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Encyclopedia > Bioethics
Ethics
Theoretical

Meta-ethics
Normative · Descriptive
Consequentialism
Deontology
Virtue ethics
Ethics of care
Good and evil · Morality Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Shortcut: WP:CU Marking articles for cleanup This page is undergoing a transition to an easier-to-maintain format. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... In philosophy, meta-ethics or analytic ethics [1] is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, and ethical statements, attitudes, and judgments. ... Normative ethics is the branch of the philosophical study of ethics concerned with classifying actions as right and wrong, as opposed to descriptive ethics. ... Descriptive ethics, also known as comparative ethics, is the study of peoples beliefs about morality. ... Consequentialism refers to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of a particular action form the basis for any valid moral judgment about that action. ... Deontological ethics or deontology (Greek: δέον (deon) meaning obligation or duty) is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The ethics of care movement is a movement in twentieth century normative ethical theory that is largely inspired by the work of psychologist Carol Gilligan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behaviour) has three principal meanings. ...

Applied

Bioethics · Medical
Engineering · Environmental
Human rights · Animal rights
Legal · Media
Business · Marketing
Religion · War
Applied ethics takes a theory of ethics, such as utilitarianism, social contract theory, or deontology, and applies its major principles to a particular set of circumstances and practices. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... Engineering ethics is the field of ethics describing the obligations of those who are professional engineers to their clients or employers, and their obligations to society as a whole. ... Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers the ethical relationship between human beings and the natural environment. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Animal liberation redirects here. ... Legal ethics refers to an ethical code governing those in the practice of law. ... Business ethics is a form of the art of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. ... Marketing ethics is the area of applied ethics which deals with the moral principles behind the operation and regulation of marketing. ... The doctrine of the just war has its foundations in ancient Greek society and was first developed in the Christian tradition by Augustine in Civitas Dei, The City of God, in reaction to the absolutist pacifist strain of Christian ethics based on the doctrine of Turn the other cheek espoused...

Core issues

Justice · Value
Right · Duty · Virtue
Equality · Freedom · Trust
Free will · Consent
Moral responsibility This article is about the concept of justice. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Mohandas K. Gandhi - Freedom can be achieved through inner sovereignty. ... For other uses, see Trust. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Consent (as a term of jurisprudence) is a possible justification against civil or criminal liability. ... Almanac · Categories · Glossaries · Lists · Overviews · Portals · Questions · Site news · Index Art | Culture | Geography | Health | History | Mathematics | People | Philosophy | Science | Society | Technology Wikipedia is an encyclopedia written by its users in over 200 languages worldwide. ...

Key thinkers

Aristotle · Confucius
Aquinas
Hume · Kant
Bentham · Mill
Kierkegaard · Nietzsche
Hare · Rawls · MacIntyre
Singer · Gilligan This article is about the philosopher. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Kant redirects here. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1748 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... R.M. Hare Richard Mervyn Hare (March 21, 1919 – January 29, 2002) was an English moral philosopher, who held the post of Whites Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from 1966 until 1983. ... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born January 12, 1929 in Glasgow, Scotland) is a philosopher primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy but known also for his work in history of philosophy and theology. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Carol Gilligan (1936– ) is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work with and against Lawrence Kohlberg on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics. ...

Lists

List of ethics topics
List of ethicists To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... List of ethicists including religious or political figures recognized by those outside their tradition as having made major contributions to ideas about ethics, or raised major controversies by taking strong positions on previously unexplored problems. ...

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Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. Bioethicists are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, philosophy, and theology. For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...

Contents

Scope

Scientific research has produced social benefits. It has also posed some troubling ethical questions. Public attention was drawn to these questions by abuses of human subjects in biomedical experiments, especially during the Second World War. During the Nuremberg War Crime Trials, the Nuremberg code was drafted as a set of standards for judging physicians and scientists who had conducted biomedical experiments on concentration camp prisoners. This code is often credited with jump starting the interdisciplinary field now called bioethics.


On July 12, 1974, the National Research Act (Pub. L. 93-348) was signed into law in the United States, thereby creating the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. One of the commission's charges was to identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects, as well as to develop guidelines. After nearly five years of discussion and collaboration, these guidelines were published. In 1979, a statement of basic ethical principles and guidelines to assist decision-makers in resolving the ethical problems that surround the conduct of research with human subjects appeared in the Federal Register. This became known as the Belmont Report. The report centered around the following three important principles, or general prescriptive judgments:


1. Respect for autonomy of the Persons 2. Beneficence 3. Justice


Later principle of non-maleficence has been added to this list.To apply the general principles to the conduct of research involving humans, the Belmont Report suggested that the following requirements be considered: informed consent, risk/benefit assessment, and the just and fair selection of subjects of research. The Belmont Report remains a touchstone for many bioethicists.


With new challenges in public health and health policy, and with advances in bio-technology, today bioethics is a fast-growing academic and professional area of inquiry. Since the early 1980s, the field has generated at least a dozen English-language journals. In addition, many academic medical centers and some schools of law, engineering and the liberal arts offer degree programs with a specialization in bioethics. Such programs train physicians and nurses, attorneys, philosophers, theologians, health services researchers and even bench scientists.


As a field of inquiry, bioethics received another boost when President Clinton created an Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, chaired by Ruth Faden of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics. The committee sought to analyze the following questions: Ruth R. Faden, M.P.H., Ph. ...


What is the federal government's responsibility for wrongs and harms to human subjects as a result of experiments with ionizing radiation? What remedies are appropriate for those wronged or harmed? And what lessons learned from studying research standards and practices in the past and present can be applied to the future?


President Clinton directed the Advisory Committee to uncover the U.S. history of human radiation experiments during the period 1944 through 1974. It was in 1944 that the first known human radiation experiment of interest was planned, and in 1974 that the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare adopted regulations governing the conduct of human research, a watershed event in the history of federal protections for human subjects. In addition, the Advisory Committee examined cases in which the government had intentionally released radiation into the environment for research purposes. The Advisory Committee also identified ethical and scientific standards for evaluating these events, and made recommendations to help ensure that wrongdoing could not be repeated.


Today, the field of bioethics struggles with its proper scope. Should it concern itself with the ethical evaluation of all questions involving biology and medicine? Some bioethicists would narrow ethical evaluation only to the morality of medical treatments or technological innovations, and the timing of medical treatment of humans. Others would broaden the scope of ethical evaluation to include the morality of all actions that might help or harm organisms capable of feeling fear and pain, and include within bioethics all such actions if they bear a relation to medicine and biology. The 1989 funding of the U.S. Human Genome Project, today known as the NHGRI, is credited with helping to create a more rigorous social science approach to the field. [citation needed] By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project undertaken with a goal to understand the genetic make-up of the human species by determining the DNA sequence of the human genome and the genome of a few model organisms. ... The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) is a division of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland. ...


Why bioethics?

The issues raised by bioethics as a distinct area of academic inquiry (why must it exist apart from philosophy? isn't everyone an 'ethicist'?) are largely answered by the needs of institutions. Bioethicists today are not hired or engaged in conversation (and thus "named") because of their opinions or because they have special skills of reasoning, but because they know and can put to work the enormous body of research and history of discussions about bioethics in a fair, honest and intelligent way, using tools from the different disciplines that "feed" the field. Training programs in bioethics differ in skill sets of faculty and size of program, but across the US, and increasingly globally, they do seem to share a commitment to that goal with few exceptions.


As a result, bioethics has been distinctively created, by institutions, specifically the multi-million dollar commitment of major and minor medical centers to the study of medical ethics as part of the development of curriculum and research efforts. Today it is all but impossible to create a major medical research effort without ethicists to assist. First in the regulatory review of research, the responsibility of the IRB, which can be staffed by persons not trained in ethics in any rigorous way, or trained specifically in the ethical and regulatory aspects of research with human subjects, rather than more comprehensively in bioethics. The second form of assistance is by those who can think in advance of the onset of research about its social, ethical and economic implications. IRB is a TLA for International Rugby Board Irish Republican Brotherhood Institutional Review Board This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Ideology and methodology

Bioethicists often focus on using philosophy to help analyze issues, and philosophical ethicists such as Peter Singer tend to treat the field as a branch of moral or ethical philosophy. However, this approach is sometimes challenged, and bioethics is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Many bioethicists come from backgrounds outside of academic philosophy, and some even claim that the methods of analytic philosophy have had a negative effect on the field's development. The percentage of bioethicists with professional backgrounds in health care, especially physicians, has been steadily increasing over time. In fact, the last two Presidents of the primary academic society for bioethicists in the U.S. (the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities) have been physicians. Some bioethicists, especially those who perform ethics consultation in clinical settings, emphasize the practical aspects of bioethics, and view the field as more closely related to clinical practice or public health than philosophy. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Look up Issue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ...


Religious bioethicists have developed rules and guidelines on how to deal with these issues from within the viewpoint of their respective faiths. Many religious bioethicists are Jewish, and Christian scholars. Since the Indian traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism considers the sanctity of all life, there is much literature related to the philosophy and ethics related to life in each of these traditions. A growing number of religious scholars from Islam have also become involved in this field. There has been some criticism by liberal Muslims that only the more religiously conservative voices in Islam are being heard on this issue. This article is about the use of the moral in storytelling. ... A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline and clinical protocol) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria in specific areas of healthcare, as defined by an authoritative examination of current evidence (evidence-based medicine). ... Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


Although there are a number of eminently qualified philosophers who approach bioethics from a religious perspective, some Western secular bioethicists are critical of the fact that religious bioethicists are often religious scholars without an academic degree or training in disciplines that pertain to the issues, such as philosophy (wherein the formal study of ethics is usually found), biology or medicine. From the standpoint of bioethicists whose work is secular, the central cause for caution as regards religious bioethics work is that tools and methods should be brought to bear on problems, rather than starting with conclusions, and then looking for justifications. Of course, this criticism does not apply solely, of even to all, forms of religious bioethical work. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ...


In the case of most non-Western cultures a strict separation of religion from philosophy does not exist. In many Asian cultures, there is a lively (and often less dogmatic, but more pragmatic) discussion on bioethical issues. The discussion often refers to common demographic policies which are criticised, as in the case of China. Buddhist bioethics, in general, is characterised by a naturalistic outlook that leads to a rationalistic, pragmatic approach. Buddhist bioethicists include Damien Keown. In India, Vandana Shiva is the leading bioethicist whose speaks from the Hindu tradition. In Africa, and partly also in Latin America, the debate on bioethics frequently focus on its practical relevance in the context of underdevelopment and (national or global) power relations. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Vandana Shiva 2007 in Cologne, Germany Vandana Shiva (b. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


Issues

Areas of health sciences that are the subject of published, peer-reviewed bioethical analysis include:

Animal liberation redirects here. ... AIH redirects here. ... This article is about a field of research. ... In the field of ectogenesis, an artificial womb is used to grow an embryo outside the body of a female. ... Euthanasia (Greek, good death) is the practice of killing a person or animal, in a painless or minimally painful way, for merciful reasons, usually to end their suffering. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Bioprospecting. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM edgeplay or aesthetic. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... It has been suggested that Chimarism be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about male circumcision. ... For other uses, see clone. ... Confidentiality has been defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access and is one of the cornerstones of Information security. ... Medical records refer to records, either in paper or electronic form, of the results of medical tests, diagnoses and treatments for individuals. ... Consent (as a term of jurisprudence) is a possible justification against civil or criminal liability. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see animal euthanasia. ... A feeding tube is a medical device used to provide nutrition to patients who cannot or refuse to (cf. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... Although genes are recognized as influencing behavior and cognition, genetically identical does not mean altogether identical; identical twins, despite being natural human clones with near identical DNA, are separate people, with separate experiences and not altogether overlapping personalities. ... Human enhancement describes any attempt, whether temporary or permanent, to overcome the current limitations of human cognitive and physical abilities, whether through natural or artificial means. ... Human genetic engineering refers to the controlled modification of the human genome, which is the genome of Homo Sapiens composed of 23 pairs of chromosomes with a total of approximately 3 billion DNA base pairs containing an estimated 30,000 genes. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. ... Life support, in the medical field, refers to a set of therapies for preserving a patients life when essential body systems are not functioning sufficiently to sustain life unaided. ... Look up Lobotomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Medical malpractice is an act or omission by a health care provider which deviates from accepted standards of practice in the medical community and which causes injury to the patient. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research and applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... Medical torture describes the involvement and sometimes active participation of medical professionals in acts of torture, to either to judge what victims can endure, to apply treatments which will enhance torture, or as torturers in their own right. ... The term moral obligation has a number of meanings in moral philosophy, in religion, and in laymans terms. ... Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. ... Organ donationcan only be peformed by untrained workers who do not have a drivers license and are poor. ... Pain management (also called pain medicine) is the discipline concerned with the relief of pain. ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ... President Bush meets with House leaders to discuss Patients Bill of Rights legislation The Patients Bill of Rights Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities The following was adopted by the US Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry in 1998. ... For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ... A prescription drug is a medication that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... Prescription drug prices in the United States are significantly higher than in Canada and other countries, many of which have price controls. ... Procreative beneficence is a term refering to the moral obligation of parents to have the healthiest children. ... Procreative liberty is a term refering to the freedom to decide whether or not to have children as well as the freedom to control ones reproductive capacity. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Psychosurgery is a term for surgeries of the brain involving procedures that modulate the performance of the brain, and thus effect changes in cognition, with the intent to treat or alleviate severe mental illness. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Reprogenetics is a term referring to the merging of reproductive and genetic technologies expected to happen in the near future as techniques like preimplantation genetic diagnosis become more available and more powerful. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Surrogacy is an arrangement whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant for the purpose of gestating and giving birth to a child for others to raise. ... A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ... Posthuman Future, an illustration by Michael Gibbs for The Chronicle of Higher Educations look at how biotechnology will change the human experience, has become one of the secular icons representing transhumanism. ... Organ donation is the removal of specific tissues of the human body from a person who has recently died, or from a living donor, for the purpose of transplanting them into other persons. ...

List of notable bioethicists

Renee Fox Rabbi Dr. J. (Judah) David Bleich (pronounced Blikhe) is an authority on Jewish law and ethics and bioethics. ... Arthur L. Caplan is Emanuel and Robert Hart Professor of Bioethics and director of the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. ... James Franklin Childress (born 4 October 1940) is a philosopher and theologian mainly concerned with ethics, particularly biomedical ethics. ... Elliot N. Dorff (born 24 June 1943) is a Conservative rabbi, a professor of Jewish theology at the University of Judaism in California (where he is also Rector), author, and a bio-ethicist. ... Hugo Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. ... Ruth R. Faden, M.P.H., Ph. ... (b. ... Joseph Fletcher (1905-1991) was an American professor who founded the theory of situational ethics in the 1960s, and was a pioneer in the field of bioethics. ...

Robert P. George is McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University, where he leads courses on constitutional interpretation and civil liberties. ... Rabbi Dr. Mordechai Halperin is a doctor, scientist, and author currently residing in Israel. ... James Hughes Ph. ... Immanuel Jakobovits, Baron Jakobovits, KBE (8 February 1921–31 October 1999) was the Orthodox Judaism Chief Rabbi of Great Britain and the Commonwealth from 1967 to 1991. ... Albert R. Jonsen, Ph. ... Leon Kass Leon Kass is the Addie Clark Harding Professor in the Committee on Social Thought and the College at the University of Chicago (currently on leave). ... Sir Ian McColl Kennedy (born 14 September 1941) is a British academic lawyer who has specialised in the law and ethics of health. ... Kenneth William Kirkwood (born April 27, 1969 in Kingston, Ontario, Canada) is a Canadian bioethicist. ... Mark Kuczewski, Ph. ... Glenn McGee, Ph. ... Tom Murray was a Scottish curler. ... Bernard Nathanson (born 31 July 1926 in New York) is a medical doctor and pro-life activist from New York. ... Onora Sylvia ONeill, Baroness ONeill of Bengarve (born 23 August 1941) is a cross-bench member of the House of Lords. ... Craig Paterson (born 2 October 1959) is a former Scottish footballer who played for Hibernian, Rangers and Motherwell. ... Thomas Percival (1740-1804) was an English physician best known for crafting perhaps the first modern code of medical ethics. ... Stephen G. Post is Professor and Associate Director for Educational Programs, Department of Bioethics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, as well as Senior Research Scholar in the Becket Institute at St Hughs College, Oxford. ... James Rachels (1941-2003) was one of the leading philosophers of the 20th century. ... John A. Robertson holds the Vinson and Elkins Chair at the University of Texas School of Law at Austin. ... Fred Rosner M.D., F.A.C.P. is Assistant Dean and Professor of Medicine Albert Einstein College of Medicine Yeshiva University, Professor of Medicine Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Director of the Department of Medicine Queens Hospital Centre N.Y. Dr. Rosner is the Chairman of the Medical... Hans-Martin Sass (born December 1935), is a bioethicist of the first generation, Professor of Philosophy at Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany, and Senior Research Scholar at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA, holds academic positions as well at Peoples University of China and Peking Union... Julian Savulescu is Uehiro Professor of Practical Ethics at the University of Oxford. ... Professor Paul Schotsmans, Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Catholic University Leuven, Belgium Paul Schotsmans (°1950) has a licentiate Degree in Educational Sciences (1976) and a Doctoral Degree in Theology (1982). ... Harold Shapiro (born June 8, 1935) is a former president of Princeton University and the University of Michigan. ... Daniel Sinclair is a scholar of Jewish law (Halakhah) who specializes in contemporary Jewish medical ethics. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Moshe David Tendler is the rabbi of The Community Synagogue of Monsey. ... Professor Etienne Vermeersch (Sint-Michiels- Brugge, 2 May 1934) is a renown Belgium (moral) philosopher, skeptic, opinion maker and debater. ... Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg (b. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Matthew K. Wynia, MPH, MD is an American medical ethicist who performs research at the Institute for Ethics at the American Medical Association (AMA), where he is the director. ... Stuart J. Youngner is Susan E. Watson Professor of Bioethics, Professor of Psychiatry, Professor of Medicine, and Chair of the Department of Bioethics at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. ...

References

  • Beauchamp, Tom & Childress, James (2001), Principles of Biomedical Ethics, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-514332-9
  • Jonsen, Albert; Veatch, Robert & Walters, leRoy (1998), SourceBook in Bioethics, Washington: Georgetown University Press, ISBN 0-87840-685-9
  • Khushf, Tom (ed) (2004), Handbook of Bioethics: taking stock of the field from a philosophical perspective, Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 1-4020-1893-2
  • Sugarman, Jeremy & Sulmasy, Daniel (2001), Methods in Medical Ethics, Washington: Georgetown University Press, ISBN 0-87840-873-8
  • Andre, Judith (2002), Bioethics as Practice, Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 0-8078-2733-9
  • Emanuel, Ezekiel; Crouch, Robert & Arras, John et al. (2003), Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Research, Baltimore, London: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-7813-6
  • Aulisio, Mark; Arnold, Robert & Younger, Stuart (2003), Ethics Consultation; from theory to practice, Baltimore, London: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-7165-4

James Franklin Childress (born 4 October 1940) is a philosopher and theologian mainly concerned with ethics, particularly biomedical ethics. ... Albert R. Jonsen, Ph. ... Stuart J. Youngner is Susan E. Watson Professor of Bioethics, Professor of Psychiatry, Professor of Medicine, and Chair of the Department of Bioethics at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. ...

Further reading

  • Jonathan, Baron (2006). Against Bioethics. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-02596-6. 
  • Kuczewski, Mark G.; Ronald Polansky (eds.) (2002). Bioethics: Ancient Themes in Contemporary Issues. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-61177-0. 
  • Glenn (ed.), McGee (2003). Pragmatic Bioethics, 2nd Edition. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-63272-0. 
  • Murphy, Timothy (2004). Case Studies in Biomedical Research Ethics. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-13437-8. 

MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Feminist Bioethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (6251 words)
The bioethics movement was triggered by protest against such gross abuses of medical authority as the Nazi doctors' experiments on unconsenting concentration camp inmates and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, a forty year “experiment” on poor fl men who were misled into believing they were receiving therapy.
Though feminists working in bioethics speak in many different voices, they share significant commonalities, both in their criticisms of dominant structures and in their efforts to build a more adequate framework that is responsive to the disparate situation of women and other groups whose health needs are under-represented.
Bioethics conferences in a number of countries began to schedule sessions that explicitly addressed feminist bioethics and more feminists were being included in the general program.
Bioethics | International Humanist and Ethical Union (1171 words)
It was organized by the IHEU-Appignani Center for Bioethics in NYC and sponsored by Genetics Policy Institute and the Alden March Bioethics Institute of Albany.
Ana Lita, Director of the IHEU-Appignani Center for Bioethics, spoke at the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for the Advancement of Women on June 6, 2006.
It was organized by the IHEU-Appignani Center for Bioethics in NYC and sponsored by Genetics Policy Institute and the Alden March Bioethics Institute of Albany, NY.
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