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Encyclopedia > Bioinformatics
Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). Assembly of the human genome is one of the greatest achievements of bioinformatics.

Bioinformatics and computational biology involve the use of techniques including applied mathematics, informatics, statistics, computer science, artificial intelligence, chemistry, and biochemistry to solve biological problems usually on the molecular level. Research in computational biology often overlaps with systems biology. Major research efforts in the field include sequence alignment, gene finding, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions, and the modeling of evolution. Image File history File links Genome_viewer_screenshot_small. ... Image File history File links Genome_viewer_screenshot_small. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains. ... Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... AI redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the primary sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences. ... Gene finding is the area of computational biology that is concerned with algorithmically identifying stretches of sequence, usually genomic DNA, that are biologically functional. ... Genome assembly refers to the process of taking a large number of short DNA sequences, all of which were generated by a shotgun sequencing project, and putting them back together to create a representation of the original chromosomes from which the DNA originated. ... Protein structural alignment is a form of alignment which tries to establish equivalences between two or more protein structures based on their fold. ... Protein structure prediction is one of the most significant technologies pursued by computational structural biology and theoretical chemistry. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... Protein-protein interactions refers to the association of protein molecules and the study of these associations from the perspective of evolution, biochemistry or networks. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...

Contents

Introduction

The terms bioinformatics and computational biology are often used interchangeably. However bioinformatics more properly refers to the creation and advancement of algorithms, computational and statistical techniques, and theory to solve formal and practical problems arising from the management and analysis of biological data. Computational biology, on the other hand, refers to hypothesis-driven investigation of a specific biological problem using computers, carried out with experimental or simulated data, with the primary goal of discovery and the advancement of biological knowledge. Put more simply, bioinformatics is concerned with the information while computational biology is concerned with the hypotheses. A similar distinction is made by National Institutes of Health in their working definitions of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, where it is further emphasized that there is a tight coupling of developments and knowledge between the more hypothesis-driven research in computational biology and technique-driven research in bioinformatics. Bioinformatics is also often specified as an applied subfield of the more general discipline of Biomedical informatics. NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Biomedical informatics is a discipline related to bioinformatics and has roots in medical informatics or healthcare informatics. ...


A common thread in projects in bioinformatics and computational biology is the use of mathematical tools to extract useful information from data produced by high-throughput biological techniques such as genome sequencing. A representative problem in bioinformatics is the assembly of high-quality genome sequences from fragmentary "shotgun" DNA sequencing. Other common problems include the study of gene regulation using data from microarrays or mass spectrometry. In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... Gene regulation is the general term for cellular control of protein synthesis at the DNA-RNA transcription step. ... It has been suggested that Gene chip technology be merged into this article or section. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ...


Major research areas

Sequence analysis

Since the Phage Φ-X174 was sequenced in 1977, the DNA sequences of hundreds of organisms have been decoded and stored in databases. The information is analyzed to determine genes that encode polypeptides, as well as regulatory sequences. A comparison of genes within a species or between different species can show similarities between protein functions, or relations between species (the use of molecular systematics to construct phylogenetic trees). With the growing amount of data, it long ago became impractical to analyze DNA sequences manually. Today, computer programs are used to search the genome of thousands of organisms, containing billions of nucleotides. These programs would compensate for mutations (exchanged, deleted or inserted bases) in the DNA sequence, in order to identify sequences that are related, but not identical. A variant of this sequence alignment is used in the sequencing process itself. The so-called shotgun sequencing technique (which was used, for example, by The Institute for Genomic Research to sequence the first bacterial genome, Haemophilus influenzae) does not give a sequential list of nucleotides, but instead the sequences of thousands of small DNA fragments (each about 600-800 nucleotides long). The ends of these fragments overlap and, when aligned in the right way, make up the complete genome. Shotgun sequencing yields sequence data quickly, but the task of assembling the fragments can be quite complicated for larger genomes. In the case of the Human Genome Project, it took several months of CPU time (on a circa-2000 vintage DEC Alpha computer) to assemble the fragments. Shotgun sequencing is the method of choice for virtually all genomes sequenced today, and genome assembly algorithms are a critical area of bioinformatics research. In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the primary sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences. ... In the field of bioinformatics, a sequence database is a large collection of DNA, protein, or other sequences stored on a computer. ... The Phi-X174 phage was the first organism to have its genome sequenced. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that molecular phylogeny be merged into this article or section. ... Fig. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the primary sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences. ... Shotgun sequencing is a method used in genetics for sequencing long DNA strands. ... The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), is a non-profit genomics research institute founded in 1992 by Craig Venter in Rockville, Maryland, United States. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project undertaken with a goal to understand the genetic make-up of the human species by determining the DNA sequence of the human genome and the genome of a few model organisms. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp...


Another aspect of bioinformatics in sequence analysis is the automatic search for genes and regulatory sequences within a genome. Not all of the nucleotides within a genome are genes. Within the genome of higher organisms, large parts of the DNA do not serve any obvious purpose. This so-called junk DNA may, however, contain unrecognized functional elements. Bioinformatics helps to bridge the gap between genome and proteome projects--for example, in the use of DNA sequences for protein identification. Gene finding is the area of computational biology that is concerned with algorithmically identifying stretches of sequence, usually genomic DNA, that are biologically functional. ... In molecular biology, junk DNA is a collective label for the portions of the DNA sequence of a chromosome or a genome for which no function has yet been identified. ... The term proteome was coined by Mark Wilkins in 1995 (1) and is used to describe the entire complement of proteins in a given biological organism or system at a given time, i. ...


See also: sequence analysis, sequence profiling tool, sequence motif. The term sequence analysis in biology implies subjecting a DNA or peptide sequence to sequence alignment, sequence databases, repeated sequence searches, or other bioinformatics methods on a computer. ... Sequence profiling Tools in bioinformatics refer to all those software tools (web-based/downloadable) that provide a brief overview on all related information about an input sequence. ... In genetics, a sequence motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and has, or is conjectured to have, a biological significance. ...


Genome annotation

Main article: Gene finding

In the context of genomics, annotation is the process of marking the genes and other biological features in a DNA sequence. The first genome annotation software system was designed in 1995 by Dr. Owen White, who was part of the team that sequenced and analyzed the first genome of a free-living organism to be decoded, the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. Dr. White built a software system to find the genes (places in the DNA sequence that encode a protein), the transfer RNA, and other features, and to make initial assignments of function to those genes. Most current genome annotation systems work similarly, but the programs available for analysis of genomic DNA are constantly changing and improving. Gene finding is the area of computational biology that is concerned with algorithmically identifying stretches of sequence, usually genomic DNA, that are biologically functional. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ...


Computational evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the study of the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time. Informatics has assisted evolutionary biologists in several key ways; it has enabled researchers to: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

  • trace the evolution of a large number of organisms by measuring changes in their DNA, rather than through physical taxonomy or physiological observations alone,
  • more recently, compare entire genomes, which permits the study of more complex evolutionary events, such as gene duplication, lateral gene transfer, and the prediction of factors important in bacterial speciation,
  • build complex computational models of populations to predict the outcome of the system over time
  • track and share information on an increasingly large number of species and organisms

Future work endeavours to reconstruct the now more complex tree of life. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Genome is also a popular science book by Matt Ridley. ... Schematic of a region of a chromosome before and after a duplication event Gene duplication occurs when an error in homologous recombination, a retrotransposition event, or duplication of an entire chromosome leads to the duplication of a region of DNA containing a gene [1]. The significance of this process for... Horizontal gene transfer is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... The evolutionary tree of living things is currently supposed to run something along the lines of that listed below. ...


The area of research within computer science that uses genetic algorithms is sometimes confused with computational evolutionary biology, but the two areas are unrelated...... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... A genetic algorithm (or GA) is a search technique used in computing to find true or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. ...


Measuring biodiversity

Biodiversity of an ecosystem might be defined as the total genomic complement of a particular environment, from all of the species present, whether it is a biofilm in an abandoned mine, a drop of sea water, a scoop of soil, or the entire biosphere of the planet Earth. Databases are used to collect the species names, descriptions, distributions, genetic information, status and size of populations, habitat needs, and how each organism interacts with other species. Specialized software programs are used to find, visualize, and analyze the information, and most importantly, communicate it to other people. Computer simulations model such things as population dynamics, or calculate the cumulative genetic health of a breeding pool (in agriculture) or endangered population (in conservation). One very exciting potential of this field is that entire DNA sequences, or genomes of endangered species can be preserved, allowing the results of Nature's genetic experiment to be remembered in silico, and possibly reused in the future, even if that species is eventually lost. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer program. ... Some conservation ecologists have been concerned about the Amazon rainforest. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... In Silico is a full length artist album by Deepsky View From a Stairway Jareths Church The Mansion World (Deepskys Trippin In Unknown Territory Mix) Ride Three Sheets to the Wind Atia Metro Smile Cosmic Dancer (2002 remix) Until the End of the World Let Me Live Categories...


Important projects: Species 2000 project; uBio Project.


Analysis of gene expression

The expression of many genes can be determined by measuring mRNA levels with multiple techniques including microarrays, expressed cDNA sequence tag (EST) sequencing, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tag sequencing, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS), or various applications of multiplexed in-situ hybridization. All of these techniques are extremely noise-prone and/or subject to bias in the biological measurement, and a major research area in computational biology involves developing statistical tools to separate signal from noise in high-throughput gene expression studies. Such studies are often used to determine the genes implicated in a disorder: one might compare microarray data from cancerous epithelial cells to data from non-cancerous cells to determine the transcripts that are up-regulated and down-regulated in a particular population of cancer cells. Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... The interaction of mRNA in a eukaryote cell. ... It has been suggested that Gene chip technology be merged into this article or section. ... An expressed sequence tag or EST is a short sub-sequence of a transcribed spliced nucleotide sequence (either protein-coding or not). ... Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a technique used by molecular biologists to produce a snapshot of the messenger RNA population in a sample of interest. ... In information theory, a signal is the sequence of states of a communications channel that encodes a message. ... This article is about noise as in sound. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ...


Analysis of regulation

Regulation is the complex orchestration of events starting with an extracellular signal such as a hormone and leading to an increase or decrease in the activity of one or more proteins. Bioinformatics techniques have been applied to explore various steps in this process. For example, promoter analysis involves the identification and study of sequence motifs in the DNA surrounding the coding region of a gene. These motifs influence the extent to which that region is transcribed into mRNA. Expression data can be used to infer gene regulation: one might compare microarray data from a wide variety of states of an organism to form hypotheses about the genes involved in each state. In a single-cell organism, one might compare stages of the cell cycle, along with various stress conditions (heat shock, starvation, etc.). One can then apply clustering algorithms to that expression data to determine which genes are co-expressed. For example, the upstream regions (promoters) of co-expressed genes can be searched for over-represented regulatory elements. Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In genetics, a sequence motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and has, or is conjectured to have, a biological significance. ... A DNA microarray (also DNA chip or gene chip in common speech) is a piece of glass or plastic on which pieces of DNA have been affixed in a microscopic array. ... The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its replication. ... Clustering is the classification of objects into different groups, or more precisely, the partitioning of a data set into subsets (clusters), so that the data in each subset (ideally) share some common trait - often proximity according to some defined distance measure. ... A regulatory sequence (also called regulatory region or ~ element) is a promoter, enhancer or other segment of DNA where regulatory proteins such as transcription factors bind preferentially. ...


Analysis of protein expression

Protein microarrays and high throughput (HT) mass spectrometry (MS) can provide a snapshot of the proteins present in a biological sample. Bioinformatics is very much involved in making sense of protein microarray and HT MS data; the former approach faces similar problems as with microarrays targeted at mRNA, the latter involves the problem of matching large amounts of mass data against predicted masses from protein sequence databases, and the complicated statistical analysis of samples where multiple, but incomplete peptides from each protein are detected. A DNA microarray (also DNA chip or gene chip in common speech) is a piece of glass or plastic on which pieces of DNA have been affixed in a microscopic array. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ...


Analysis of mutations in cancer

In cancer, the genomes of affected cells are rearranged in complex or even unpredictable ways. Massive sequencing efforts are used to identify previously unknown point mutations in a variety of genes in cancer. Bioinformaticians continue to produce specialized automated systems to manage the sheer volume of sequence data produced, and they create new algorithms and software to compare the sequencing results to the growing collection of human genome sequences and germline polymorphisms. New physical detection technology are employed, such as oligonucleotide microarrays to identify chromosomal gains and losses (called comparative genomic hybridization), and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays to detect known point mutations. These detection methods simultaneously measure several hundred thousand sites throughout the genome, and when used in high-throughput to measure thousands of samples, generate terabytes of data per experiment. Again the massive amounts and new types of data generate new opportunities for bioinformaticians. The data is often found to contain considerable variability, or noise, and thus Hidden Markov model and change-point analysis methods are being developed to infer real copy number changes. A point mutation, or substitution, is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... Germline is a word used in biology and genetics. ... Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides (RNA or DNA), typically with twenty or fewer bases. ... Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a molecular-cytogenetic method for the analysis of regional changes in the DNA content of tumor cells. ... DNA strand 1 differs from DNA strand 2 at a single base-pair location (a C/T polymorphism). ... This article is about a measurement term for data storage capacity. ... This article is about noise as in sound. ... State transitions in a hidden Markov model (example) x — hidden states y — observable outputs a — transition probabilities b — output probabilities A hidden Markov model (HMM) is a statistical model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unknown parameters, and the challenge is to... The gene copy number (also copy number variants or CNVs) is the amount of copies of a particular gene in the genotype of an individual. ...


Another type of data that requires novel informatics development is the analysis of lesions found to be recurrent across many tumors .


Prediction of protein structure

Protein structure prediction is another important application of bioinformatics. The amino acid sequence of a protein, the so-called primary structure, can be easily determined from the sequence on the gene that codes for it. In the vast majority of cases, this primary structure uniquely determines a structure in its native environment. (Of course, there are exceptions, such as the bovine spongiform encephalopathy - aka Mad Cow Disease - prion.) Knowledge of this structure is vital in understanding the function of the protein. For lack of better terms, structural information is usually classified as one of secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure. A viable general solution to such predictions remains an open problem. As of now, most efforts have been directed towards heuristics that work most of the time. Protein structure prediction is one of the most significant technologies pursued by computational structural biology and theoretical chemistry. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... The mad cow Disease </gallery>== The mad cow Disease == Classic image of a cow with BSE. A notable feature of such disease is the inability (of the infected animal) to stand. ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or commonly mad cow disease) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle, which infects by a mechanism that shocked biologists on its discovery in late 20th century and appears transmissible to humans. ... A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ... A representation of the 3D structure of the Myoglobin protein. ... In biochemistry, the tertiary structure of a protein is its overall shape. ... In biochemistry, many proteins are actually assemblies of more than one protein (polypeptide) molecule, which in the context of the larger assemblage are known as protein subunits. ...


One of the key ideas in bioinformatics is the notion of homology. In the genomic branch of bioinformatics, homology is used to predict the function of a gene: if the sequence of gene A, whose function is known, is homologous to the sequence of gene B, whose function is unknown, one could infer that B may share A's function. In the structural branch of bioinformatics, homology is used to determine which parts of a protein are important in structure formation and interaction with other proteins. In a technique called homology modeling, this information is used to predict the structure of a protein once the structure of a homologous protein is known. This currently remains the only way to predict protein structures reliably. In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ...


One example of this is the similar protein homology between hemoglobin in humans and the hemoglobin in legumes (leghemoglobin). Both serve the same purpose of transporting oxygen in the organism. Though both of these proteins have completely different amino acid sequences, their protein structures are virtually identical, which reflects their near identical purposes. The oxygen carrier leghemoglobin (also legoglobin) is a hemoprotein found in leguminous plants. ...


Other techniques for predicting protein structure include protein threading and de novo (from scratch) physics-based modeling.


See also structural motif and structural domain. In an unbranched, chain-like biological molecule, such as a protein or a strand of RNA, a structural motif is a three-dimensional structural element or fold within the chain, which appears also in a variety of other molecules. ... Within a protein, a structural domain (domain) is an element of overall structure that is self-stabilizing and often folds independently of the rest of the protein chain. ...


Comparative genomics

The core of comparative genome analysis is the establishment of the correspondence between genes (orthology analysis) or other genomic features in different organisms. It is these intergenomic maps that make it possible to trace the evolutionary processes responsible for the divergence of two genomes. A multitude of evolutionary events acting at various organizational levels shape genome evolution. At the lowest level, point mutations affect individual nucleotides. At a higher level, large chromosomal segments undergo duplication, lateral transfer, inversion, transposition, deletion and insertion. Ultimately, whole genomes are involved in processes of hybridization, polyploidization and endosymbiosis, often leading to rapid speciation. The complexity of genome evolution poses many exciting challenges to developers of mathematical models and algorithms, who have recourse to a spectra of algorithmic, statistical and mathematical techniques, ranging from exact, heuristics, fixed parameter and approximation algorithms for problems based on parsimony models to Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms for Bayesian analysis of problems based on probabilistic models. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... An endosymbiont (also known as intracellular symbiont) is any organism that lives within cells of another organism, i. ... For heuristics in computer science, see heuristic (computer science) Heuristic is the art and science of discovery and invention. ... In computer science, approximation algorithms are an approach to attacking NP-hard optimization problems. ... Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods (which include random walk Monte Carlo methods) are a class of algorithms for sampling from probability distributions based on constructing a Markov chain that has the desired distribution as its stationary distribution. ... Bayesian inference is statistical inference in which probabilities are interpreted not as frequencies or proportions or the like, but rather as degrees of belief. ...


Many of these studies are based on the homology detection and protein families computation.


See also comparative genomics, bayesian network and protein family. Comparative genomics is the study of relationships between the genomes of different species or strains. ... A Bayesian network (or a belief network) is a probabilistic graphical model that represents a set of variables and their probabilistic dependencies. ... A protein family is a group of evolutionarily related proteins. ...


Modeling biological systems

Main article: Systems biology

Systems biology involves the use of computer simulations of cellular subsystems (such as the networks of metabolites and enzymes which comprise metabolism, signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks) to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. Artificial life or virtual evolution attempts to understand evolutionary processes via the computer simulation of simple (artificial) life forms. Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... It has been suggested that simulation software be merged into this article or section. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... With the sequencing of complete genomes, it is now possible to reconstruct the network of biochemical reactions in many organisms, from bacteria to human. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... A gene regulatory network (also called a GRN or genetic regulatory network) is a collection of DNA segments in a cell which interact with each other (indirectly through their RNA and protein expression products) and with other substances in the cell, thereby governing the rates at which genes in the... Artificial Life, (commonly Alife or alife) is a field of study and art form that examines systems related to life, its processes and its evolution through simulations using computer models, robotics, and biochemistry [1] (called soft, hard, and wet approaches respectively[2]). Artificial life complements traditional Biology by trying to...


High-throughput image analysis

Computational technologies are used to accelerate or fully automate the processing, quantification and analysis of large amounts of high-information-content biomedical imagery. Modern image analysis systems augment an observer's ability to make measurements from a large or complex set of images, by improving accuracy, objectivity, or speed. A fully developed analysis system may completely replace the observer. Although these systems are not unique to biomedical imagery, biomedical imaging is becoming more important for both diagnostics and research. Some examples are: In the fields of science, engineering, industry and statistics, accuracy is the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value. ... In science, the ideal of objectivity is an essential aspect of the scientific method, and is generally considered by the scientific community to come about as a result of strict observance of the scientific method, including the scientists willingness to submit their methods and results to an open debate by... ...

  • high-throughput and high-fidelity quantification and sub-cellular localization (high-content screening, cytohistopathology)
  • morphometrics
  • clinical image analysis and visualization
  • determining the real-time air-flow patterns in breathing lungs of living animals
  • quantifying occlusion size in real-time imagery from the development of and recovery during arterial injury
  • making behavioral observations from extended video recordings of laboratory animals
  • infrared measurements for metabolic activity determination

High Content screening is an automated cell biology method drawing on optics, chemistry, biology and image analysis to permit rapid, highly parallel biological research and drug discovery. ... Generally, morphometrics (from the Greek: morph, meaning shape or form, and metron&#8221;, meaning measurement) comprises methods of extracting measurements from shapes. ...

Protein-protein docking

Main article: Protein-protein docking

In the last two decades, tens of thousands of protein three-dimensional structures are determined by X-ray crystallography and Protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (protein NMR). One central question for the biological scientist is whether it is practical to predict possible protein-protein interactions only based on these 3D shapes, without doing protein-protein interaction experiments. A variety of methods have been developed to tackle the Protein-protein docking problem, though it seems that there is still much place to work on in this field. Protein-protein docking is the determination of the molecular structure of complexes formed by two or more proteins without the need for experimental measurement. ... X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys high magnetic field (800 MHz) NMR spectrometer being loaded with a sample. ... Protein-protein interactions refer to the association of protein molecules and the study of these associations from the perspective of biochemistry, signal transduction and networks. ... Protein-protein docking is the determination of the molecular structure of complexes formed by two or more proteins without the need for experimental measurement. ...


Software tools

Software tools for bioinformatics range from simple command-line tools, to more complex graphical programs and standalone web-services. The computational biology tool best-known among biologists is probably BLAST, an algorithm for determining the similarity of arbitrary sequences against other sequences, possibly from curated databases of protein or DNA sequences. The NCBI provides a popular web-based implementation that searches their databases. For other uses, see Blast. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ...


SOAP-based (Service Oriented Architecture Protocol) interfaces have been developed for a wide variety of bioinformatics applications allowing an application running on one computer in one part of the world to use algorithms, data and computing resources on servers in other parts of the world. The availability of these SOAP-based bioinformatics web services through systems such as the BioMoby service register demonstrate the applicability of web based bioinformatics solutions. These tools range from a collection of standalone tools with a common data format under a single, standalone or web-based interface, to integrative and extensible bioinformatics workflow management systems. A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... BioMOBY is a registry of web services used in bioinformatics. ... A bioinformatics workflow management system is a specialized form of workflow management system designed specifically to compose and execute a series of computational or data manipulation steps, or a workflow, in a specific domain of science, bioinformatics. ...


See also

Related topics

Biocybernetics is the biological science of studying the informatic aspect of living systems. ... The primary purpose of this list is to serve as a holding place for the identities of Bioinformatics companies, particularly those for which articles have not yet been created. ... Biologically-inspired computing (also bio-inspired computing) is a field of study that loosely knits together subfields related to the topics of connectionism, social behaviour and emergence. ... Biomedical informatics is a discipline related to bioinformatics and has roots in medical informatics or healthcare informatics. ... Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that applies the techniques of computer science and applied mathematics to problems inspired by biology. ... Computational biomodeling refers to a type of artificial life research concerned with building computer simulations of biochemical systems. ... Modern genomics has been deined in many ways: * The study of genomes. ... A DNA dot plot of a human zinc finger transcription factor (GenBank ID NM_002383), showing regional self-similarity. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The backbone dihedral angles are included in the molecular model of a protein. ... Generally, morphometrics (from the Greek: morph, meaning shape or form, and metron&#8221;, meaning measurement) comprises methods of extracting measurements from shapes. ... Natural Computation, also called Natural Computing, can be defined as the field of research that, based on or inspired by nature, allows the development of new computational tools (in software, hardware or ‘wetware’) for problem solving, leads to the synthesis of natural patterns, behaviors and organisms, and may result in... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Listed here are a number of computer programs used for performing numerical calculations: Baudline is a time-frequency browser for numerical signals analysis and scientific visualization. ...

Related fields

Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains. ... AI redirects here. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that applies the techniques of computer science and applied mathematics to problems inspired by biology. ... Computational Science is the use of computers to perform research in other fields. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... Mathematical biology or biomathematics is an interdisciplinary field of academic study which aims at modeling natural, biological processes using mathematical techniques and tools. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computational neuroscience. ... For the journal Proteomics, see Proteomics (journal). ... Scientific computing (or computational science) is the field of study concerned with constructing mathematical models and numerical solution techniques and using computers to analyze and solve scientific and engineering problems. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology concerned with the study of the architecture and shape of biological macromolecules--proteins and nucleic acids in particular—and what causes them to have the structures they have. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... Theoretical biology is an interdisciplinary field of academic study and research that involves the use of quantitative tools in biology. ...

References

  • Aluru, Srinivas, ed. Handbook of Computational Molecular Biology. Chapman & Hall/Crc, 2006. ISBN 1584884061 (Chapman & Hall/Crc Computer and Information Science Series)
  • Baldi, P and Brunak, S, Bioinformatics: The Machine Learning Approach, 2nd edition. MIT Press, 2001. ISBN 0-262-02506-X
  • Barnes, M.R. and Gray, I.C., eds., Bioinformatics for Geneticists, first edition. Wiley, 2003. ISBN 0-470-84394-2
  • Baxevanis, A.D. and Ouellette, B.F.F., eds., Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins, third edition. Wiley, 2005. ISBN 0-471-47878-4
  • Baxevanis, A.D., Petsko, G.A., Stein, L.D., and Stormo, G.D., eds., Current Protocols in Bioinformatics. Wiley, 2007. ISBN 0-471-25093-7
  • Claverie, J.M. and C. Notredame, Bioinformatics for Dummies. Wiley, 2003. ISBN 0-7645-1696-5
  • Cristianini, N. and Hahn, M. Introduction to Computational Genomics, Cambridge University Press, 2006. (ISBN 9780521671910 | ISBN 0521671914)
  • Durbin, R., S. Eddy, A. Krogh and G. Mitchison, Biological sequence analysis. Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-521-62971-3
  • Gilbert, D. Bioinformatics software resources. Briefings in Bioinformatics, Briefings in Bioinformatics, 2004 5(3):300-304.
  • Keedwell, E., Intelligent Bioinformatics: The Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques to Bioinformatics Problems. Wiley, 2005. ISBN 0-470-02175-6
  • Kohane, et al. Microarrays for an Integrative Genomics. The MIT Press, 2002. ISBN 0-262-11271-X
  • Lund, O. et al. Immunological Bioinformatics. The MIT Press, 2005. ISBN 0-262-12280-4
  • Michael S. Waterman, Introduction to Computational Biology: Sequences, Maps and Genomes. CRC Press, 1995. ISBN 0-412-99391-0
  • Mount, David W. Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analysis Spring Harbor Press, May 2002. ISBN 0-87969-608-7
  • Pachter, Lior and Sturmfels, Bernd. "Algebraic Statistics for Computational Biology" Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-85700-7
  • Pevzner, Pavel A. Computational Molecular Biology: An Algorithmic Approach The MIT Press, 2000. ISBN 0-262-16197-4

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bernd Sturmfels is a Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at University of California, Berkeley. ...

External links

Look up bioinformatics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Bioinformatics at:
  • Major Journals
    • Algorithms in Molecular Biology
    • Bioinformatics
    • BMC Bioinformatics
    • Briefings in Bioinformatics
    • Evolutionary Bioinformatics
    • Genome Research
    • The International Journal of Biostatistics
    • Journal of Computational Biology
    • Molecular Systems Biology
    • PLoS Computational Biology
    • Statistical Applications in Genetic and Molecular Biology
    • International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications
  • Other sites
    • The Collection of Biostatistics Research Archive
    • Human Genome Project and Bioinformatics
    • List of Bioinformatics Research Groups at the Open Directory Project
Genomics topics
Genome project | Paleopolyploidy | Glycomics | Human Genome Project | Proteomics
Chemogenomics | Structural genomics | Pharmacogenetics | Pharmacogenomics | Toxicogenomics | Computational genomics
Bioinformatics | Cheminformatics | Systems biology

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB) is an academic not-for-profit foundation established on March 30, 1998 whose mission is: to promote research, develop databanks and computer technologies, and be involved with teaching and service activities in the field of bioinformatics in Switzerland with international collaborations. ... The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (formally the Sanger Centre) is a genome research centre in Cambridgeshire, England. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus). ... // Overview Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than two copies (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... Glycomics, or glycobiology is a discipline of biology that deals with the structure and function of oligosaccharides (chains of sugars). ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project undertaken with a goal to understand the genetic make-up of the human species by determining the DNA sequence of the human genome and the genome of a few model organisms. ... For the journal Proteomics, see Proteomics (journal). ... Chemogenomics can be defined as a genomic response to chemical compounds. ... Structural genomics or structural bioinformatics refers to the analysis of macromolecular structure particularly proteins. ... The terms pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics tend to be used interchangeably, and a precise, consensus definition of either remains elusive. ... Pharmacogenomics is the branch of pharmacology which deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a drugs efficacy or toxicity. ... Toxicogenomics is a form of analysis by which the activity of a particular toxin or chemical substance on living tissue can be identified based upon a profiling of its known effects on genetic material. ... Modern genomics has been deined in many ways: * The study of genomes. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The DNA structure might not be the only nucleic acid in the universe capable of supporting life[1] Astrobiology (from Greek: ἀστρο, astro, constellation; βίος, bios, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary study of life in space, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... Various species of reef fish in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. ... Human biology is an interdisciplinary academic field of biology, biological anthropology, and medicine which focuses on humans; it is closely related to primate biology, and a number of other fields. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... AI redirects here. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... A processors core Computing is a very broad topic that has become pandemic to modern uses of technology. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Engineering physics (EP) is an academic degree, usually at the level of Bachelor of Science. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre (one millionth of a metre, or 10-6 metre, or 1&#956;m). ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Zoography, also known as descriptive zoology, is the applied science of describing animals and their habitats. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ... The know-how that goes into a given medium. ... “Graphic” redirects here. ... Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of technology involved with the musical arts, in particular the use of electronic devices and computer software to facilitate playback, recording, composition, storage, performance, search and retrieval. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as Voice Recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Visual technology is the engineering discipline dealing with visual representation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Computational finance (also known as financial engineering) is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining information technology (IT) – or informatics – with management concepts. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. ... Educational technology is the use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. ... The food technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) is a broad-based engineering discipline that deals with bio-molecular and molecular processes, product design, sustainability and analysis of biological systems. ... Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... Electronic engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Metallurgical engineering- Designing, creating, or producing metals by various methods, for various applications, from metallic elements described on the Chemical Periodic Table of the Elements. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Steamer New York in c. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building as of 2004. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Fire protection engineering is the practice of application of science and engineering principles and experience to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Bioinformatics - Encyclopedia Article (810 words)
Bioinformatics is the use of mathematical and informational techniques to solve biological problems, usually by creating or using computer programs, mathematical models or both.
One of the main applications of bioinformatics is the data mining in and analysis of the data gathered in genome projects.
Bioinformatics helps to bridge the gap between genome and proteome projects, for example in the use of DNA sequence for protein identification.
Bioinformatics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2742 words)
Bioinformatics and computational biology involve the use of techniques from applied mathematics, informatics, statistics, and computer science, and chemistry, especially biochemistry to solve biological problems usually on the molecular level.
Bioinformatics helps to bridge the gap between genome and proteome projects--for example, in the use of DNA sequences for protein identification.
In the genomic branch of bioinformatics, homology is used to predict the function of a gene: if the sequence of gene A, whose function is known, is homologous to the sequence of gene B, whose function is unknown, one could infer that B may share A's function.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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