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Encyclopedia > Biological interaction
The black walnut secretes a chemical from its roots that harms neighboring plants, an example of amensalism.
The black walnut secretes a chemical from its roots that harms neighboring plants, an example of amensalism.

Biological interactions result from the fact that organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other, in the natural world, no organism is an autonomous entity isolated from its surroundings. It is part of its environment, rich in living and non living elements all of which interact with each other in some fashion. An organism's interactions with its environment are fundamental to the survival of that organism and the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. Sign-mediated interactions in which molecules serve as signs are the characteristic feature of communicative interactions. [1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2816 KB) Summary Black Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) Mature tree in middle Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Black Walnut Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2816 KB) Summary Black Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) Mature tree in middle Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Black Walnut Metadata This file contains additional... Binomial name L. The Black Walnut or American Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a native of eastern North America, where it grows, mostly alongside rivers, from southern Ontario, Canada west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida and southwest to central Texas. ... Amensalism is an interaction between two species where one impedes or restricts the success of the other while not being affected, positively or negatively, by the presence of the other. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


In ecology, biological interactions are the relationships between two species in an ecosystem. These relationships can be categorized into many different classes of interactions based either on the effects or on the mechanism of the interaction. The interactions between two species vary greatly in these aspects as well as in duration and strength. Species may meet once in a generation (e.g. pollination) or live completely within another (e.g. endosymbiosis). Effects may range from one species eating the other (predation), to mutual benefit (mutualism). For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... An endosymbiont (also known as intracellular symbiont) is any organism that lives within cells of another organism, i. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ...


The interactions between two species need not be through direct contact. Due to the connected nature of ecosystems, species may affect each other through intermediaries such as shared resources or common enemies.

Contents

Interactions categorized by effect

Effect on X Effect on Y Type of interaction
0 0 Neutralism
- 0 Amensalism
+ 0 Commensalism
- - Competition
+ + Mutualism
+ - Predation or Parasitism
Some types of relationships listed by the effect they have on each partner. '0' is no effect, '-' is detrimental, and '+' is beneficial.

Terms which explicitly indicate the quality of benefit or harm in terms of fitness experienced by participants in an interaction are listed below. There are six possible combinations, ranging from mutually beneficial through neutral to mutually harmful interactions. The level of benefit or harm is continuous and not discrete, such that an interaction may be trivially harmful through to deadly, for example. It is important to note that these interactions are not always static. In many cases, two species will interact differently under different conditions. This is particularly true in, but not limited to, cases where species have multiple, drastically different life stages. Neutralism describes the relationship (or lack thereof) between two species which do not interact with or affect each other. ... Amensalism is an interaction between two species where one impedes or restricts the success of the other while not being affected, positively or negatively, by the presence of the other. ... In ecology, commensalism is a kind of relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped (like a bird living in a tree). ... Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ...


Neutralism

Neutralism describes the relationship between two species which do interact but do not affect each other. It is to describe interactions where the fitness of one species has absolutely no effect whatsoever on that of other. True neutralism is extremely unlikely and impossible to prove. When dealing with the complex networks of interactions presented by ecosystems, one cannot assert positively that there is absolutely no competition between or benefit to either species.Since true neutralism is rare or nonexistent, its usage is often extended to situations where interactions are merely insignificant or negligible. There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ...


Amensalism

Main article: Amensalism

Amensalism between two species involves one impeding or restricting the success of the other without being affected positively or negatively by the presence of the other. It is a type of symbiosis. Usually this occurs when one organism exudes a chemical compound as part of its normal metabolism that is detrimental to another organism. Amensalism is an interaction between two species where one impedes or restricts the success of the other while not being affected, positively or negatively, by the presence of the other. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


The bread mold Penicillium is a common example of this; penicillium secrete penicillin, a chemical that kills bacteria. A second example is the black walnut tree (Juglans nigra), which secrete juglone, a chemical that harms or kills some species of neighboring plants, from its roots. This interaction may still increase the fitness of the non-harmed organism though, by removing competition and allowing it access to greater scarce resources. In this sense the impeding organism can be said to be negatively affected by the other's very existence, making it a +/- interaction. Species Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium camemberti Penicillium candida Penicillium claviforme Penicillium crustosum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium marneffei Penicillium notatum Penicillium purpurogenum Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium stoloniferum Penicillium viridicatum Penicillium verrucosum Penicillium commune Penicillium is a genus of ascomyceteous fungi that includes: Penicillium bilaiae, which is an agricultural inoculant. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Binomial name L. The Black Walnut or American Walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a native of eastern North America, where it grows, mostly alongside rivers, from southern Ontario, Canada west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida and southwest to central Texas. ... Juglone is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C10H6O3. ...


Antibiosis or allelopathy also explain similar interactions. Casuarina equisetifolia litter completely suppresses germination of understory plants as shown here despite the relative openess of the canopy and ample rainfall (>120 cm/yr) at the location The term allelopathy denotes the production of specific biomolecules by one plant that can induce suffering in, or give benefit to, another...


Competition

Main article: Competition (biology)

Competition is an interaction between individuals or populations that is mutually detrimental. Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ...


Synnecrosis is a particular case in which the interaction is so mutually detrimental that it results in death, as in the case of some parasitic relationships.[citation needed] It is a rare and necessarily short-lived condition as evolution selects against it. The term is seldom used.[2] For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ...


Antagonism

This is not a bee, but a syrphid fly, a Batesian mimic.
This is not a bee, but a syrphid fly, a Batesian mimic.
Further information: Predation, parasitism

In antagonistic interactions one species benefits at the expense of another. Predation is an interaction between organisms in which one organism captures biomass from another. It is often used as a synonym for carnivory but in its widest definition includes all forms of one organism eating another, regardless of trophic level (e.g. herbivory), closeness of association (e.g. parasitism and parasitoidism) and harm done to prey (e.g. grazing). Other interactions that cannot be classed as predation however are still possible, such as Batesian mimicry, where an organism bears a superficial similarity of at least one sort, such as a harmless plant coming to mimic a poisonous one. Genera many genera about 5,000 species The flower flies or hoverflies are a family of flies (Diptera), scientifically termed Syrphidae. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... For other uses, see Mimic (disambiguation). ...


Ecological facilitation

The following two interactions can be classed as facilitative. Facilitation describes species interactions that benefit at least one of the participants and cause no harm to either.[3] Facilitations can be categorized as mutualisms, in which both species benefit, or commensalisms, in which one species benefits and the other is unaffected. Much of classic ecological theory (e.g., natural selection, niche separation, metapopulation dynamics) has focused on negative interactions such as predation and competition, but positive interactions (facilitation) are receiving increasing focus in ecological research.[4][5][6][7][8] Facilitation describes species interactions that benefit at least one of the participants and cause harm to neither (Stachowicz 2001). ...


Commensalism

Main article: Commensalism

Commensalism benefits one organism and the other organism is neither benefited nor harmed. It occurs when one organism takes benefits by interacting with another organism by which the host orgaism is not affected. A good example is a remora living with a shark. Remoras eat leftover food from the shark. The shark is not affected in the process as remoras eat only leftover food of the shark which doesn't deplete the sharks resources. In ecology, commensalism is a kind of relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped (like a bird living in a tree). ... Genera Echeneis Phtheiricthys Remora Remorina See text for species. ...


Mutualism

Main article: Mutualism
Pollination illustrates mutualism between flowering plants and their animal pollinators.
Pollination illustrates mutualism between flowering plants and their animal pollinators.

Mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where species derive a mutual benefit, for example an increased carrying capacity. Similar interactions within a species are known as co-operation. Mutualism may be classified in terms of the closeness of association, the closest being symbiosis, which is often confused with mutualism. One or both species involved in the interaction may be obligate, meaning they cannot survive in the short or long term without the other species. Though mutualism has historically received less attention than other interactions such as predation,[9] it is very important subject in ecology. Examples include cleaner fish, pollination and seed dispersal, gut flora and nitrogen fixation by fungi. In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... Co-operation or co-operative behaviours are terms used to describe behaviours by biological organisms which are beneficial to other members of the same species. ... The cleaner wrasses Labroides dimidiatus removing dead skin and external parasites from the grouper Epinephelus tukula. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... Biological dispersal refers to those processes by which a species maintains or expands the distribution of a population. ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ...


Interactions classified by mechanism

Symbiosis

Main article: Symbiosis
Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Ritteri sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. Both the fish and anemone benefit from this relationship, a case of mutualistic symbiosis.
Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Ritteri sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. Both the fish and anemone benefit from this relationship, a case of mutualistic symbiosis.

The term symbiosis (Greek: living together) can be used to describe various degrees of close relationship between organisms of different species. Sometimes it is used only for cases where both organisms benefit, sometimes it is used more generally to describe all varieties of relatively tight relationships, i.e. even parasitism, but not predation. Some even go so far as to use it to describe predation. [10]. It can be used to describe relationships where one organism lives on or in another, or it can be used to describe cases where organisms are related by mutual stereotypic behaviors. For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Genera Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Premnas (Bloch, 1790) Clownfish and anemonefish are fishes from the subfamily Amphiprioninae in the family Pomacentridae. ... Binomial name Heteractis magnifica (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) Heteractis magnifica (known variously as magnificent sea anemone or Ritteri anemone) is a species of sea anemone that lives in the Indo-Pacific area, and can grow up to 1 metre (3 feet) in diameter in the wild. ...


In either case symbiosis is much more common in the living world and much more important than is generally assumed. Almost every organism has many internal parasites. A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut fauna that help them digest plant matter, which is more difficult to digest than animal prey. Coral reefs are the result of mutalisms between coral organisms and various types of algae that live inside them. Most land plants and thus, one might say, the very existence of land ecosystems rely on mutualisms between the plants which fix carbon from the air, and Mycorrhyzal fungi which help in extracting minerals from the ground. In fact the evolution of all eukaryotes (plants, animals, fungi, protists) is believed to have resulted from a symbiosis between various sorts of bacteria: endosymbiotic theory. In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Carbon fixation is a process found in autotrophs, usually driven by photosynthesis, whereby carbon dioxide is changed into organic materials. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e. ...


Competition

Male-male interference competition in red deer.
Male-male interference competition in red deer.
Main article: Competition (biology)

Competition can be defined as an interaction between organisms or species, in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another. Limited supply of at least one resource (such as food, water, and territory) used by both is required.[11] Competition is one of many interacting biotic and abiotic factors that affect community structure. Competition among members of the same species is known as intraspecific competition, while competition between individuals of different species is known as interspecific competition. Competition is not always a straightforward, direct interaction either, and can occur in both a direct and indirect fashion. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the species of deer. ... Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... In biology, agricultural science, physiology, and ecology, a limiting factor is one that controls a process, such as organism growth or species population size or distribution. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... Look up biotic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In ecology, a community is an assemblage of populations of different species, interacting with one another. ... Intraspecific competition is the interaction between members of the same species that vie for the same resource in an ecosystem (e. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


According to the competitive exclusion principle, species less suited to compete for resources should either adapt or die out. According to evolutionary theory, this competition within and between species for resources plays a critical role in natural selection. The competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gauses Law of competitive exclusion or just Gauses Law, states that two species that compete for the exact same resources cannot stably coexist. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... This article is about biological evolution. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


See also

For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... In fair division problems, spite is a phenomenon that occurs when a players value of an allocation decreases when one or more other players valuation increases. ...

References

  1. ^ Witzany, G. (2000) Life: The Communicative Structure. Norderstedt, Libri.
  2. ^ Lidicker, W. Z. (1979) A Clarification of Interactions in Ecological Systems BioScience 29:475-477.
  3. ^ Stachowicz, J. J. 2001. Mutualism, facilitation, and the structure of ecological communities. BioScience 51: 235-246.
  4. ^ Boucher, D. H., S. James, and K. H. Keeler. 1982. The ecology of mutualism. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13: 315-347.
  5. ^ Callaway, R. M. 1995. Positive interactions among plants (Interpreting botanical progress). The Botanical Review 61: 306-349.
  6. ^ Stachowicz, J. J. 2001. Mutualism, facilitation, and the structure of ecological communities. BioScience 51: 235-246.
  7. ^ Bruno, J. F., J. J. Stachowicz, and M. D. Bertness. 2003. Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. TREE 18: 119-125.
  8. ^ Tirado, R. and F. I. Pugnaire. 2005. Community structure and positive interactions in constraining environments. OIKOS 111: 437-444.
  9. ^ Begon, M., J.L. Harper and C.R. Townsend. 1996. Ecology: individuals, populations, and communities, Third Edition. Blackwell Science Ltd., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
  10. ^ * Surindar Paracer and Vernon Ahmadjian, "Symbiosis: An Introduction to Biological Associations" Oxford University Press. 2nd Ed. 2000. ISBN 0-195-11806-5
  11. ^ Begon, M.; Harper, J. L.; Townsend, C. R. (1996) Ecology Blackwell Science.
For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Amensalism is an interaction between two species where one impedes or restricts the success of the other while not being affected, positively or negatively, by the presence of the other. ... In ecology, commensalism is a kind of relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped (like a bird living in a tree). ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... The black walnut secretes a chemical from its roots that harms neighboring plants, an example of amensalism. ... The black walnut secretes a chemical from its roots that harms neighboring plants, an example of amensalism. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage Herbivory is a form of predation in which an organism known as an herbivore, consumes principally autotrophs[1] such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cheating, also known as exploitation, between organisms is a form of parasitism or specialized predation in which an organism engages in what appears to be a mutualistic relationship with another organism, but does not in fact provide any benefit to the other organism. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biological interaction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (461 words)
Biological interactions result from the fact that organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other, in the natural world, no organism is an autonomous entity isolated from its surroundings.
An organism's interactions with its environment are fundamental to the survival of that organism and the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole.
In ecology, biological interactions are the relationships between two species in an ecosystem.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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