Image File history File links Monarch_butterfly. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a well-known North American butterfly. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ...


Some cephalopods use pigmented chromatophores to communicate. Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusk class... Zebrafish chromatophores mediate background adaptation on exposure to dark (top) and light environments (bottom). ...


Pigmentation is used by many animals for protection, by means of camoflauge, mimicry, or warning coloration.


Diseases and conditions

A variety of diseases and abnormal conditions that involve pigmentation arise in humans and animals, either from absence of or loss of pigmentation or pigment cells, or from the excess production of pigment.

  • Albinism is an inherited disorder characterized by total or partial loss of melanin. Humans and animals that suffer from albinism are called "albinistic" (the term "albino" is also sometimes used, but may be considered offensive when applied to people).
  • Lamellar ichthyosis, also called "fish scale disease", is an inherited condition in which one symptom is excess production of melanin. The skin is darker than normal, and is characterized by darkened, scaly, dry patches.
  • Melasma is a condition in which dark brown patches of pigment appear on the face, influenced by hormonal changes. When it occurs during a pregnancy, this condition is called the mask of pregnancy.
  • Vitiligo is a condition in whch there is a loss of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes in patches of skin.

“Albino” redirects here. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Ichthyosis lammellaris, also known as (recessive) lamellar ichthyosis and nonbullous congenital ichthyosis, is a rare inherited skin disorder, affecting less than 1 person in 300,000. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Melasma (also known as chloasma or the mask of pregnancy when present in pregnant women) is a tan or dark facial skin discoloration. ... Not to be confused with alphos, a form of leprosy once called vitiligo. ... Melanocytes are cells located in the bottom layer of the skins epidermis. ...

Commercial uses

Pigments may be extracted and used as dyes. Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


References

  1. ^ Robinson, Trevor. 1963. The Organic Constituents of Higher Plants, page 183 (Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing).

 
 

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