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Encyclopedia > Biodiesel
Bus run by Biodiesel
Bus run by Biodiesel
Space-filling model of Methyl Linoleate, or Linoleic Acid Methyl Ester, a common Methyl Ester produced from Soybean or Canola oil and Methanol.
Space-filling model of Methyl Linoleate, or Linoleic Acid Methyl Ester, a common Methyl Ester produced from Soybean or Canola oil and Methanol.
Space-filling model of Ethyl Stearate, or Stearic Acid Ethyl Ester, an Ethyl Ester produced from Soybean or Canola oil and Ethanol.
Space-filling model of Ethyl Stearate, or Stearic Acid Ethyl Ester, an Ethyl Ester produced from Soybean or Canola oil and Ethanol.

Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based diesel fuel consisting of short chain alkyl (methyl or ethyl) esters, typically made by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which can be used (alone, or blended with conventional petrodiesel) in unmodified diesel-engine vehicles. Biodiesel is distinguished from the straight vegetable oil (SVO) (aka "waste vegetable oil", "WVO", "unwashed biodiesel", "pure plant oil", "PPO") used (alone, or blended) as fuels in some converted diesel vehicles. "Biodiesel" is standardized as mono-alkyl esters and other non-diesel fuels of biological origin are not included.[1] Biomass to liquid (BTL) is a (multi step) process to produce liquid fuels out of biomass: It mainly aims at using the whole plant to improve the CO2 balance and the costs. ... Waste Vegetable Oil which has been filtered. ... Bus running on soybean biodiesel. ... Bus running on soybean biodiesel. ... This article is about the fuel. ... An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Ethyl is a two-carbon substituent in organic chemistry. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Animal fats are fats obtained from animal sources, including: blubber cod liver oil lard (pork fat) tallow (beef fat) schmaltz (chicken fat) In human nutrition—as far as regions where heart disease is a more common cause of death than starvation are concerned—animal fats are often claimed to be... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) is a fuel for diesel engines that can be either pure new vegetable oil or waste vegetable oil that has been cleaned, although this is normally referred to as WVO. Vegetable oil used as fuel in a compression ignition or diesel engine is also referred to...

Contents

Blends

Blends of biodiesel and conventional hydrocarbon based diesel are products most commonly distributed for use in the retail diesel fuel marketplace. Much of the world uses a system known as the "B" factor to state the amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix: fuel containing 20% biodiesel is labeled B20, while pure biodiesel is referred to as B100. It is common to see B99, since 1% petrodiesel is sufficiently toxic to retard mold. Blends of 20 percent biodiesel with 80 percent petroleum diesel (B20) can generally be used in unmodified diesel engines. Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form (B100), but may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems. Blending B100 with petro diesel may be accomplished by:

  • Mixing in tanks at manufacturing point prior to delivery to tanker truck
  • Splash mixing in the tanker truck (adding specific percentages of Biodiesel and Petro Diesel)
  • In-line mixing, two components arrive at tanker truck simultaneously.

Origin

On August 31, 1937, G. Chavanne of the University of Brussels (Belgium) was granted a patent for a 'Procedure for the transformation of vegetable oils for their uses as fuels' (fr. 'Procédé de Transformation d’Huiles Végétales en Vue de Leur Utilisation comme Carburants') Belgian Patent 422,877. This patent described the alcoholysis (often referred to as transesterification) of vegetable oils using ethanol (and mentions methanol) in order to separate the fatty acids from the glycerol by replacing the glycerol with short linear alcohols. This appears to be the first account of the production of what is known as 'biodiesel' today.[2] is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Applications

Biodiesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most modern diesel engines. Biodiesel has different solvent properties than petrodiesel, and will degrade natural rubber gaskets and hoses in vehicles (mostly found in vehicles manufactured before 1992), although these tend to wear out naturally and most likely will have already been replaced with FKM, which is nonreactive to biodiesel. Biodiesel has been known to break down deposits of residue in the fuel lines where petrodiesel has been used.[3] As a result, fuel filters may become clogged with particulates if a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made. Therefore, it is recommended to change the fuel filters on engines and heaters shortly after first switching to a biodiesel blend.[citation needed] For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Some seals and gaskets 1. ... Look up hose in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Found in most internal combustion engines, a fuel filter is a filter in the fuel line that screens out dirt and rust particles from the fuel. ...


Distribution

Biodiesel use and production are increasing rapidly. Fueling stations make biodiesel readily available to consumers across Europe, and increasingly in the USA and Canada. A growing number of transport fleets use it as an additive in their fuel. Biodiesel is often more expensive to purchase than petroleum diesel but this is expected to diminish due to economies of scale and agricultural subsidies versus the rising cost of petroleum as reserves are depleted. Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. ... ... An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers to supplement their income, help manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and bolster the market price of commodities. ... The Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil, is an influential theory concerning the long-term rate of conventional oil (and other fossil fuel) extraction and depletion. ...


Vehicular use and manufacturer acceptance

In 2005, DaimlerChrysler released Jeep Liberty CRD diesels from the factory into the American market with 5% biodiesel blends, indicating at least partial acceptance of biodiesel as an acceptable diesel fuel additive.[4] In 2007, DiamlerChrysler indicated intention to increase warranty coverage to 20% biodiesel blends if biofuel quality in the United States can be standardized.[5]


Railroad use

The British businessman Richard Branson's Virgin Voyager train, number 220007 Thames Voyager [6], billed as the world's first "biodiesel train" was converted to run on 80% petrodiesel and only 20% biodiesel, and it is claimed it will save 14% on direct emissions. Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is an English entrepreneur, best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies. ... Typical Standard Class interior of a Voyager coach The Class 220 Voyager is a class of diesel-electric high-speed multiple-unit trains built by Bombardier Transportation for the British train operating company Virgin CrossCountry. ...


Aircraft use

Aircraft manufacturers are understandably even more cautious, but a test flight has been performed by an ex Soviet Aircraft (completely powered on biofuel);[7] testing has been announced by Rolls Royce plc, Air New Zealand and Boeing (one engine out of four on a Boeing 747);[8] and commercial passenger jet testing has also been announced[9] by Virgin Atlantic's Richard Branson. Rolls-Royce plc (also known as Rolls-Royce Aero Engines) is the second-largest aircraft engine maker in the world, behind General Electrics GE Aircraft Engines division. ... Boeing 747-400 Boeing 747-400 Air New Zealand Limited (ASX:, NZX: AIR, Air New Zealand) is a scheduled passenger airline based in Auckland, New Zealand, and the national flag carrier. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd. ... Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is an English entrepreneur, best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies. ...


The world's first biofuel-powered commercial aircraft took off from London's Heathrow Airport on February 24, 2008 and touched down in Amsterdam on a demonstration flight hailed as a first step towards "cleaner" flying. The "BioJet" fuel for this flight was produced by Seattle based Imperium Renewables, Inc.[10] Heathrow redirects here. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


As a heating oil

Biodiesel can also be used as a heating fuel in domestic and commercial boilers. Older furnaces may contain rubber parts that would be affected by biodiesel's solvent properties, but can otherwise burn biodiesel without any conversion required. Care must be taken at first, however, given that varnishes left behind by petrodiesel will be released and can clog pipes- fuel filtering and prompt filter replacement is required. Another approach is to start using biodiesel as blend, and decreasing the petroleum proportion over time can allow the varnishes to come off more gradually and be less likely to clog. Thanks to its strong solvent properties, however, the furnace is cleaned out and generally becomes more efficient. A technical research paper [11] describes laboratory research and field trials project using pure biodiesel and biodiesel blends as a heating fuel in oil fired boilers. During the Biodiesel Expo 2006 in the UK, Andrew J. Robertson presented his biodiesel heating oil research from his technical paper and suggested that B20 biodiesel could reduce UK household CO2 emissions by 1.5 million tonnes per year


Historical background

Transesterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853 by scientists E. Duffy and J. Patrick, many years before the first diesel engine became functional. Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10 ft (3 m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany, on August 10, 1893. In remembrance of this event, August 10 has been declared "International Biodiesel Day". In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (pronounced ; March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rudolf Diesel demonstrated a Diesel engine running on peanut oil (at the request of the French government) built by the French Otto Company at the World Fair in Paris, France in 1900, where it received the Grand Prix (highest prize). [12] Worlds Fair is the generic name for various large expositions held since the mid 19th century. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


This engine stood as an example of Diesel's vision because it was powered by peanut oil — a biofuel, though not biodiesel, since it was not transesterified. He believed that the utilization of biomass fuel was the real future of his engine. In a 1912 speech Diesel said, "the use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and the coal-tar products of the present time." This article is about the legume. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of high viscosity, which smells of naphthalene and aromatic hydrocarbons. ...


During the 1920s, diesel engine manufacturers altered their engines to utilize the lower viscosity of petrodiesel (a fossil fuel), rather than vegetable oil (a biomass fuel). The petroleum industries were able to make inroads in fuel markets because their fuel was much cheaper to produce than the biomass alternatives. The result, for many years, was a near elimination of the biomass fuel production infrastructure. Only recently, have environmental impact concerns and a decreasing price differential made biomass fuels such as biodiesel a growing alternative. For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Biofuel is any fuel that derives from biomass - recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts, such as manure from cows. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ...


Despite the widespread use of fossil petroleum-derived diesel fuels, interest in vegetable oils as fuels in internal combustion engines is reported in several countries during the 1920's and 1930's and later during World War II. Belgium, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Germany, Brazil, Argentina, Japan and China have been reported to have tested and used vegetable oils as diesel fuels during this time. Some operational problems were reported due to the high viscosity of vegetable oils compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which result in poor atomization of the fuel in the fuel spray and often leads to deposits and coking of the injectors, combustion chamber and valves. Attempts to overcome these problems included heating of the vegetable oil, blending it with petroleum-derived diesel fuel or ethanol, pyrolysis and cracking of the oils. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Atomization (British English: atomisation) is conversion of bulk liquid into a spray or mist (i. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ...


On August 31, 1937, G. Chavanne of the University of Brussels (Belgium) was granted a patent for a "Procedure for the transformation of vegetable oils for their uses as fuels" (fr. 'Procédé de Transformation d’Huiles Végétales en Vue de Leur Utilisation comme Carburants') Belgian Patent 422,877. This patent described the alcoholysis (often referred to as transesterification) of vegetable oils using methanol and ethanol in order to separate the fatty acids from the glycerol by replacing the glycerol by short linear alcohols. This appears to be the first account of the production of what is known as "biodiesel" today. is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


More recently, in 1977, Brazilian scientist Expedito Parente produced biodiesel using transesterification with ethanol, and again filed a patent for the same process. This process is classified as biodiesel by international norms, conferring a "standardized identity and quality. No other proposed biofuel has been validated by the motor industry."[13] Currently, Parente's company Tecbio is working with Boeing and NASA to certify bioquerosene (bio-kerosene), another product produced and patented by the Brazilian scientist.[14] The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...


Research into the use of transesterified sunflower oil, and refining it to diesel fuel standards, was initiated in South Africa in 1979. By 1983, the process for producing fuel-quality, engine-tested biodiesel was completed and published internationally.[15] An Austrian company, Gaskoks, obtained the technology from the South African Agricultural Engineers; the company erected the first biodiesel pilot plant in November 1987, and the first industrial-scale plant in April 1989 (with a capacity of 30,000 tons of rapeseed per annum). Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. ... This article is about the fuel. ... A pilot plant is a small chemical processing system which is operated to generate information about the behavior of the system for use in design of larger facilities. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ...


Throughout the 1990s, plants were opened in many European countries, including the Czech Republic, Germany and Sweden. France launched local production of biodiesel fuel (referred to as diester) from rapeseed oil, which is mixed into regular diesel fuel at a level of 5%, and into the diesel fuel used by some captive fleets (e.g. public transportation) at a level of 30%. Renault, Peugeot and other manufacturers have certified truck engines for use with up to that level of partial biodiesel; experiments with 50% biodiesel are underway. During the same period, nations in other parts of the world also saw local production of biodiesel starting up: by 1998, the Austrian Biofuels Institute had identified 21 countries with commercial biodiesel projects. 100% Biodiesel is now available at many normal service stations across Europe. A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... For the author, see Mary Renault. ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ...


In September 2005 Minnesota became the first U.S. state to mandate that all diesel fuel sold in the state contain part biodiesel, requiring a content of at least 2% biodiesel.[16] Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ...


Properties

Biodiesel has better lubricity than that of today's diesel fuels. During the manufacture of these, to comply with low SO2 engine emission limits set in modern standards, severe hydrotreatment is included. Biodiesel addition reduces wear[17] increasing the life of the fuel injection equipment that relies on the fuel for its lubrication, such as high pressure injection pumps, pump injectors (also called unit injectors) and fuel injectors. A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... Fuel injection is a technology used in internal combustion engines to mix the fuel with air prior to combustion. ...

Older diesel Mercedes are popular for running on biodiesel.
Older diesel Mercedes are popular for running on biodiesel.

The volumetric energy density of biodiesel is about 33 MJ/L. This is 9 % lower than regular Number 2 petrodiesel. Variations in biodiesel energy density is more dependent on the feedstock used than the production process. Still these variations are less than for petrodiesel.[18] It has been claimed biodiesel gives better lubricity and more complete combustion thus increasing the engine energy output and partially compensating for the higher energy density of petrodiesel.[19] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the fuel. ...


Biodiesel is a liquid which varies in color — between golden and dark brown — depending on the production feedstock. It is immiscible with water, has a high boiling point and low vapor pressure. *The flash point of biodiesel (>130 °C, >266 °F)[20] is significantly higher than that of petroleum diesel (64 °C, 147 °F) or gasoline (−45 °C, -52 °F). Biodiesel has a density of ~ 0.88 g/cm³, less than that of water. The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ...


Biodiesel has a viscosity similar to petrodiesel, the current industry term for diesel produced from petroleum. Biodiesel has high lubricity and virtually no sulfur content, and it is often used as an additive to Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fuel. ... Petro redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) describes a new EPA standard for the sulfur content in on-road diesel fuel sold in the United States, beginning October 15th, 2006, except for California which must be selling it by September 1st, 2006. ...


Technical standards

Biodiesel sample
Biodiesel sample

The European standard for biodiesel is EN 14214, which is translated into the respective national standards for each country that forms the CEN (European Committee for Standardization) area e.g., for the United Kingdom, BS EN 14214 and for Germany DIN EN 14214. It may be used outside the CEN area as well. Soybeans that can be processed into BioDiesel File links The following pages link to this file: Biodiesel Categories: Images with unknown source ... Soybeans that can be processed into BioDiesel File links The following pages link to this file: Biodiesel Categories: Images with unknown source ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... CEN, the European Committee for Standardization, is a private non-profit organization whose mission is to foster the European economy in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards... BSI Kite Mark Logo - Made up of the letters B & S British Standards are the national standards of the UK. The standards body which produces them is BSI British Standards, a division of BSI Group. ... Look up din in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There are other national specifications. ASTM D6751 is the most common standard referenced in the United States and Canada.
There are also DIN standards for three different varieties of biodiesel, which are made of different oils: Look up din in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • RME (rapeseed methyl ester, according to DIN E 51606)
  • PME (vegetable methyl ester, purely vegetable products, according to DIN E 51606)
  • FME (fat methyl ester, vegetable and animal products, according to DIN V 51606)

The standards ensure that the following important factors in the fuel production process are satisfied: Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ...

  • Absence of free fatty acids.
  • Low sulfur content.

Basic industrial tests to determine whether the products conform to the standards typically include gas chromatography, a test that verifies only the more important of the variables above. Tests that are more complete are more expensive. Fuel meeting the quality standards is very non-toxic, with a toxicity rating (LD50) of greater than 50 mL/kg. Glycerin, also well known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ...


Gelling

The cloud point, or temperature at which pure (B100) biodiesel starts to gel, varies significantly and depends upon the mix of esters and therefore the feedstock oil used to produce the biodiesel. For example, biodiesel produced from low erucic acid varieties of canola seed (RME) starts to gel at approximately −10 °C (14 °F). Biodiesel produced from tallow tends to gel at around +16 °C (68 °F). As of 2006, there are a very limited number of products that will significantly lower the gel point of straight biodiesel. A number of studies have shown that winter operation is possible with biodiesel blended with other fuel oils including #2 low sulfur diesel fuel and #1 diesel / kerosene. The exact blend depends on the operating environment: successful operations have run using a 65% LS #2, 30% K #1, and 5% bio blend. Other areas have run a 70% Low Sulfur #2, 20% Kerosene #1, and 10% bio blend or an 80% K#1, and 20% biodiesel blend. According to the National Biodiesel Board (NBB), B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petrodiesel) does not need any treatment in addition to what is already taken with petrodiesel. The Cloud point of a nonionic surfactant or glycol solution is the temperature where the mixture starts to phase separate and two phases appear, thus becoming cloudy. ... Erucic acid Erucic acid is a fatty acid found in rapeseed, wallflower seed, and mustard seed, making up 40 to 50 percent of their oil. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the fuel. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ...


To permit the use of biodiesel without mixing and without the possibility of gelling at low temperatures, some people modify their vehicles with a second fuel tank for biodiesel in addition to the standard fuel tank. Alternately, a vehicle with two tanks is chosen. The second fuel tank is insulated and a heating coil using engine coolant is run through the tank. When a temperature sensor indicates that the fuel is warm enough to burn, the driver switches from the petrodiesel tank to the biodiesel tank. This is similar to the method used for running straight vegetable oil. Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and processes used to reduce heat transfer. ... A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted. ... For other uses, see Antifreeze (disambiguation). ...


Contamination by water

Biodiesel may contain small but problematic quantities of water. Although it is hydrophobic (non-miscible with water molecules), it is said to be, at the same time, hygroscopic to the point of attracting water molecules from atmospheric moisture[21]; one of the reasons biodiesel can absorb water is the persistence of mono and diglycerides left over from an incomplete reaction. These molecules can act as an emulsifier, allowing water to mix with the biodiesel.[citation needed] In addition, there may be water that is residual to processing or resulting from storage tank condensation. The presence of water is a problem because: In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to attract water molecules from the surrounding environment through either absorption or adsorption. ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... Dew on a spider web Moldy bread Moisture generally refers to the presence of water, often in trace amounts. ... For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ...

  • Water reduces the heat of combustion of the bulk fuel. This means more smoke, harder starting, less power.
  • Water causes corrosion of vital fuel system components: fuel pumps, injector pumps, fuel lines, etc.
  • Water & microbes cause the paper element filters in the system to fail ( rot), which in turn results in premature failure of the fuel pump due to ingestion of large particles.
  • Water freezes to form ice crystals near 0 °C (32 °F). These crystals provide sites for nucleation and accelerate the gelling of the residual fuel.
  • Water accelerates the growth of microbe colonies, which can plug up a fuel system. Biodiesel users who have heated fuel tanks therefore face a year-round microbe problem.

Previously, the amount of water contaminating biodiesel has been difficult to measure by taking samples, since water and oil separate. However, it is now possible to measure the water content using water in oil sensors. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Bubbles in a soft drink each nucleate independently, responding to a decrease in pressure. ...

  • Additionally, water can cause pitting in the pistons on a diesel engine.

Biodiesel can also be used as a heating fuel in domestic and commercial boilers. and would only require around 330,000 hectares of arable land for the required biodiesel for the UK heating oil sector. The paper also suggests that existing oil boilers can easily and cheaply be converted to biodiesel if B20 biodiesel is used.


Availability and prices

In some countries biodiesel is less expensive than conventional diesel.
In some countries biodiesel is less expensive than conventional diesel.
For more details on this topic, see Biodiesel around the World.

Global biodiesel production reached 3.8 million tons in 2005. Approximately 85% of biodiesel production came from the European Union. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This page describes the use and availability of biodiesel in various countries around the world. ...


In the United States, average retail (at the pump) prices, including Federal and state motor taxes, of B2/B5 are lower than petroleum diesel by about 12 cents, and B20 blends are the same as petrodiesel.[22] B99 and B100 generally cost more than petrodiesel except where local governments provide a subsidy. This article is about a mechanical device. ... Petro redirects here. ...


Production

For more details on this topic, see Biodiesel production.

Biodiesel is commonly produced by the transesterification of the vegetable oil or animal fat feedstock. There are several methods for carrying out this transesterification reaction including the common batch process, supercritical processes, ultrasonic methods, and even microwave methods. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Chemically, transesterified biodiesel comprises a mix of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. The most common form uses methanol (converted to sodium methoxide) to produce methyl esters as it is the cheapest alcohol available, though ethanol can be used to produce an ethyl ester biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also been used. Using alcohols of higher molecular weights improves the cold flow properties of the resulting ester, at the cost of a less efficient transesterification reaction. A lipid transesterification production process is used to convert the base oil to the desired esters. Any Free fatty acids (FFAs) in the base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process, or they are esterified (yielding more biodiesel) using an acidic catalyst. After this processing, unlike straight vegetable oil, biodiesel has combustion properties very similar to those of petroleum diesel, and can replace it in most current uses. An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with fats. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Some common lipids. ... In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) is a fuel for diesel engines that can be either pure new vegetable oil or waste vegetable oil that has been cleaned, although this is normally referred to as WVO. Vegetable oil used as fuel in a compression ignition or diesel engine is also referred to... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ...


A byproduct of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol. For every 1 tonne of biodiesel that is manufactured, 100 kg of glycerol are produced. Originally, there was a valuable market for the glycerol, which assisted the economics of the process as a whole. However, with the increase in global biodiesel production, the market price for this crude glycerol (containing 20% water and catalyst residues) has crashed. Research is being conducted globally to use this glycerol as a chemical building block. One initiative in the UK is The Glycerol Challenge. Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ...


Usually this crude glycerol has to be purified, typically by performing vacuum distillation. This is rather energy intensive. The refined glycerol (98%+ purity) can then be utilised directly, or converted into other products. The following announcements were made in 2007: A joint venture of Ashland Inc. and Cargill announced plans to make propylene glycol in Europe from glycerol[23] and Dow Chemical announced similar plans for North America.[24] Dow also plans to build a plant in China to make epichlorhydrin from glycerol.[25] Epichlorhydrin is a raw material for epoxy resins. Ashland Inc. ... Cargill, Incorporated is a privately held, multinational corporation, and is based in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ... Propylene glycol, also known as 1,2-propanediol, is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, USA. In terms of market capitalization, it is the second-largest chemical company in the world, smaller than only DuPont. ... Dow may be: a surname, see Dow (name) Dow Thomas, the second Dow to arrive in North America - early 1630s. ... Epichlorohydrin is reactive organic compound. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Epichlorohydrin is reactive organic compound. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between Epichorohydrin & Bisphenol A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United States. ...


Production levels

Biodiesel production capacity is growing rapidly, with an average annual growth rate from 2002-2006 of over 40% [26]. For the year 2006, the latest for which actual production figures could be obtained, total world biodiesel production was about 5-6 million tonnes, with 4.9 million tonnes processed in Europe [27] (of which 2.7 million tonnes was from Germany) and most of the rest from the USA. [28] The capacity for 2007 in Europe totalled 10.3 million tonnes. This compares with a total demand for diesel in the US and Europe of approximately 490 million tonnes (147 billion gallons).[29] Total world production of vegetable oil for all purposes in 2005/06 was about 110 million tonnes, with about 34 million tonnes each of palm oil and soybean oil. [30]


Biodiesel feedstocks

Soybeans are used as a source of biodiesel
Soybeans are used as a source of biodiesel
Plant oils
Sunflowerseed oil
Types
Vegetable fats (list)
Essential oil (list)
Macerated (list)
Uses
Drying oil - Oil paint
Cooking oil
Fuel - Biodiesel
Aromatherapy
Components
Saturated fat
Monounsaturated fat
Polyunsaturated fat
Trans fat

A variety of oils can be used to produce biodiesel. These include: Download high resolution version (624x948, 203 KB)Varieties of soybeans http://www. ... Download high resolution version (624x948, 203 KB)Varieties of soybeans http://www. ... Soy redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1664 × 2496 pixel, file size: 247 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) en: Еhe sonflowerseed oil. ... “Vegetable oil” redirects here. ... Olive oil The following is intended to be a comprehensive list of oils that are extracted from plants. ... An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ... Essential oil of Eucalyptus Fennel seeds are used as a mouth freshener in India, and are the source of an essential oil Essential oils are plant oils extracted by distillation. ... Maceration (from Latin maceratus, past participle of macerare, to soften) may refer to: extreme leanness usually caused by starvation or disease a solution prepared by soaking plant material in vegetable oil or water the steeping of grape skins and solids in must, where alcohol acts as a solvent to extract... Commercially-available macerated oils include all these, and others. ... A drying oil is an oil which hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air. ... View of Delft in oil paint, by Johannes Vermeer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... Waste Vegetable Oil which has been filtered. ... Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a persons mood or health. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary...

Many advocates suggest that waste vegetable oil is the best source of oil to produce biodiesel, but since the available supply is drastically less than the amount of petroleum-based fuel that is burned for transportation and home heating in the world, this local solution does not scale well. Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Soy redirects here. ... Binomial name Thlaspi arvense L. Thlaspi arvense (common name Field Penny-cress) is a foetid Eurasian plant having round flat pods; naturalized throughout North America. ... Species Approximately 175, see Section Species. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... Olive oil The following is intended to be a comprehensive list of oils that are extracted from plants. ... Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) is vegetable oil that has become unfit for food preparation. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... This article is about the fat. ... Yellow grease is a term from the rendering industry. ... Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ...


Animal fats are similarly limited in supply, and it would not be efficient to raise animals simply for their fat. However, producing biodiesel with animal fat that would have otherwise been discarded could replace a small percentage of petroleum diesel usage. Currently, a 5-million dollar plant is being built in the USA, with the intent of producing 11.4 million litres (3 million gallons) biodiesel from some of the estimated 1 billion kg (2.3 billion pounds) of chicken fat[33] produced annually the local Tyson poultry plant. [31]


Quantity of feedstocks required

Worldwide production of vegetable oil and animal fat is not yet sufficient to replace liquid fossil fuel use. Furthermore, some object to the vast amount of farming and the resulting fertilization, pesticide use, and land use conversion that would be needed to produce the additional vegetable oil. The estimated transportation diesel fuel and home heating oil used in the United States is about 160 million tonnes (350 billion pounds) according to the Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy - [34]. In the United States, estimated production of vegetable oil for all uses is about 11 million tonnes (24 billion pounds) and estimated production of animal fat is 5.3 million tonnes (12 billion pounds).[35] Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ...


If the entire arable land area of the USA (470 million acres, or 1.9 million square kilometers) were devoted to biodiesel production from soy, this would just about provide the 160 million tonnes required (assuming an optimistic 98 gpa of biodiesel). This land area could in principle be reduced significantly using algae, if the obstacles can be overcome. The US DOE estimates that if algae fuel replaced all the petroleum fuel in the United States, it would require 15,000 square miles (38,849 square kilometers), which is a few thousand square miles larger than Maryland, or 1.3 Belgiums, [36] [37]assuming a yield of 15000 gpa. The advantages of algae are that it can be grown on non-arable land such as deserts or in marine environments, and the potential oil yields are much higher than from plants. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...


Yield

Feedstock yield efficiency per acre affects the feasibility of ramping up production to the huge industrial levels required to power a significant percentage of national or world vehicles. Some typical yields in US gallons of biodiesel per acre are:

  • Algae: 1800 gpa or more (est.- see soy figures and DOE quote below)
  • Palm oil: 508 gpa[38]
  • Coconut: 230 gpa[38]
  • Rapeseed: 102 gpa[38]
  • Soy: 59.2-98.6 gpa in Indiana[39] (Soy is used in 80% of USA biodiesel[40])
  • Peanut: 90 gpa[38]
  • Sunflower: 82 gpa[38]

Algae fuel yields have not yet been accurately determined, but DOE is reported as saying that algae yield 30 times more energy per acre than land crops such as soybeans.[41], and some estimate even higher yields up to 15000 gpa .[42]


The Jatropha plant has been cited as a high-yield source of biodiesel but such claims have also been exaggerated. The more realistic estimates put the yield at about 200 gpa (1.5-2 tonnes per hectare).[43] It is grown in the Philippines, Mali and India, is drought-resistant, and can share space with other cash crops such as coffee, sugar, fruits and vegetables.[44] Species Approximately 175, see Section Species. ... Intercropping is the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time (Andrews & Kassam 1976). ...


Efficiency and economic arguments

According to a study written by Drs. Van Dyne and Raymer for the Tennessee Valley Authority, the average US farm consumes fuel at the rate of 82 litres per hectare (8.75 US gallons per acre) of land to produce one crop. However, average crops of rapeseed produce oil at an average rate of 1,029 L/ha (110 US gal/acre), and high-yield rapeseed fields produce about 1,356 L/ha (145 US gal/acre). The ratio of input to output in these cases is roughly 1:12.5 and 1:16.5. Photosynthesis is known to have an efficiency rate of about 3-6% of total solar radiation[45] and if the entire mass of a crop is utilized for energy production, the overall efficiency of this chain is currently about 1%[46] While this may compare unfavorably to solar cells combined with an electric drive train, biodiesel is less costly to deploy (solar cells cost approximately US$1,000 per square meter) and transport (electric vehicles require batteries which currently have a much lower energy density than liquid fuels). This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ...


However, these statistics by themselves are not enough to show whether such a change makes economic sense. Additional factors must be taken into account, such as: the fuel equivalent of the energy required for processing, the yield of fuel from raw oil, the return on cultivating food, the effect biodiesel will have of food prices and the relative cost of biodiesel versus petrodiesel.


The debate over the energy balance of biodiesel is ongoing. Transitioning fully to biofuels could require immense tracts of land if traditional food crops are used (although non food crops can be utilized). The problem would be especially severe for nations with large economies, since energy consumption scales with economic output.[47] Energy balance has the following meanings in several fields: In physics, energy balance is a systematic presentation of energy flows and transformations in a system. ... The term non food crop applies to the use of agricultural crop for uses other than human (as food) or animal consumption (as feed). ...


If using only traditional food plants, most such nations do not have sufficient arable land to produce biofuel for the nation's vehicles. Nations with smaller economies (hence less energy consumption) and more arable land may be in better situations, although many regions cannot afford to divert land away from food production.


For third world countries, biodiesel sources that use marginal land could make more sense, e.g. honge oil nuts[48] grown along roads or jatropha grown along rail lines. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Honge oil is derived from the Pongamia pinnata, which is native to India. ... Species Approximately 175, see Section Species. ...


In tropical regions, such as Malaysia and Indonesia, oil palm is being planted at a rapid pace to supply growing biodiesel demand in Europe and other markets. It has been estimated in Germany that palm oil biodiesel has less than 1/3 the production costs of rapeseed biodiesel.[49] The direct source of the energy content of biodiesel is solar energy captured by plants during photosynthesis. Regarding the positive energy balance of biodiesel[citation needed]: Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...

When straw was left in the field, biodiesel production was strongly energy positive, yielding 1 GJ biodiesel for every 0.561 GJ of energy input (a yield/cost ratio of 1.78).
When straw was burned as fuel and oilseed rapemeal was used as a fertilizer, the yield/cost ratio for biodiesel production was even better (3.71). In other words, for every unit of energy input to produce biodiesel, the output was 3.71 units (the difference of 2.71 units would be from solar energy).

Biodiesel is becoming of interest to companies interested in commercial scale production as well as the more usual home brew biodiesel user and the user of straight vegetable oil or waste vegetable oil in diesel engines. Homemade biodiesel processors are many and varied. To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here energies between 109 joules (a gigajoule, symbol GJ) and 1010 joules. ... Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) is a fuel for diesel engines that can be either pure new vegetable oil or waste vegetable oil that has been cleaned, although this is normally referred to as WVO. Vegetable oil used as fuel in a compression ignition or diesel engine is also referred to... A Biodiesel processor is a combination reaction vessel and still for producing biodiesel from vegetable oil. ...


Environmental effects

Calculation of Carbon Intensity of Soy biodiesel grown in the US and burnt in the UK, using UK government calculation
Calculation of Carbon Intensity of Soy biodiesel grown in the US and burnt in the UK, using UK government calculation [50]
Graph of UK figures for the Carbon Intensity of Biodiesels and fossil fuels. This graph assumes that all biodiesels are burnt in their country of origin and that pre-existing cropland is used to grow the feedstock
Graph of UK figures for the Carbon Intensity of Biodiesels and fossil fuels. This graph assumes that all biodiesels are burnt in their country of origin and that pre-existing cropland is used to grow the feedstock[50]

Carbon intensity is the ratio of carbon emissions to economic activity or some other activity. ... Carbon intensity is the ratio of carbon emissions to economic activity or some other activity. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ...

Carbon dioxide production

Making and burning Biodiesel contributes to atmospheric carbon dioxide to a smaller extent than burning fossil fuels. The calculation of exactly how much Carbon Dioxide is produced is a complex and inexact process, and is highly dependent on the method by which the biofuel is produced and the assumptions made in the calculation. A calculation should include: Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ...

  • The cost of growing the feedstock
  • The cost of transporting the feedstock to the factory
  • The cost of processing the feedstock into biodiesel

Such a calculation may or may not consider the following effects:

  • The cost of the change in land use of the area where the fuel feedstock is grown.
  • The cost of transportation of the biodiesel from the factory to its point of use
  • The efficiency of the biodiesel compared with standard diesel
  • The amount of Carbon Dioxide produced at the tail pipe. (Biodiesel can produce 4.7% more)
  • The benefits due to the production of useful bi-products, such as cattle feed or glycerine

The graphs on the right shows figures calculated by the UK government for the purposes of the Renewable transport fuel obligation[51] Glycerin, also known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet tasting viscous liquid. ... Petrol and alcohol fuel pumps in Brazil. ...


Pollution

  • In the United States, biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have successfully completed the Health Effects Testing requirements (Tier I and Tier II) of the Clean Air Act (1990).
  • Biodiesel contains fewer aromatic hydrocarbons: benzofluoranthene: 56% reduction; Benzopyrenes: 71% reduction.[citation needed]
  • Biodiesel can reduce by as much as 20% the direct (tailpipe) emission of particulates, small particles of solid combustion products, on vehicles with particulate filters, compared with low-sulfur (<50 ppm) diesel. Particulate emissions as the result of production are reduced by around 50%, compared with fossil-sourced diesel. (Beer et al, 2004).
  • Biodiesel has a higher cetane rating than petrodiesel, which can improve performance and clean up emissions compared to crude petro-diesel (with cetane lower than 40).

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Clean Air Act. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... Cetane number or CN is to diesel fuel what octane rating is to gasoline. ...

Non-toxic to humans

The potential health effects of inhalation are negligible, as are those of skin contact and ingestion. Contact with eyes could cause irritation.[52]


Biodegradable

  • Biodiesel is considered readily biodegradable under ideal conditions and non-toxic. A University of Idaho study compared biodegradation rates of biodiesel, neat vegetable oils, biodiesel and petroleum diesel blends, and neat 2-D diesel fuel. Using low concentrations of the product to be degraded (10 ppm) in nutrient and sewage sludge amended solutions, they demonstrated that biodiesel degraded at the same rate as a dextrose control and 5 times as quickly as petroleum diesel over a period of 28 days, and that biodiesel blends doubled the rate of petroleum diesel degradation through co-metabolism.[53] The same study examined soil degradation using 10 000 ppm of biodiesel and petroleum diesel, and found biodiesel degraded at twice the rate of petroleum diesel in soil. In all cases, it was determined biodiesel also degraded more completely than petroleum diesel, which produced poorly degradable undetermined intermediates. Toxicity studies for the same project demonstrated no mortalities and few toxic effects on rats and rabbits with up to 5000 mg/kg of biodiesel. Petroleum diesel showed no mortalities at the same concentration either, however toxic effects such as hair loss and urinary discolouring were noted with concentrations of greater than 2000 mg/l in rabbits.

The University of Idaho is the states prominent institution of higher learning, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County. ...

Energy security

One of the main drivers for adoption of biodiesel is energy security. This means that a nations dependence on oil is reduced, and substituted with use of locally available sources, such as coal, gas or other renewable sources. Thus significant benefits can accrue to a country from adoption of biofuels, even without a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Whilst the total energy balance is debated, it is clear that the dependence on oil is reduced. One example is the energy used to manufacture fertilizers, which could come from a variety of sources other than petroleum. The the US NREL says that energy security is the number one driving force behind the US biofuels programme. [54]and the White House "Energy Security for the 21st Century" makes clear that energy security is a major reason for promoting biodiesel.[55] The EU commission president, Jose Manuel Barroso, speaking at a recent EU biofuels conference, stressed that properly managed biofuels have the potential to reinforce the EU's security of supply through diversification of energy sources. [56]


Food vs fuel

Main article: Food vs fuel

Food quality vegetable oil has become so expensive there is no longer a profit viability for its use. Food grade vegetable oil pricing is on a similar upward ramp as food in general. Accessing food stuffs in poor countries has always been problematic for the inhabitants. Non food grade vegetable feed stocks are under use or consideration for use to make biodiesel and have been so during the entire history of biodiesel.


In some poor countries the rising price of vegetable oil is causing problems.[57][58] There are those that say using a food crop for fuel sets up competition between food in poor countries and fuel in rich countries. Some propose that fuel only be made from non-edible vegetable oils like jatropha oil. Others argue that the problem is more fundamental. Farmers can switch from producing food crops to producing biofuel crops to make more money, even if the new crops are not edible.[59][60] The law of supply and demand predicts that if fewer farmers are producing food the price of food will rise. It may take some time, as farmers can take some time to change which things they are growing, but increasing demand for biofuels is likely to result in price increases for many kinds of food. Some have pointed out that there are poor farmers and poor countries making more money because of the higher price of vegetable oil.[61] Jatropha oil is produced from the seeds of the Jatropha curcas, a plant that can grow in wastelands. ... Prices tend to vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ...


Environmental concerns

The locations where oil-producing plants are grown is of increasing concern. Mono-culture plantations clear cut large areas of tropical forest in order to grow such oil rich crops such as oil palm. In the Philippines and Indonesia such forest clearing is already underway for the production of palm oil. In Indonesia, for example, deforestation has caused displacement of indigenous peoples. Also, in some areas use of pesticides for biofuel crops are disrupting clean water supplies.[62] Loss of habitat on such a scale could endanger numerous species of plants and animals. A particular concern which has received considerable attention is the threat to the already-shrinking populations of orangutans on the Indonesian islands of Borneo and Sumatra, which face possible extinction.[63][64][65] Deforestation (mainly in tropical areas) account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions according to the IPCC.[66] Taking such change of land use into consideration could therefore lower the potential benefits from biodiesel produced this way, even if only CO2 emissions were to be considered. Clearcutting or clearfelling is a method of timber harvest in which all trees in a selected area are cut. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... This article is about the primate. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all...


Third world production

Biodiesel and feedstock oils produced in Asia, South America and Africa are currently less expensive than those produced in Europe and North America suggesting that imports to these wealthier nations are likely to increase in future. Like all petroleum based fuels, biodiesel also requires a significant investment of energy before it arrives at petrol pumps, thus fair comparisons among fuels require full lifecycle analyses for each fuel type. If deforestation, and monoculture farming techniques were used to grow biofuel crops, biodiesel is predicted to become a serious threat to the environment. These problems could be exacerbated as biodiesel becomes more popular unless stringent laws are introduced and enforced to control biodiesel production. Non-food energy crops and lipid rich algaes with vastly greater oil yields may also replace low-yield annual food crops such as soybeans, skirting the deforestation risk associated with widespread uptake of biodiesel.GuJi This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... The term non food crop applies to the use of agricultural crop for uses other than human (as food) or animal consumption (as feed). ...


As non-food crops also facilitate the use[citation needed] of degraded lands, wastewater, processed sewage, and other waste streams, the benefits of such crops go well beyond their greater yields[citation needed]. Moreover, select non-food crops such as jatropha and castor bean can be grown in polycultures, in non-till agricultural applications, and they scale well from the standpoint of production, storage, and processing. As such, these crops might benefit small-scale farmers throughout tropical and temperate latitudes, providing a cash crop option which can also displace local demand for imported petroleum.[citation needed]


NOx emissions

If burned without additives, Biodiesel (B100) is estimated to produce about 10% more nitrogen oxide NOx tailpipe-emissions than petrodiesel. As biodiesel has a low sulfur content, NOx emissions can be reduced through the use of catalytic converters to less than the NOx emissions from conventional diesel engines. Moreover, as a transportation fuel, biodiesel is in its infancy in terms of additives which are capable of improving energy density, resistance to gelling, and NOx emissions. Debate continues over NOx, particulates, smog, and greenhouse gas emissions from biodiesel and all other new transportation fuels, biofuels in particular. Ultimately, greater clarity on the fundamental distinctions between smog and other local pollution issues vs. greenhouse gas emissions will be essential for both well founded public policy as well as well informed consumer choices. In February 2006 a Navy biodiesel expert claimed NOx emissions in practice were actually lower than baseline. Further research is needed. The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ...


Recent advances in the use of cerium oxide help eliminate NOx emissions from both petrodiesel and biodiesel,[67] and diesel fuel additives based on cerium oxide can improve fuel consumption by 11%[citation needed] in unmodified diesel engines. Cerium oxide, or ceric oxide, is a pale yellow-white powder, CeO2. ...


Current research

There is ongoing research into finding more suitable crops and improving oil yield. Using the current yields, vast amounts of land and fresh water would be needed to produce enough oil to completely replace fossil fuel usage. It would require twice the land area of the US to be devoted to soybean production, or two-thirds to be devoted to rapeseed production, to meet current US heating and transportation needs.[citation needed]


Specially bred mustard varieties can produce reasonably high oil yields, and have the added benefit that the meal leftover after the oil has been pressed out can act as an effective and biodegradable pesticide.[citation needed] A cropduster spreading pesticide. ...


Algaculture

Main article: Algaculture

From 1978 to 1996, the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory experimented with using algae as a biodiesel source in the "Aquatic Species Program".[54] A self-published article by Michael Briggs, at the UNH Biodiesel Group, offers estimates for the realistic replacement of all vehicular fuel with biodiesel by utilizing algae that have a natural oil content greater than 50%, which Briggs suggests can be grown on algae ponds at wastewater treatment plants.[37] This oil-rich algae can then be extracted from the system and processed into biodiesel, with the dried remainder further reprocessed to create ethanol. An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), located in Golden, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, is the United Statess primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. ... The Aquatic Species Program was a research program funded by the Department of Energy. ... University of New Hampshire (UNH) is a public university in the University System of New Hampshire (USNH). ... A motor vehicle is a machine which incorporates a motor(I really dont know who gave the name!!), which is used for transportation. ... Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from waste-water or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


The production of algae to harvest oil for biodiesel has not yet been undertaken on a commercial scale, but feasibility studies have been conducted to arrive at the above yield estimate. In addition to its projected high yield, algaculture — unlike crop-based biofuels — does not entail a decrease in food production, since it requires neither farmland nor fresh water. Some companies[4][5] are pursuing algae bio-reactors for various purposes, including biodiesel production. A feasibility study is a preliminary study undertaken to determine and document a projects viability. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Biofuel is any fuel that derives from biomass _ recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts, such as manure from cows. ... The food industry is the complex, global collective of diverse businesses that together supply much of the food energy consumed by the world population. ... Modern arable agriculture typically uses large fields like this one in Dorset, England. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ...


On May 11, 2006 the Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation in Marlborough, New Zealand announced that it had produced its first sample of bio-diesel fuel made from algae found in sewage ponds.[32] Unlike previous attempts, the algae was naturally grown in pond discharge from the Marlborough District Council's sewage treatment works. is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marlborough is one of the regions of New Zealand, located in the northeast of the South Island. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... In the context of creating Plutonium at the Hanford Site, effluent refers to the cooling water that is discharged from a nuclear reactor that may or may not be radioactive. ... Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ...


See also

Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... This page describes the use and availability of biodiesel in various countries around the world. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... NExBTL is a renewable diesel production process commercialized by Neste Oil. ... The National Biodiesel Board, headquartered in Jefferson City, Missouri, was created in 1992 by Americas soybean interests with the express purpose of getting biodiesel accepted into Americas fuel mix. ... The ton of oil equivalent (TOE) is a unit for measuring energy. ... // There is a limited amount of fossil fuel in the ground. ...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Biodiesel 101 - Biodiesel Definitions (?). National Biodiesel Board. Retrieved on 2008-2-16.
  2. ^ Knothe, G.. Historical Perspectives on Vegetable Oil-Based Diesel Fuels (PDF). INFORM, Vol. 12(11), p. 1103-1107 (2001). Retrieved on 2007-7-11.
  3. ^ McCormick, R.L.. 2006 Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide Third Edition (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-12-18.
  4. ^ Kemp, William. Biodiesel: Basics and Beyond. Canada: Aztext Press, 2006.
  5. ^ http://nbb.grassroots.com/07Releases/Incentive/
  6. ^ First UK biodiesel train launched. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-11-17.
  7. ^ Soviet-era training jet flies on biodiesel
  8. ^ Bio-fuel flight demonstration
  9. ^ Virgin Atlantic to Run Bio-diesel Test Flight
  10. ^ Biofuel-powered jet to make test flight
  11. ^ Robertson, Andrew. Biodiesel Heating Oil: Sustainable Heating for the future. Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
  12. ^ biodiesel.org report 246
  13. ^ [1] Quote from Tecbio website
  14. ^ [2] O Globo newspaper interview in Portuguese]
  15. ^ SAE Technical Paper series no. 831356. SAE International Off Highway Meeting, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, 1983
  16. ^ [3] Minnesota regulations on biodiesel content
  17. ^ Biodiesel
  18. ^ National Biodiesel Board (2005-10). "Energy Content".: 1. Retrieved on 2007-11-20. 
  19. ^ UNH Biodiesel Group
  20. ^ Generic biodiesel material safety data sheet (MSDS)
  21. ^ UFOP - Union zur Förderung von Oel. Biodiesel FlowerPower: Facts * Arguments * Tips (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
  22. ^ Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report July 2007
  23. ^ Chemweek's Business Daily, Tuesday May 8, 2007
  24. ^ http://www.dow.com/propyleneglycol/news/20070315b.htm, accessed June 25, 2007
  25. ^ http://epoxy.dow.com/epoxy/news/2007/20070326b.htm, accessed June 25, 2007
  26. ^ Martinot (Lead Author), Eric (2008). Renewables 2007. Global Status Report. REN21 (Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21stCentury. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  27. ^ Statistics. the EU biodiesel industry. European Biodiesel Board (2008-03-28). Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  28. ^ US Biodiesel Demand. Biodiesel: The official site of the National Biodiesel Board. NBB. Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  29. ^ Biodiesel to drive up the price of cooking oil. Biopower London (2006). Retrieved on 2008-04-03.
  30. ^ Major Commodities. FEDIOL (EU Oil and Proteinmeal Industry ). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  31. ^ a b Leonard, Christopher. "Not a Tiger, but Maybe a Chicken in Your Tank", Washington Post, Associated Press, 2007-01-03, p. D03. Retrieved on 2007-12-04. 
  32. ^ a b Errol Kiong. "NZ firm makes bio-diesel from sewage in world first", The New Zealand Herald, 12 May 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-10. 
  33. ^ Biodiesel from Animal Fat. E85.whipnet.net. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
  34. ^ http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_821dst_dcu_nus_a.htm)
  35. ^ Van Gerpen, John (2004 - 07). Business Management for Biodiesel Producers, August 2002 - January 2004. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
  36. ^ A Promising Oil Alternative: Algae Energy - washingtonpost.com
  37. ^ a b Michael Briggs (August 2004). Widescale Biodiesel Production from Algae. UNH Biodiesel Group (University of New Hampshire). Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  38. ^ a b c d e Biofuels: some numbers
  39. ^ [www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/ID/ID-337.pdf Purdue report ID-337]
  40. ^ Biodiesel Yields Even Higher Energy Balance
  41. ^ DOE quoted by Washington Post in "A Promising Oil Alternative: Algae Energy"
  42. ^ Thomas F. Riesing, Ph.D. (Spring 2006). Algae for Liquid Fuel Production. Oakhaven Permaculture Center. Retrieved on 2006-12-18. Note: originally published in issue #59 of Permaculture Activist
  43. ^ India's jatropha plant biodiesel yield termed wildly exaggerated
  44. ^ Jatropha for biodiesel
  45. ^ Kazuhisa Miyamoto (1997). "Renewable biological systems for alternative sustainable energy production (FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin - 128)" (HTML). Final. FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  46. ^ Tad Patzek (2006-07-22). Thermodynamics of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle (section 3.11 Solar Energy Input into Corn Production) (PDF). Berkeley; Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 23(6):519-567 (2004). Retrieved on 2008-03-03.
  47. ^ Looking Forward: Energy and the Economy (PDF). Retrieved on August 29, 2006.
  48. ^ Hands On: Power Pods - India. Retrieved on October 24, 2005.
  49. ^ Palm Oil Based Biodiesel Has Higher Chances Of Survival. Retrieved on December 20, 2006.
  50. ^ a b Graph derived from information found in UK government document.Carbon and Sustainability Reporting Within the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation
  51. ^ .Carbon and Sustainability Reporting Within the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation
  52. ^ Generic biodiesel material safety data sheet (MSDS)
  53. ^ University Of Idaho bioenergy
  54. ^ a b John Sheehan, Terri Dunahay, John Benemann, Paul Roessler (July 1998). "A look back at the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program: Biodiesel from Algae" (PDF (3.7 Mb)). Close-out Report. United States Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  55. ^ Energy Security for the 21st Century. The White House (2008-03-05). Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
  56. ^ International Biofuels Conference. HGCA. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
  57. ^ Biofuel demand makes fried food expensive in Indonesia - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
  58. ^ The other oil shock: Vegetable oil prices soar - International Herald Tribune
  59. ^ Food versus fuel debate escalates
  60. ^ How Food and Fuel Compete for Land by Lester Brown - The Globalist > > Global Energy
  61. ^ The Economist – The End Of Cheap Food.
  62. ^ Biofuel demand leading to human rights abuses, report claims Jessica Aldred, guardian.co.uk, February 11, 2008 Retrieved February 11, 2008
  63. ^ Helen Buckland, Ed Matthew (ed.) (19 September 2005). "The Oil for Ape Scandal: How palm oil is threatening the orang-utan" (PDF (458 Kb)). Summary. Friends of the Earth Trust. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  64. ^ Ancrenaz, M.; Marshall, A.; Goossens, B.; van Schaik, C.; Sugardjito, J.; Gumal, M. & Wich, S. (2007), Pongo pygmaeus. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>, <http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/17975/all>. Retrieved on 2 April 2008 
  65. ^ Singleton, I.; Wich, S.A. & Griffiths, M. (2007), Pongo abelii. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>, <http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/39780/all>. Retrieved on 2 April 2008 
  66. ^ http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-chapter7.pdf IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group I Report "The Physical Science Basis", Section 7.3.3.1.5 (p. 527)
  67. ^ Catherine Foster (27 April 2007). New catalyst helps eliminate NOx from diesel exhaust (HTML). Argonne National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other references

  • An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Lifecycles, May 1998, Sheehan, et al. NREL (60pp pdf file)
  • Business Management for Biodiesel Producers, January 2004, Jon Von Gerpen, Iowa State University under contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (210pp pdf file)
  • Energy balances in the growth of oilseed rape for biodiesel and of wheat for bioethanol, June 2000, I.R. Richards
  • Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus, 1998, Sheehan, et al. NREL (314pp pdf file)
  • Algae - like a breath mint for smokestacks, January 11, 2006, Mark Clayton, Christian Science Monitor
  • McCormick, R.L.. "2006 Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide Third Edition".
  • Biodiesel's Bright Future from the July-August issue of THE FUTURIST magazine.

is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ...

External links

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  • Biodiesel at the Open Directory Project
  • European Biodiesel Board website - European Biodiesel Industry.
  • Renewable raw materials: Biodiesel leads to more rape (rapeseed) cultivation
  • UNH Biodiesel Group's comparison of Biodiesel vs. Hydrogen
  • Biodiesel.org
  • Collaborative Biodiesel Tutorial
  • Oliomap.com The Global Vegetable Fuel Resources Map

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. ... Bagasse (sometimes spelled bagass) is the biomass remaining after sugarcane stalks are crushed to extract their juice. ... The babassu tree is a palm tree that is approximately 20 meters high. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... Cellulosic ethanol (also called lignocellulosic ethanol/ ceetoh and ceetol) is a type of biofuel produced from lignocellulose, a structural material that comprises much of the mass of plants. ... Information on pump, California. ... Sugar cane leaves File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name (L.) Small Triadica sebifera, also referred to as Sapium sebiferum, is commonly known as the Chinese tallow tree, Florida aspen and Popcorn tree. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Binomial name Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Sorghum bicolor is the primary Sorghum species grown for grain for human consumption and for animal feed. ... Soy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stover (disambiguation). ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... Energy forestry is a form of forestry in which a fast-growing species of tree or woody shrub is grown specifically to provide bio-fuel for heating. ... Binomial name Linnaeus 1753. ... Binomial name Panicum virgatum L. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm season grass and is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie. ... The bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels can be accomplished using the MixAlco process. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and value-added chemicals from biomass. ... // The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... Industrial biotechnology (also known as white biotechnology) is the practice of using cells to generate industrially-useful products. ... Three phases of ethanol commercialization are emerging. ... While all CO2 gas output ratios are calculated to within a less than 1% margin of error (assuming total oxidation of the carbon content of fuel), ratios preceded by a Tilde (~) indicate a margin of error of up to (but no greater than) 9%. Ratios listed do not include emissions... In physics, energy economics and ecological energetics, EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested), ERoEI, or EROI (Energy Return On Investment), is the ratio of the amount of usable energy acquired from a particular energy resource to the amount of energy expended to obtain that energy resource. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Biodiesel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4341 words)
Biodiesel is a better solvent than petrodiesel and has been known to break down deposits of residue in the fuel lines of vehicles that have previously been run on petrodiesel.
Biodiesel is becoming of interest to companies interested in commercial scale production as well as the more usual home brew biodiesel user and the user of straight vegetable oil or waste vegetable oil in diesel engines.
Biodiesel reduces emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) by approximately 50% and carbon dioxide by 78% on a net lifecycle basis because the carbon in biodiesel emissions is recycled from carbon that was already in the atmosphere, rather than being new carbon from petroleum that was sequestered in the earth's crust.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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