FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Biogas" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Biogas
Sustainable development Portal
Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland
Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland

Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. Biogas is comprised primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1365x1024, 289 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Natural gas Biogas Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1365x1024, 289 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Natural gas Biogas Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... SLUDGE (Scripting Language for Unhindered Development of a Gaming Environment) is a shareware adventure game engine developed by Hungry Software. ... “Municipal waste” redirects here. ... Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Depending on where it is produced, biogas is also called:

Biogas containing methane is a valuable by-product of anaerobic digestion which can be utilised in the production of renewable energy [1].Biogas can be used as a vehicle fuel or for generating electricity. It can also be burned directly for cooking, heating, lighting, process heat and absorption refrigeration. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anaerobic digesters are used to create anaerobic, meaning without oxygen, conditions so that anaerobic bacteria can efficiently digest biomass, sewage or other organic matter. ...

Contents

Biogas and anaerobic digestion

Main article: anaerobic digestion

Biogas production by anaerobic digestion is popular for treating biodegradable waste because valuable fuel can be produced, while destroying disease-causing pathogens and reducing the volume of disposed waste products. It burns more cleanly than coal, and emits less carbon dioxide per unit of energy. The harvesting of biogas is an important part of waste management because methane is a greenhouse gas with a greater global warming potential than carbon dioxide. The carbon in biogas was generally recently extracted from the atmosphere by photosynthetic plants, so releasing it back into the atmosphere adds less total atmospheric carbon than burning fossil fuels. Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ...


Recently, developed countries have been making increasing use of biogas generated from both wastewater and landfill sites or produced by mechanical biological treatment systems for municipal waste. High energy prices and increases in subsidies for electricity from renewable sources (such as renewables obligation certificates) and drivers such as the EU Landfill Directive have led to much greater use of biogas sources. Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Mechanical biological treatment (MBT), or mechanical biological pre-treatment is a category of waste treatment technologies that enables recovery of the resources contained in waste. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... The Renewables Obligation (RO)[1] is designed to incentivise the generation of electricity from renewable sources. ... The Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) is legislation issued by the European Union to be implemented by its member states. ...

Electricity from biogas (GWh)[2]
Country 2006 2005
Germany 7 338 4 708
UK 4 997 4 690
Italy 1 234 1 198
Spain 675 620
Greece 579 179
France 501 483
Austria 410 70
Netherlands 286 286
Denmark 285 275
Poland 241 175
Belgium 237 240
Czech Republic 175 161
Ireland 108 106
Sweden 54 54
Portugal 33 35
Luxembourg 33 27
Slovenia 32 32
Hungary 22 25
Finland 22 22
Estonia 7 7
Slovakia 4 4
Malta 0 0
EU (GWh) 17 272 13 397
Biogas in EU 2006 (GWh)[2]
Country Total Landfill Sludge Other
Germany 22 370 6 670 4 300 11 400
UK 19 720 17 620 2 100 0
Italy 4 110 3 610 10 490
Spain 3 890 2 930 660 300
France 2 640 1 720 870 50
Netherlands 1 380 450 590 340
Austria 1 370 130 40 1 200
Denmark 1 100 170 270 660
Poland 1 090 320 770 10
Belgium 970 590 290 90
Greece 810 630 180 0
Finland 740 590 150 0
Czech Republic 700 300 360 40
Ireland 400 290 60 50
Sweden 390 130 250 10
Hungary 120 0 90 40
Portugal 110 0 0 110
Luxembourg 100 0 0 100
Slovenia 100 80 10 10
Slovakia 60 0 50 10
Estonia 10 10 0 0
Malta 0 0 0 0
EU (GWh) 62 200 36 250 11 050 14 900

Landfill gas

Landfill gas is produced from organic waste disposed of in landfill. The waste is covered and compressed mechanically and by the pressure of higher levels. As conditions become anaerobic the organic waste is broken down and landfill gas is produced. This gas builds up and is slowly released into the atmosphere. This is hazardous for three key reasons:

Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject in the Terminology and legal definitions section. ... Photochemical smog is the term to represent a multitude of chemical agents which are considered to be detrimental to the environment and health. ...

Biogas composition

The composition of biogas varies depending upon the origin of the anaerobic digestion process. Landfill gas typically has methane concentrations around 50%. Advanced waste treatment technologies can produce biogas with 55-75%CH4 [3].

Typical composition of biogas[4]
Matter  %
Methane, CH4 50-75
Carbon dioxide, CO2 25-50
Nitrogen, N2 0-10*
Hydrogen, H2 0-1
Hydrogen sulphide, H2S 0-3
Oxygen, O2 0-2*

*often 5 % of air is introduced for microbiological desulphurisation


Siloxanes and gas engines

In some cases, biogas from landfills and sewage treatment contains siloxanes. During combustion of biogas containing siloxanes, silicon is released and can combine with free oxygen or various other elements in the combustion gas. Deposits are formed containing mostly silica (SiO2) or silicates (SixOy) in general, but can also contain calcium, sulphur, zinc, phosphor… as indicated by the analysis piston scrapings from biogas-fired engines. These (mostly white) deposits can ultimately build to a surface thickness of several millimetres and are difficult to remove by chemical or mechanical means. Siloxanes are a class of both organic and inorganic chemical compounds which consist entirely of silicon, oxygen, and an alkyl group. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound consisting of silicon and oxygen (SixOy), one or more metals, and possibly hydrogen. ...


In internal combustion engines deposits on pistons and cylinder heads are extremely abrasive and even a small amount is sufficient to cause enough damage to the engine to require a complete overhaul at 5,000 h or less of operation. The damage is similar to that caused by carbon build up during light load running of diesel engines. Deposits on the turbine of the turbocharger will eventually reduce the charger’s efficiency. An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ...


Luckily, simply cooling the gas to roughly -4 C is sufficient to remove siloxanes due to condensantion.


Stirling engines are more resistant against siloxanes, though deposits on the tubes of the heat exchanger will reduce the efficiency.[5][6] Cut away diagram of a Rhombic Drive Beta Stirling Engine Design Pink - Hot cylinder wall, Dark grey - Cold cylinder wall (with coolant inlet and outlet pipes in Yellow), Dark Green - Thermal insulation separating the two cylinder ends, Light Green - Displacer piston, Dark Blue - Power piston, Light Blue - Flywheels, Not Shown...


Safety

The methane in biogas forms explosive mixtures in air. The lower explosive limit is 5% methane and the upper explosive limit is 15% methane.[7]


Biogas to natural gas

If biogas is cleaned up sufficiently, biogas has the same characteristics as natural gas. In this instance the producer of the biogas can utilize the local gas distribution networks. The gas must be very clean to reach pipeline quality. Water (H2O), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and particulates are removed if present at high levels or if the gas is to be completely cleaned. Carbon dioxide is less frequently removed, but it must also be separated to achieve pipeline quality gas. If the gas is to be used without extensively cleaning, it is sometimes cofired with natural gas to improve combustion. Biogas cleaned up to pipeline quality is called renewable natural gas or biomethane. This article is about the fossil fuel. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Renewable natural gas is a biogas which has been upgraded to a quality similar to natural gas. ...


Applications of renewable natural gas

In this form the gas can be now used in any application that natural gas is used for. Such applications include distribution via the natural gas grid, electricity production, space heating, water heating and process heating. If compressed, it can replace compressed natural gas for use in vehicles, where it can fuel an internal combustion engine or fuel cells. A trio of propane water heaters. ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


Cooking

Gober gas is a biogas generated out of cow dung. In India, gober gas is generated at the countless number of micro plants (an estimated more than 2 million) attached to households. The gober gas plant is basically an airtight circular pit made of concrete with a pipe connection. The manure is directed to the pit (usually directed from the cattle shed). The pit is then filled with a required quantity of water (usually waste water). The gas pipe is connected to the kitchen fire place through control valves. The flammable methane gas generated out of this is practically odorless and smokeless. The residue left after the extraction of the gas is used as biofertiliser. Owing to its simplicity in implementation and use of cheap raw materials in the villages, it is often quoted as one of the most environmentally sound energy source for the rural needs. Gober gas is a biogas generated out of cow dung. ...


Railway transport

A biogas-powered train has been in service in Sweden since 2005 [8].


Landfill gas legislation

United States

In the United States, because landfill gas contains these VOCs, the United States Clean Air Act and Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) requires landfill owners to estimate the quantity of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emitted. If the estimated NMOC emissions exceeds 50 tonnes per year the landfill owner is required to collect the landfill gas and treat it to remove the entrained NMOCs. Treatment of the landfill gas is usually by combustion. Because of the remoteness of landfill sites it is sometimes not economically feasible to produce electricity from the gas. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government of the United States. ...


See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ... Biodegradation is the decomposition of organic material by microorganisms. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... A biogas powerplant is a system where biogas is used to generate electricity. ... Ecological Sanitation One person produces about 500 litres of urine and only 50 litres of faeces per year. ... Landfill gas monitoring is the process by which gases that are released from landfill are electronically monitored. ... This page has a list of waste management topics. ... Mechanical biological treatment (MBT), or mechanical biological pre-treatment is a category of waste treatment technologies that enables recovery of the resources contained in waste. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Renewable natural gas is a biogas which has been upgraded to a quality similar to natural gas. ... A rice paddy in Japan A paddy field is a flooded parcel of farmland for growing rice (from the Malaysian word padi, a noun meaning growing rice). Paddy fields are a typical feature of rice-growing countries of East and Southeast Asia, such as China, Thailand, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Indonesia... The Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA) is the leading professional association in the solid waste field in North America. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Biogas and Bioenergy
  2. ^ a b Biogas barometer 2007 - EurObserv’ER Systèmes solaires - le journal des énergies renouvelables n° 179, s. 51-61, 5/2007
  3. ^ Juniper Biogas Yield Comparison
  4. ^ Basic Information on Biogas
  5. ^ Presentation - Siloxanes in landfill gas
  6. ^ Paper - Siloxanes in landfill and digester gas
  7. ^ Safety Page, Beginners Guide to Biogas, www.adelaide.edu.au/biogas, retrieved 22.10.07
  8. ^ Biogas train in Sweden
  • "Friendly fuel trains". (Oct. 30, 2005). New Straits Times, p. F17.
  • "Example of a concept for a MMU (methane mulitiple unit).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biogas (273 words)
Biogas can provide a clean, easily controlled source of renewable energy from organic waste materials for a small labour input, replacing firewoood or fossil fuels (which are becoming more expensive as supply falls behind demand).
Since small scale units can be relatively simple to build and operate biogas should be used directly if possible (for cooking, heating, lighting (pdf 325kB) and absorption refrigeration), since both electricity generation and compression of gas (for storage or use in vehicles) use large amounts of energy for a small output of useful energy.
Basic Biogas provides some introductory material, the Safety page provides some important information, Science Fair Projects and the Poly Digester page give ideas about smaller projects and Anaerobic Digestion gives a bit more detail and information about larger projects.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m