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Encyclopedia > Biological classification
Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Life
The hierarchy of scientific classification's major eight taxonomic ranks. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.

Biological classification or scientific classification in biology, is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Biological classification is a form of scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis. Modern biological classification has its root in the work of Carolus Linnaeus, who grouped species according to shared physical characteristics. These groupings since have been revised to improve consistency with the Darwinian principle of common descent. Molecular systematics, which uses DNA sequences as data, has driven many recent revisions and is likely to continue to do so. Biological classification belongs to the science of biological systematics. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ... Scientific classification is classification by means of science. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... A Folk Taxonomy is a vernacular naming system, as opposed to a scientific naming system which is simply known as a Taxonomy or as a Scientific Taxonomy. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... It has been suggested that molecular phylogeny be merged into this article or section. ... A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine), and typically these are... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ...

Contents

Early systems

Ancient through medieval

Current systems of classifying forms of life descend from the thought presented by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, who published in his metaphysical and logical works the first known classification of everything whatsoever, or "being". This is the scheme that gave moderns such words as substance, species and genus and was retained in modified and less general form by Linnaeus. This article is about life in general. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ...


Aristotle also studied animals and classified them according to method of reproduction, as did Linnaeus later with plants. Aristotle's animal classification was soon made obsolete by additional knowledge and was forgotten.


The philosophical classification is in brief as follows.[1] Primary substance is the individual being; for example, Peter, Paul, etc. Secondary substance is a predicate that can properly or characteristically be said of a class of primary substances; for example, man of Peter, Paul, etc. The characteristic must not be merely in the individual; for example, being skilled in grammar. Grammatical skill leaves most of Peter out and therefore is not characteristic of him. Similarly man (all of mankind) is not in Peter; rather, he is in man. Look up predicate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Species is the secondary substance that is most proper to its individuals. The most characteristic thing that can be said of Peter is that Peter is a man. An identity is being postulated: "man" is equal to all its individuals and only those individuals. Members of a species differ only in number but are totally the same type.


Genus is a secondary substance less characteristic of and more general than the species; for example, man is an animal. Not all animals are men. It is clear that a genus contains species. There is no limit to the number of Aristotelian genera that might be found to contain the species. Aristotle does not structure the genera into phylum, class, etc., as does Linnaean classification.


The secondary substance that distinguishes one species from another within a genus is the specific difference. Man can thus be comprehended as the sum of specific differences (the "differentiae" of biology) in less and less general categories. This sum is the definition; for example, man is an animate, sensate, rational substance. The most characteristic definition contains the species and the next most general genus: man is a rational animal. Definition is thus based on the unity problem: the species is one yet has many differentiae.


The very top genera are the categories. There are ten: one of substance and nine of "accidents", universals that must be "in" a substance. Substances exist by themselves; accidents are only in them: quantity, quality, etc. There is no higher category, "being", because of the following problem, which was only solved in the Middle Ages by Thomas Aquinas: a specific difference is not characteristic of its genus. If man is a rational animal, then rationality is not a property of animals. Substance therefore cannot be kind of being because it can have no specific difference, which would have to be non-being. Categories (or Categoriae) is a text from Aristotles Organon that enumerates all the possible kinds of thing which can be the subject or the predicate of a proposition. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Aquinas redirects here. ...


The problem of being occupied the attention of scholastics during the time of the Middle Ages. The solution of St. Thomas, termed the analogy of being, established the field of ontology, which received the better part of the publicity and also drew the line between philosophy and experimental science. The latter rose in the Renaissance from practical technique. The greatest scientific classifier, Linnaeus, a brilliant classical scholar, combined the two on the threshold of that great neo-classicist revival now called the Age of Enlightenment. This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ...


Renaissance through age of reason

An important advance was made by the Swiss professor, Conrad von Gesner (1516–1565). Gesner's work was a critical compilation of life known at the time. Conrad von Gesner (Konrad von Gesner, Conrad Gessner, Conradus Gesnerus) ( 26 March 1516- 13 December 1565) was a Swiss naturalist. ...


The exploration of parts of the New World produced large numbers of new plants and animals that needed descriptions and classification. The old systems made it difficult to study and locate all these new specimens within a collection and often the same plants or animals were given different names because the number of specimens were too large to memorize. A system was needed that could group these specimens together so they could be found; the binomial system was developed based on morphology with groups having similar appearances. In the latter part of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th, careful study of animals commenced, which, directed first to familiar kinds, was gradually extended until it formed a sufficient body of knowledge to serve as an anatomical basis for classification. Advances in using this knowledge to classify living beings bear a debt to the research of medical anatomists, such as Fabricius (1537–1619), Petrus Severinus (1580–1656), William Harvey (1578–1657), and Edward Tyson (1649–1708). Advances in classification due to the work of entomologists and the first microscopists is due to the research of people like Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694), Jan Swammerdam (1637–1680), and Robert Hooke (1635–1702). Lord Monboddo (1714-1799) was one of the early abstract thinkers whose works illustrate knowledge of species relationships and who foreshadowed the theory of evolution. Successive developments in the history of insect classification may be followed on the website[2] by clicking on succeeding works in chronological order. Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Girolamo Fabrizi d Acquapendente. ... Peder Soerensen[1] (1542-1602) was a Danish physician, and one of the most significant followers of Paracelsus. ... This article is about William Harvey, the English doctor. ... Edward Tyson (1650–August 1, 1708) was born at Clevedon, in Somerset. ... Entomology is the scientific study of insects. ... Marcello Malpighi (March 10, 1628 - September 30, 1694) was an Italian doctor, who gave his name to several physiological features. ... Jan Swammerdam (February 12, 1637 - February 17, 1680) was a Dutch biologist and microscopist. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Early methodists

Since late in the 15th century, a number of authors had become concerned with what they called methodus, (method ). By method authors mean an arrangement of minerals, plants, and animals according to the principles of logical division. The term methodists was coined by Carolus Linnaeus in his Bibliotheca Botanica to denote the authors who care about the principles of classification (in contrast to the mere collectors who are concerned primarily with the description of plants paying little or no attention to their arrangement into genera, etc). Important early methodists were an Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist Andrea Caesalpino, an English naturalist John Ray, a German physician and botanist Augustus Quirinus Rivinus, and a French physician, botanist, and traveller Joseph Pitton de Tournefort. Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Andrea Cesalpino. ... For the former United States Congressman from New York, see John H. Ray. ... Augustus Quirinus Rivinus also known as August Bachmann (December 9, 1652 (Leipzig, Germany) – December 20, 1723 (Leipzig, Germany)) A German physician and botanist. ... Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (June 5, 1656 – December 28, 1708) was a French botanist. ...


Andrea Caesalpino (15191603) in his De plantis libri XVI (1583) proposed the first methodical arrangement of plants. On the basis of the structure of trunk and fructification he divided plants into fifteen "higher genera". Andrea Cesalpino. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Pinus taeda cross section showing annual growth rings (Cheraw, South Carolina) In botany, trunk refers to the main structural member of a tree that is supported by and directly attached to the roots and which in turn supports the branches. ... Fructification (Latin: fructificatio) is a term used in the plant morphology to denote the generative parts of the plant (flower and fruit) (as opposed to its vegetative parts: trunk, roots and leaves). ...


John Ray (16271705) was an English naturalist who published important works on plants, animals, and natural theology. The approach he took to the classification of plants in his Historia Plantarum was an important step towards modern taxonomy. Ray rejected the system of dichotomous division by which species were classified according to a pre-conceived, either/or type system, and instead classified plants according to similarities and differences that emerged from observation. For the former United States Congressman from New York, see John H. Ray. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... Historia Plantarum (Latin for History of Plants) is the name by which is known an atlas of botany written by Theophrastus between the third and the second century BC. This work was organised in ten books, and is an encyclopedia of the plant kingdom, in which a draft taxonomy is...


Both Caesalpino and Ray used traditional plant names and thus, the name of a plant did not reflect its taxonomic position (e.g. even though the apple and the peach belonged to different "higher genera" of John Ray's methodus, both retained their traditional names Malus and Malus Persica respectively). A further step was taken by Rivinus and Pitton de Tournefort who made genus a distinct rank within taxonomic hierarchy and introduced the practice of naming the plants according to their genera. This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ...


Augustus Quirinus Rivinus (16521723), in his classification of plants based on the characters of the flower, introduced the category of order (corresponding to the "higher" genera of John Ray and Andrea Caesalpino). He was the first to abolish the ancient division of plants into herbs and trees and insisted that the true method of division should be based on the parts of the fructification alone. Rivinus extensively used dichotomous keys to define both orders and genera. His method of naming plant species resembled that of Joseph Pitton de Tournefort. The names of all plants belonging to the same genus should begin with the same word (generic name). In the genera containing more than one species the first species was named with generic name only, while the second, etc were named with a combination of the generic name and a modifier (differentia specifica). Augustus Quirinus Rivinus also known as August Bachmann (December 9, 1652 (Leipzig, Germany) – December 20, 1723 (Leipzig, Germany)) A German physician and botanist. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Fructification (Latin: fructificatio) is a term used in the plant morphology to denote the generative parts of the plant (flower and fruit) (as opposed to its vegetative parts: trunk, roots and leaves). ... An identification key, also known as a dichotomous key, is a method of deducing the correct species assigment of a living thing. ...


Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (16561708) introduced an even more sophisticated hierarchy of class, section, genus, and species. He was the first to use consistently the uniformly composed species names which consisted of a generic name and a many-worded diagnostic phrase differentia specifica. Unlike Rivinus, he used differentiae with all species of polytypic genera. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (June 5, 1656 – December 28, 1708) was a French botanist. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J...


Modern systems

Linnaean

Main article: Linnaean taxonomy

Two years after John Ray's death, Carolus Linnaeus (17071778) was born. His great work, the Systema Naturae (1st ed. 1735), ran through twelve editions during his lifetime. In this work, nature was divided into three kingdoms: mineral, vegetable and animal. Linnaeus used five ranks: class, order, genus, species, and variety. Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ...


He abandoned long descriptive names of classes and orders and two-word generic names (e. g. Bursa pastoris) still used by his immediate predecessors (Rivinus and Pitton de Tournefort) and replaced them with single-word names, provided genera with detailed diagnoses (characteres naturales), and reduced numerous varieties to their species, thus saving botany from the chaos of new forms produced by horticulturalists. The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ...


Linnaeus is best known for his introduction of the method still used to formulate the scientific name of every species. Before Linnaeus, long many-worded names (composed of a generic name and a differentia specifica) had been used, but as these names gave a description of the species, they were not fixed. In his Philosophia Botanica (1751) Linnaeus took every effort to improve the composition and reduce the length of the many-worded names by abolishing unnecessary rhetorics, introducing new descriptive terms and defining their meaning with an unprecedented precision. In the late 1740s Linnaeus began to use a parallel system of naming species with nomina trivialia. Nomen triviale, a trivial name, was a single- or two-word epithet placed on the margin of the page next to the many-worded "scientific" name. The only rules Linnaeus applied to them was that the trivial names should be short, unique within a given genus, and that they should not be changed. Linnaeus consistently applied nomina trivialia to the species of plants in Species Plantarum (1st edn. 1753) and to the species of animals in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae (1758). In biology, binomial nomenclature is a standard convention used for naming species. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ...


By consistently using these specific epithets, Linnaeus separated nomenclature from taxonomy. Even though the parallel use of nomina trivialia and many-worded descriptive names continued until late in the eighteenth century, it was gradually replaced by the practice of using shorter proper names combined of the generic name and the trivial name of the species. In the nineteenth century, this new practice was codified in the first Rules and Laws of Nomenclature, and the 1st edn. of Species Plantarum and the 10th edn. of Systema Naturae were chosen as starting points for the Botanical and Zoological Nomenclature respectively. This convention for naming species is referred to as binomial nomenclature. Latin name redirects here. ...


Today, nomenclature is regulated by Nomenclature Codes, which allows names divided into taxonomic ranks. The Nomenclature Codes (or the Codes of nomenclature) are the rulebooks that govern biological nomenclature. ...


Taxonomic ranks

Main article: Taxonomic rank

There are 8 main taxonomic ranks: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.


There are slightly different ranks for zoology and different ranks for botany. In zoology, a taxon is usually assigned to a rank in a hierarchy. ... In botanical nomenclature, a taxon is usually assigned to a rank in a hierarchy. ...

The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... In biology, a cryptic species complex is a group of species that satisfy the scientific definition of species — that is, they are reproductively isolated from each other — but which are not morphologically distinguishable. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... For other uses, see phyla. ... In biology, the equivalent of a phylum in the plant or the fungal kingdom is called a division. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic classification in between family and genus. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In biology, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank intermediate between phylum and superclass. ... In biology, a subgenus is a taxonomic grade intermediate between genus and species. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... The legion, in biological taxonomy, is a non-obligatory rank within the Linnaean hierarchy which is subordinate to the class but superordinate to the cohort. ... An infraspecies or infrasubspecies is a category of organisms of rank lower than subspecies. ...

Evolutionary

Whereas Linnaeus classified for ease of identification, it is now generally accepted that classification should reflect the Darwinian principle of common descent. A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ...


Since the 1960s a trend called cladistic taxonomy (or cladistics or cladism) has emerged, arranging taxa in an evolutionary tree. If a taxon includes all the descendants of some ancestral form, it is called monophyletic, as opposed to paraphyletic. Other groups are called polyphyletic. It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... The evolutionary tree of living things is currently supposed to run something along the lines of that listed below. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In biology, a taxon is polyphyletic if it is descended from more than one root form (in Greek poly = many and phyletic = racial). ...


A new formal code of nomenclature, the PhyloCode, to be renamed "International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature" (ICPN), is currently under development, intended to deal with clades, which do not have set ranks, unlike conventional Linnaean taxonomy. It is unclear, should this be implemented, how the different codes will coexist. Types of Clade (Note: Stem-based is now branch-based, to avoid confusion with the term stem group which means total clade minus crown clade.) The PhyloCode is a developing draft for a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ...


Domains are a relatively new grouping. The three-domain system was first invented in 1990, but not generally accepted until later. Now, the majority of biologists accept the domain system, but a large minority use the five-kingdom method. One main characteristic of the three-domain method is the separation of Archaea and Bacteria, previously grouped into the single kingdom Bacteria (a kingdom also sometimes called Monera). Consequently, the three domains of life are conceptualized as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota (comprising the nuclei-bearing eukaryotes).[3] A small minority of scientists add Archaea as a sixth kingdom, but do not accept the domain method. The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Figure 1. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... There are two meanings of the word nucleus in biology: The cell nucleus is an organelle within an eukaryotic cell. ...


Thomas Cavalier-Smith, who has published extensively on the classification of protists, has recently proposed that the Neomura, the clade which groups together the Archaea and Eukarya, would have evolved from Bacteria, more precisely from Actinobacteria. Thomas Cavalier-Smith is a professor of evolutionary biology at the University of Oxford, and is winner of the International Prize for Biology 2004 and one of the most notable researchers concerning the relationships, development, and classification of living things. ... Domains Domain Archaea Domain Eukaryota Neomura is the hypothetical ancestor of the two domains of Archaea and Eukaryota. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ...

Linnaeus
1735
2 kingdoms
Haeckel
1866[4]
3 kingdoms
Chatton
1937[5]
2 empires
Copeland
1956[6]
4 kingdoms
Whittaker
1969[7]
5 kingdoms
Woese et al.
1977[8]
6 kingdoms
Woese et al.
1990[9]
3 domains
(not treated) Protista Prokaryota Monera Monera Eubacteria Bacteria
Archaebacteria Archaea
Eukaryota Protista Protista Protista Eukarya
Vegetabilia Plantae Fungi Fungi
Plantae Plantae Plantae
Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia

Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... Edouard Chatton (1883 — 1947), was a French biologist who first distinguished between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems of cellular organisation, and coined the terms themselves in his 1925 paper, Pansporella perplex: Reflections on the Biology and Phylogeny of the Protozoa. ... The two-empire system is the top-level biologicial classification system in general use before the establishment of the three-domain system. ... Herbert Faulkner Copeland (1902-1968) was an American biologist who contributed to the theory of biological kingdoms. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... Robert Whittaker (1920-1980) was an American vegetation ecologist, active in the 1950s through the 1970s. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. ... Figure 1. ... Figure 1. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista is one of the commonly recognized biological kingdoms, including all the eukaryotes except for... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ...

Authorities (author citation)

The name of any taxon may be followed by the "authority" for the name, that is, the name of the author who first published a valid description of it. These names are frequently abbreviated: the abbreviation "L." is universally accepted for Linnaeus, and in botany there is a regulated list of standard abbreviations (see list of botanists by author abbreviation). The system for assigning authorities is slightly different in different branches of biology: see author citation (botany) and author citation (zoology). However, it is standard that if a name or placement has been changed since the original description, the first authority's name is placed in parentheses and the authority for the new name or placement may be placed after it (usually only in botany). This is a list of botanists by their author abbreviation, including that established by Brummitt & Powell (1992), designed for citation in the botanical names they have published. ... In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to the person (or team) who valid published the name, i. ... In zoological nomenclature, author citation refers to the person (or team) who first makes a scientific name of a taxon available. ...


References

  1. ^ Categories Section 5 and Metaphysics Book 6, but the terms are used in many places throughout the writings of Aristotle.
  2. ^ NOMINA CIRCUMSCRIBENTIA INSECTORUM. Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
  3. ^ See especially pp. 45, 78 and 555 of Joel Cracraft and Michael J. Donaghue, eds. (2004). Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ E. Haeckel (1866). Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Reimer, Berlin. 
  5. ^ E. Chatton (1937). Titres et travaux scientifiques. Sette, Sottano, Italy. 
  6. ^ H. F. Copeland (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books. 
  7. ^ R. H. Whittaker (1969). "New concepts of kingdoms of organisms". Science 163: 150–160. 
  8. ^ C. R. Woese, W. E. Balch, L. J. Magrum, G. E. Fox and R. S. Wolfe (1977). "An ancient divergence among the bacteria". Journal of Molecular Evolution 9: 305–311. 
  9. ^ Carl R. Woese, Otto Kandler, Mark L. Wheelis: "Towards a Natural System of Organisms: Proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya", doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Categories
Wikispecies has information related to:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Biology Mnemonics
  • Atran, S. (1990). Cognitive foundations of natural history: towards an anthropology of science. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, xii+360 pages. ISBN 0521372933, 0521372933. 
  • Larson, J. L. (1971). Reason and experience. The representation of Natural Order in the work of Carl von Linne. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, VII+171 pages. 
  • Stafleau, F. A. (1971). Linnaeus and the Linnaeans. The spreading of their ideas in systematic botany, 1753-1789. Utrecht: Oosthoek, xvi+386 pages. 

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

See also

Latin name redirects here. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... This list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names is intended to help those unfamiliar with classical languages understand and remember the scientific names of organisms. ... Fig. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Types of Clade (Note: Stem-based is now branch-based, to avoid confusion with the term stem group which means total clade minus crown clade.) The PhyloCode is a developing draft for a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... The Tree of Life Web Project is an ongoing Internet project and providing information about the diversity and phylogeny of life on Earth. ... The All Species Foundation seeks to catalog all species on Earth by 2025. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
classification - HighBeam Encyclopedia (1616 words)
The original purpose of biological classification, or systematics, was to organize the vast number of known plants and animals into categories that could be named, remembered, and discussed.
Modern classification is part of the broader science of taxonomy, the study of the relationships of organisms, which includes collection, preservation, and study of specimens, and analysis of data provided by various areas of biological research.
Little interest was shown in classification until the 17th and 18th cent., when botanists and zoologists began to devise the modern scheme of categories.
Scientific classification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2135 words)
Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms.
Scientific classification belongs to the science of taxonomy or biological systematics.
Advances in classification due to the work of entomologists and the first microscopists is due to the research of people like Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694), Jan Swammerdam (1637–1680), and Robert Hooke (1635–1702).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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