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Encyclopedia > Biodegradation

Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by living organisms. The term is often used in relation to ecology, waste management, environmental remediation (bioremediation) and to plastic materials, due to their long life span. Organic material can be degraded aerobically, with oxygen, or anaerobically, without oxygen. A term related to biodegradation is biomineralisation, in which organic matter is converted into minerals. Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Look up Aerobic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ... Biomineralisation is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues. ...


Biodegradable matter is generally organic material such as plant and animal matter and other substances originating from living organisms, or artificial materials that are similar enough to plant and animal matter to be put to use by microorganisms. Some microorganisms have the astonishing, naturally occurring, microbial catabolic diversity to degrade, transform or accumulate a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals. Major methodological breakthroughs in microbial biodegradation have enabled detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms providing unprecedented insights into key biodegradative pathways and the ability of microorganisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions.[1] A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Labelling transformers containing PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl and a general structure of C12H10-xClx. ... fuck fuck shit fuck ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created radiation particle within the nucleus, or else to an atomic electron (see internal conversion) . The radionuclide, in this process, undergoes radioactive decay... Interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in recent years as mankind strives to find sustainable ways to cleanup contaminated environments. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ...

Contents

Anaerobic biodegradation in landfill

Biodegradable waste in landfill degrades in the absence of oxygen through the process of anaerobic digestion. The byproducts of this anaerobic biodegradation are biogas and lignin and cellulose fibres which cannot be broken down by anaerobes (anaerobic microbes) Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms. ... Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ... Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ...


Engineered landfills are designed with liners to prevent toxic leachate seeping into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Paper and other materials that normally degrade in a few years degrade more slowly over longer periods of time. Biogas contains methane which has approximately 21 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide. In modern landfills this biogas can be collected and used for power generation. Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through any permeable material. ... Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Itaipu Dam is a hydroelectric generating station Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ...


Methods of measuring biodegradation

Biodegradation can be measured in a number of ways. The activity of aerobic microbes can be measured by the amount of oxygen they consume or the amount of carbon dioxide they produce. Biodegradation can be measured by anaerobic microbes and the amount of methane or alloy that they may be able to produce.


Measurement of aerobic decomposition

The DR4 test or 4-day dynamic respiration index test is a test to measure the biodegradability of a substance over 4 days. The substance is aerated by passing air through it. This definition is used to dte the method from those where aeration is by diffusion of air into and out of the test material which is referred to as the SRI or static respiration index test.[2] Microbes are introduced to the test material whilst incubating it under aerobic conditions by aerating the mixture in a vessel through which air is blown. The microbes degrade the material producing CO2 as the product of biodegradation. This CO2 production can be monitored as a measure of the biodegradability of the test material and converted into oxygen consumption units.


Measurement of anaerobic decomposition

BMP100 test, 100 day biogenic methane potential test, is a test method that determines the biodegradability of biodegradable wastes under anaerobic conditions by measuring the production of biogas. Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms. ...


Under anaerobic methanogenic conditions the decomposition of organic carbon proceeds by producing biogas (containing methane and carbon dioxide)from the organic carbon. The amount of biogas production therefore measures directly the carbon which is mineralised. The test is set up in a small vessel containing the test substrate, a mineral aqueous medium and an inoculum of methanogenic bacteria taken from an active anaerobic digester. The test is monitored by collecting and measuring the biogas produced. The test is incubated for an extended period until gas production ceases which may be up to 100 days or more. The test therefore measures the complete degradation of the waste. Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Anaerobic digesters are used to create anaerobic, meaning without oxygen, conditions so that anaerobic bacteria can efficiently digest biomass, sewage or other organic matter. ...


Plastics

Biodegradable plastics made with plastarch material (PSM), and polylactide (PLA) will compost in an industrial compost facility. There are other plastic materials that claim biodegradability, but are more often (and possibly more accurately) described as 'degradable' or oxi-degradable; It is claimed that this process causes more rapid breakdown of the plastic materials into CO2 and H2O. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Plastarch Material (PSM) is a biodegradable, thermoplastic resin. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into polylactic acid. ...


Indicative lengths of degradation

The following table should be read with the above comments in mind, and care should be taken before accepting claims of biodegradability in view of the (dubious) claims being made. This is how long it takes for some commonly used products to biodegrade: (from http://www.worldwise.com/biodegradable.html)

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sock (disambiguation). ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ... A cigarette filter has the purpose of reducing the amount of smoke, tar, and fine particles as combustion products from a cigarette, being inhaled. ... Styrofoam is a trademark name for polystyrene thermal insulation material, manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. ... Tetrapak logo Tetra Pak is a multinational food packaging company of Swedish origin. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For people named Leather, see Leather (surname). ... For other uses, see Shoe (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Six-pack has more than one meaning: Six-pack refers to a set of six canned or bottled drinks sold together: aluminum cans are held together by a yoke, and bottles are stored in cardboard carriers with three on either side of a handle in the middle. ... Baby cloth diaper filled with extra cloth. ... A sanitary pad is a pad composed of cotton and other absorbent material that used by menstruating women to absorb blood flow from the uterus. ... For the American naval slang term, see destroyer. ... The aluminum can (North American English spelling) or aluminium can (other English spelling) is a popular beverage container introduced by the Coors Brewing Company. ...

See also

Two-stage, low-solids, UASB anaerobic digesters as part of a mechanical biological treatment system, with sequencing batch reactor Anaerobic digestion (AD) is where the naturally occurring processes of anaerobic degradation is harnessed and contained. ... Bioplastics are a form of plastics derived from plant sources such as hemp oil, soy bean oil and corn starch rather than traditional plastics which are derived from petroleum. ... Conventionally, plastics are made of petrochemicals. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... Landfill gas monitoring is the process by which gases that are released from landfill are electronically monitored. ... This is a list of topics related (in whole or in part) to (a) phenomena in the natural environment which have a definite or significantly possible connection with human activity or (b) features of human activity which have a definite or significantly possible connection with the natural environment, even if... Interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in recent years as mankind strives to find sustainable ways to cleanup contaminated environments. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Diaz E (editor). (2008). Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology, 1st ed., Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-17-2. 
  2. ^ Biodegradability Testing Environment Agency (2005) Guidance on monitoring MBT and other pre-treatment processes for the landfill allowances scheme (England and Wales)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biodegradation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (593 words)
Biodegradation is the decomposition of organic material by microorganisms.
The term biodegradation is often used in relation to sewage treatment, environmental remediation (bioremediation) and to plastic materials although biodegradation is perhaps better regarded as the closing of the loop commencing with photosynthesis.
Whether a material is biodegradable makes little difference; biodegradable matter usually does not decay, because of the lack of oxygen required by the microorganisms.
UTCHEM BIODEGRADATION MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CAPABILITIES (3261 words)
The biodegradation model equations describe the transport of substrate and electron acceptor from the aqueous phase into attached biomass, the loss of substrate and electron acceptor through biodegradation reactions, and the resulting growth of the free-floating or attached biomass.
The flow and biodegradation system is solved through operator splitting, in which the solution to the flow equations is used as the initial conditions for the biodegradation reactions.
For simplicity, a single population of microorganisms capable of biodegrading the benzene and toluene is assumed to exist in the aquifer.
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