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Encyclopedia > Biological hazard
The international biological hazard symbol
Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure.
Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure.
Biohazard signage
Biohazard signage

A biological hazard or biohazard is an organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to (primarily) human health. This can include medical waste, samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a biological source) that can impact human health. It can also include substances harmful to animals. The term and its associated symbol is generally used as a warning, so that those potentially exposed to the substances will know to take precautions. There is also a biohazard HCS/WHMIS logo which utilizes the same symbol. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The skull and crossbones, a common symbol for poison. ... Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure. ... Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure. ... Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x1028, 123 KB) Picture of typical bio-hazard picture found on containers. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x1028, 123 KB) Picture of typical bio-hazard picture found on containers. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The skull and crossbones, a common symbol for poison. ... WHMIS (or Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System) is Canadas national hazard communication program for hazardous workplace chemicals. ...


In Unicode, the biohazard sign is U+2623 (). Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ...


Biohazardous agents are classified for transportation by UN number: UN numbers or UN IDs are four-digit numbers that identify hazardous substances and products (such as explosives and poisonous materials) of commercial importance. ...

  • UN 2814 (Infectious Substance, Affecting Humans)
  • UN 2900 (Infectious Substance, Affecting Animals)
  • UN 3733 (Diagnostic Specimen or Clinical Specimen or Biological Substance, Category B)
  • UN 3291 (Medical Waste)

Contents

Levels of biohazard

Main article: Biosafety level

The United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) categorizes various diseases in levels of biohazard, Level 1 being minimum risk and Level 4 being extreme risk. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) specifies four levels of biocontainment precautions for biological agents, Biosafety Levels 1 through 4. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...

  • Biohazard Level 1: Several kinds of bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, canine hepatitis E. coli, varicella (chicken pox), as well as some cell cultures and non-infectious bacteria. At this level precautions against the biohazardous materials in question are minimal, most likely involving gloves and some sort of facial protection. Usually, contaminated materials are left in open (but separately indicated) trash receptacles. Decontamination procedures for this level are similar in most respects to modern precautions against everyday viruses (i.e.: washing one's hands with anti-bacterial soap, washing all exposed surfaces of the lab with disinfectants, etc). In a lab environment, all materials used for cell and/or bacteria cultures are decontaminated via autoclave.
  • Biohazard Level 4: Bolivian fever, Dengue fever, Marburg virus, Ebola, Hanta virus, Lassa virus, and other various hemorrhagic diseases. When dealing with biological hazards at this level the use of a Hazmat suit and a self-contained oxygen supply is mandatory. The entrance and exit of a level four biolab will contain multiple showers, a vacuum room, an ultraviolet light room, and other safety precautions designed to destroy all traces of the biohazard. Multiple airlocks are employed and are electronically secured to prevent both doors opening at the same time. All air and water service going to and coming from a Biosafety Level 4 biolab will undergo similar decontamination procedures to eliminate the possibility of an accidental release.

Binomial name Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg 1835) Cohn 1872 Gram-stained Bacillus subtilis Sporulating Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... Chicken pox, also spelled chickenpox, is a common childhood disease caused by the varicella_zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpes virus 3 (HHV_3), one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans. ... Front loading autoclaves are common Stovetop autoclaves need to be monitored carefully and are the simplest of all autoclaves Multiple large autoclaves are used for processing substantial quantities of laboratory equipment prior to reuse, and infectious material prior to disposal. ... Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ... Hepatitis C is a blood-borne, infectious, viral disease that is caused by a hepatotropic virus called Hepatitis C virus (HCV). ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Lyme disease (Borreliosis) is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes, or black-legged, tick, also known as a deer tick. ... Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella enterica Salmonella arizonae Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease that affects the nervous systems of sheep and goats. ... Classic image of cattle with BSE. Frantic digging going nowhere. ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epidemic typhus. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Dengue fever (IPA: ) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Ebola is both the common term used to describe a group of viruses belonging to genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, and the common name for the disease which they cause, Ebola hemorrhagic fever. ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert in the field of medicine. ... A HAZMAT suit is an overall garment worn by people to protect themselves from hazardous materials or substances. ... “UV” redirects here. ... The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) specifies four levels of biocontainment precautions for biological agents, Biosafety Levels 1 through 4. ...

See also

A sampling of Bacillus anthracis—Anthrax A biological agent is an infectious disease that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. ... The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) specifies four levels of biocontainment precautions for biological agents, Biosafety Levels 1 through 4. ...

References

  1. ^ "Routine diagnostic work with clinical specimens can be done safely at Biosafety Level 2, using Biosafety Level 2 practices and procedures. Research work (including co-cultivation, virus replication studies, or manipulations involving concentrated virus) can be done in a BSL-2 facility, using BSL-3 practices and procedures. Virus production activities, including virus concentrations, require a BSL-3 facility and use of BSL-3 practices and procedures", see Recommended Biosafety Levels for Infectious Agents.
  • Baldwin, C. L., & Runkle, R.S. (1967). Biohazards symbol: development of a biological hazards warning signal. Science, 158, 264–265. Pubmed unique identifier 6053882.
  • Preston, Richard. (1994). The Hot Zone. Anchor Books: Division of Random House; New York.

External links


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