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Encyclopedia > Biodiversity Action Plan

Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. The original impetus for these plans derives from the international Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) created in 1992. As of the year 2006, 188 countries have ratified this convention, but only a fraction of these have developed substantive BAP documents. Binomial name Propithecus diadema Bennett, 1832 The Diademed Sifaka (Propithecus diadema) is an endangered species of sifaka, one of the lemurs endemic to certain rainforests in eastern Madagascar. ... The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (usually a taxonomic species), which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ... Families 15, See classification A primate (L. prima, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... The Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty that was adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. ...


The principal elements of a BAP typically include[8]: (a) inventories of biological information for selected species or habitats; (b) assessment of vulnerable or endangered elements within the given ecosystems; (c) creation of targets for conservation and restoration; and (d) establishing budgets, timelines and institutional partnerships for implementing the BAP. The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive. ... The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (usually a taxonomic species), which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a combination of all the living and non-living elements of an area. ... Conservation may refer to the following: Conservation ethic in relation to preserving ecosystems Conservationist Conservation movement Conservation ecology Conservation biology Energy conservation in reducing non-renewable energy consumption Conservation law of physics Conservation of energy Conservation of mass Conservation (genetics) in genetics Conservation (botany) in botanical nomenclature Conservation (psychology) in... Restoration ecology is the study of returning degraded ecosystems and landscapes to a reference state where ecological communities and processes are re-established. ...

Contents


Species plans

A fundamental method of engagement to a BAP is thorough documentation regarding individual species, with emphasis upon the population distribution and conservation status. This task, while fundamental, is highly daunting, since only an estimated ten percent of the world’s species are estimated to have been characterized as of 2006, most of these unknowns being plants and lower animals. For many mammal, bird and reptile species, information is often available in published literature; however, for many plant species as well as invertebrate species, such information may require considerable local data collection. It is also useful to compile time trends of population estimates in order to understand the dynamics of population variability and vulnerability. In some parts of the world complete species inventories are not realistic; for example, in the Madagascar dry deciduous forests, many species are completely undocumented and much of the region has never even been systematically explored by scientists! Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Conservation may refer to the following: Conservation ethic in relation to preserving ecosystems Conservationist Conservation movement Conservation ecology Conservation biology Energy conservation in reducing non-renewable energy consumption Conservation law of physics Conservation of energy Conservation of mass Conservation (genetics) in genetics Conservation (botany) in botanical nomenclature Conservation (psychology) in... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Agnotozoa Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Orthonectida (parasitic to flatworms, echinoderms, etc. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... Orders Many - see section below. ... Orders See text. ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck to describe any animal without a spinal column. ... Aerial photo of a portion of the Anjajavy Forest, inset by a swath of mangrove riparian forest. ... The physicist Albert Einstein is probably historys most widely recognized scientist. ...


A species plan component of a country’s BAP should ideally entail a thorough description of the range, habitat, behaviour, breeding and interaction with other species. Once a determination has been made of conservation status (e.g. rare, endangered, threatened, vulnerable), a plan can then be created to conserve and restore the species population to target levels. Examples of programmatic protection elements are: habitat restoration; protection of habitat from urban development; establishment of property ownership; limitations on grazing or other agricultural encroachment into habitat; reduction of slash and burn agricultural practises; outlawing killing or collecting the species; restrictions on pesticide use; and control of other environmental pollution. The plan should also articulate which public and private agencies should implement the protection strategy and indicate budgets available to execute this strategy. Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... Rare species is an organism which is very uncommon or scarce. ... The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (usually a taxonomic species), which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ... Look up urban in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Grazing is the regular consumption of part of one organism without killing it by another organism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shifting cultivation. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Water pollution Pollution is the release of chemical, physical, biological or radioactive contaminants to the environment. ...


Habitat plans

Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India, the largest mangrove swamp in the world

Where a number of threatened species depend upon a specific habitat, it may be appropriate to prepare a habitat protection element of the Biodiversity Action Plan. Examples of such special habitats are: raised acidic bogs of Scotland; Waterberg Biosphere bushveld in South Africa; California’s coastal wetlands; and Sweden’s Stora Alvaret on the island of Öland. In this case also, careful inventories of species and also the geographic extent and quality of the habitat must be documented. Then, as with species plans, a program can be created to protect, enhance and/or restore habitat using similar strategies as discussed above under the species plans. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1370, 804 KB) GANGES RIVER DELTA, BANGLADESH, INDIA (STS066-92-013). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1370, 804 KB) GANGES RIVER DELTA, BANGLADESH, INDIA (STS066-92-013). ... The Ganges River (Ganga in Indian languages; Ganges is the Latin form) (Devanagari गंगा) is the major river of northern India and Bangladesh. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The Bushveld is a geographic region of South Africa that encompasses most of Limpopo Province and part of the North West Province. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Rugged coastline of the West Coast of New Zealand The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the ocean. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... â–¶(?) is an island in the Baltic Sea, located off the coast of SmÃ¥land. ...


Specific countries

Some examples of individual countries which have produced substantive Biodiversity Action Plans follow. It is worth noting that preparation of a country BAP may cost up to 100 million pounds sterling, with annual maintenance costs roughly ten percent of the initial cost. Obviously costs for countries with small geographical area or simplified ecosystems have a much lesser cost. For example the St. Lucia BAP has been costed in the area of several million pounds sterling[9].


Australia

Australia has developed a detailed and rigourous Biodiversity Action Plan, having identified a total of over 475,000 indigenous species. A key element of the BAP is protection of the Great Barrier Reef[10], which is actually in a much higher state of health than most of the world’s reefs, Australia having one of the highest percentages of treated wastewater. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (657x768, 90 KB) Daintree Rainforest. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (657x768, 90 KB) Daintree Rainforest. ... The Daintree Rainforest Daintree Rainforest is a rainforest near Daintree, Queensland, named after Richard Daintree. ... Emblems: Faunal - Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus); Floral - Cooktown orchid (Dendrobium bigibbum); Bird - Brolga (Grus rubicunda); Aquatic - Barrier Reef Anemonefish (Amphiprion akindynos); Gem - Sapphire; Colour - Maroon Motto: Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Const. ... The word indigenous is an adjective derived from the Latin word indigena, meaning native, belonging to, aboriginal; and has several applications: Indigenous peoples, communities and cultures native or indigenous to a territory; Indigenous (band), a Native American blues-rock band; In biology, indigenous means native to a place or biota... Satellite image of a part of the Great Barrier Reef. ... A reef surrounding an islet. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ...


Considerable analysis has been conducted on the sustainable yield of firewood production, a major threat to deforestation in most tropical countries. Biological inventory work; assessment of harvesting practices; and computer modeling of the dynamics of treefall, rot and harvest; have been carried out to adduce data on safe harvesting rates. Extensive research has also been conducted on the relation of brush clearance to biodiversity decline and impact on water tables[11]; for example, these effects have been analyzed in the Lake Toolibin wetlands region. Sustainable - the ability to maintain into perpetuity. ... Wood burning is the largest current use of biomass derived energy. ... Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forested. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Hay bales after harvest in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany In agriculture, harvesting is the process of gathering mature crops from the fields. ... A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... The aviation term ROT stands for rate one turn. ... The water table is the upper limit of abundant groundwater. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ...


St. Lucia

The St. Lucia BAP recognizes impacts of large numbers of tourists to the marine and coastal diversity of the Soufrière area of the country. The BAP specifically acknowledges that the carrying capacity for human use and water pollution discharge of sensitive reef areas was exceeded by the year 1990. The plan also addresses conservation of the historic island fishing industry. In 1992, several institutions in conjunction with native fishermen to produce a sustainable management plan for fishery resources, embodied in the Soufrière Marine Management Area. A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... Rugged coastline of the West Coast of New Zealand The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the ocean. ... Soufrière can mean the following Soufrière, a volcano on the island of Saint Vincent in the West Indies. ... As population density increases, birth rates decrease and death rates increase. ... Water pollution Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies (lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater) caused by human activities. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. ...


The St. Lucia BAP features significant involvement from the University of the West Indies. Specific detailed attention is given to three species of threatened marine turtles, to a variety of vulnerable birds and a number of pelagic fishes and cetaceans. In terms of habitat conservation the plan focusses attention on the biologically productive mangrove swamps and notes that virtually all mangrove areas had already come under national protection by 1984[12]. The University of the West Indies, also known as UWI, is an autonomous regional institution supported by and serving 16 countries and territories in the Caribbean - Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. ... Suborders Cryptodira Pleurodira See text for families. ... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... A freshwater swamp This article is about the wetland type (a landform). ...


Tanzania

The Tanzania national BAP addresses issues related to sustainable use of Lake Manyara, an extensive freshwater lake, whose usage by humans accelerated in the period 1950 to 1990. The designation of the Lake Manyara Biosphere Reserve combines conservation of the lake and surrounding high value forests with sustainable use of the wetlands area and simple agriculture. This BAP has united principal lake users in establishing management targets. The Biosphere Reserve has induced sustainable management of the wetlands, including monitoring groundwater and the chemistry of the escarpment water source. Lake Manyara is a fresh water lake in Tanzania. ... A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded function as carbon dioxide sinks, animal habitats, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earths biosphere. ... Sustainable - the ability to maintain into perpetuity. ... The biosphere is the part of a planets outer shell — including air, land, surface rocks and water — within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Chemistry (derived from alchemy) is the science of matter at or near the atomic scale. ... In geology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves an elevation differential, often involving high cliffs. ...

Fowlsheugh cliffs, Scotland, a protected seabird breeding habitat.
Enlarge
Fowlsheugh cliffs, Scotland, a protected seabird breeding habitat.

Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Seabirds are birds that spend much of their lives, outside the breeding season at least, at sea. ...

United Kingdom

One of the most detailed BAPs has been prepared by the government of the United Kingdom. This plan covers not only terrestrial species assocated with lands within the UK, but also marine species and migratory birds, which spend a limited time in the UK or its offshore waters. The UK plan encompasses "391 Species Action Plans, 45 Habitat Action Plans and 162 Local Biodiversity Action Plans with targeted actions"[13]. This plan is noteworthy because of its extensive detail, clarity of endangerment mechanisms, specificity of actions, follow up monitoring program and its inclusion of migrating cetaceans and pelagic birds. Terrestrial literally means of the earth and is used in a variety of contexts: In biology and in the general sense, terrestrial means indicates ground-dwelling (compare aquatic). ... Migration occurs when living things move from one biome to another. ... Offshore may refer to oil and natural gas production at sea, see oil platform. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ...


United States of America

Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander, a California endangered species
Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander, a California endangered species

Twenty-six years prior to the international biodiversity convention, the USA had launched a national program to protect threatened species in the form of the 1966 Endangered Species Act. The congress created broad authority for analyzing and listing species of concern, and mandated that Species Recovery Plans be created. Thus, while the USA is an unratified signer of the accord, arguably it has the longest track record and most comprehensive program of species protection of any country. There are approximately 7000 listed species (e.g. endangered or threatened), of which about half have approved Recovery Plans. While this number of species seems high compared to other countries, the value is rather indicative of the total number of species characterized, which is extremely large. Image File history File links Croceum. ... Image File history File links Croceum. ... Trinomial name Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum Russell & Anderson, 1956 The Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander is an endangered subspecies of the Long-toed Salamander, which is found only close to a few isolated ponds in Santa Cruz County and Monterey County, California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (usually a taxonomic species), which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ... The Endangered Species Act (7 U.S.C. 136; 16 U.S.C. 460 et seq. ...


Uzbekistan

Five major divisions of habitat have been identified in Uzbekistan’s BAP: Wetlands (including reed habitat and man-made marsh); desert ecosystems (including sandy, stony and clay); steppes; riparian ecosystems; and mountain ecosystems. Over 27,000 species have been inventoried in the country, with a high rate of endemism for fishes and reptiles. Principal threats to biodiversity are related to activities of man associated with overpopulation and generally related to agricultural intensification[14]. Major geographic regions encompassed by the BAP includes the Aral Sea Programme, Nuratau Biosphere Reserve and the Western Tien Shan Mountains Programme (in conjunction with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Freshwater marsh in Florida In geography, a marsh is a type of wetland, featuring grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, cat tails, and other herbaceous plants (possibly with low-growing woody plants) in a context of shallow water. ... Desert view in Saudi Arabia. ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... A riparian zone schematic from the Everglades. ... Mount McKinley (Denali) in Alaska (USA) has the largest visible base-to-summit elevation difference on Earth. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Map of countries by population —showing the population of the China and India in the billions. ... Map of area around the Aral Sea. ...


Criticism of Biodiversity Action Plans

Some developing countries criticize the emphasis of BAPs, because these plans inherently favour consideration of wildlife and plant protection above food and industrial production, and in some cases may represent an obstacle to population growth. The plans are costly to produce, a fact which makes it difficult for many smaller countries and poorer countries to comply. In terms of the plans themselves, many countries have adopted pro-forma plans including little research and even less in the way of natural resource management. With regard to specific world regions, there is a notable lack of substantive participation by most of the Middle Eastern countries and much of Africa, the latter of which may be impeded by economic considerations of plan preparation. Some governments such as the European Union have diverted the purpose of a Biodiversity Action Plan, and implemented the convention accord by a set of economic development policies with referencing certain ecosystems' protection. Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ...


See also

The endangered Sea Otter An endangered species is a population of organisms (usually a taxonomic species), which is either (a) so few in number or (b) threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters that it is at risk of becoming extinct. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. ... The Holocene extinction event is a name customarily given to the widespread, ongoing mass extinction of species during the modern Holocene epoch. ...

References

  1. ^ Guide to the Convention on Biodiversity Convention, IUCN (1994)
  2. ^ National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of St. Lucia, 2001
  3. ^ Great Barrier Reef Water Quality Protection Plan Annual Report 2004-2005, Department of the Environment and Heritage, September, 2005
  4. ^ Andreas Glanznig, Native Vegetation Clearance, Habitat Loss and Biodiversity Decline: an overview of recent native vegetation clearance in Australia and its implications for biodiversity, Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 6, Biodiversity Unit, June 1995
  5. ^ St. Lucia National Marine Fisheries Act of 1984, Section 10, (1984)
  6. ^ United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, London, as updated 2006
  7. ^ Biodiversity Conservation National Strategy and Action Plan of Republic of Uzbekistan, 1997
  8. ^ Guide to the Convention on Biodiversity Convention, IUCN (1994)
  9. ^ National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of St. Lucia, 2001
  10. ^ Great Barrier Reef Water Quality Protection Plan Annual Report 2004-2005, Department of the Environment and Heritage, September, 2005
  11. ^ Andreas Glanznig, Native Vegetation Clearance, Habitat Loss and Biodiversity Decline: an overview of recent native vegetation clearance in Australia and its implications for biodiversity, Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 6, Biodiversity Unit, June 1995
  12. ^ St. Lucia National Marine Fisheries Act of 1984, Section 10, (1984)
  13. ^ United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, London, as updated 2006
  14. ^ Biodiversity Conservation National Strategy and Action Plan of Republic of Uzbekistan, 1997

Rainforests are the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ... Rainforests are the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ...

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