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Encyclopedia > Biocide

A biocide is a chemical substance capable of killing different forms of living organisms used in fields such as medicine, agriculture, forestry, and mosquito control. Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. ... This article is about life in general. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ...


A biocide can be:

Contents

A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Fungicides are pesticides for destruction or development prevention of fungi. ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... An algaecide or algicide is a substance used for killing and preventing the growth of algae. ... Molluscicides are pesticides used to control molluscs, i. ... Miticides are pesticides that kill mites. ... Rat poisons are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rats. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Something antifungal kills or inhibits the growth of fungus. ... Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoal infections. ... Spermicide is a substance that kills sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. ...

Uses

Biocides can also be added to other materials (typically liquids) to protect the material from biological infestation and growth. For example, certain types of quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) can be added to pool water or industrial water systems to act as an algicide, protecting the water from infestation and growth of algae. Chlorine can be added in low concentrations to water as one of the final steps in wastewater treatment as a general biocide to kill micro-organisms, algae, etc. It is often impractical to store and use poisonous chlorine gas for water treatment, so alternative methods of effectively adding chlorine are used. Adding hypochlorite solutions to pools, etc. is one possible solution. Hypochlorite can gradually release chlorine into the water. Even more convenient for some users are compounds such as sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione (dihydrate or anhydrous), sometimes referred to as dichlor, and trichloro-s-triazinetrione, sometimes referred to as trichlor. These compounds are stable while solid and may be used in powdered, granular, or tablet form. When added in small amounts to pool water or industrial water systems, the chlorine atoms hydrolyze from the rest of the molecule forming hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which acts as a general biocide killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, etc. Halogenated hydantoin compounds are also used as biocides. For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Quat may refer to: Quaternary ammonium cation, a class of chemical molecules Quaternion, a non-commutative extension of the complex numbers Khat, an African plant whose leaves are chewed as a stimulant Phan Huy Quat, former prime minister of South Vietnam Quat an open source quaternion formula displayer Category: ... For the 2003 film, see Swimming Pool (film). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... The hypochlorite ion The hypochlorite ion is ClO−. A hypochlorite compound is a chemical compound containing this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +1. ... Dichloroisocyanuric acid, also known as dichlor, dichloro-s-triazinetrione, and troclosene, is a chemical compound. ... The chemical compound 1,1,1-trichloroethane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon that was until recently widely used as an industrial solvent. ... Hypochlorous acid is a weak, unstable acid with chemical formula HOCl. ... Hydantoin, which is also known as glycolylurea, is a heterocyclic organic compound which can be thought of as a cyclic double-condensation reaction product of glycolic acid and urea. ...


Classification

European Community Classification

The Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD), the classification of biocides is broken down into 23 product types (i.e. application categories), with several comprising different subgroups:[1]


MAIN GROUP 1: Disinfectants and general biocidal products

  • Product-type 1: Human hygiene biocidal products
  • Product-type 2: Private area and public health area disinfectants and other biocidal products
  • Product-type 3: Veterinary hygiene biocidal products
  • Product-type 4: Food and feed area disinfectants
  • Product-type 5: Drinking water disinfectants

MAIN GROUP 2: Preservatives

  • Product-type 6: In-can preservatives
  • Product-type 7: Film preservatives
  • Product-type 8: Wood preservatives
  • Product-type 9: Fibre, leather, rubber and polymerised materials preservatives
  • Product-type 10: Masonry preservatives
  • Product-type 11: Preservatives for liquid-cooling and processing systems
  • Product-type 12: Slimicides
  • Product-type 13: Metalworking-fluid preservatives

MAIN GROUP 3: Pest control All measures that are taken to ensure a long life of wood fall under the definition wood preservation (timber treatment). ...

MAIN GROUP 4: Other biocidal products Rat poisons are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rats. ... An avicide is any substance (normally, a chemical) which can be used to kill birds. ... Molluscicides are pesticides used to control molluscs, i. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Repellent can refer to: Insect repellent Animal repellent Category: ...

  • Product-type 20: Preservatives for food or feedstocks
  • Product-type 21: Antifouling products
  • Product-type 22: Embalming and taxidermist fluids
  • Product-type 23: Control of other vertebrates

Biofouling or biological fouling is the undesirable accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, and animals on submerged structures, especially ships hulls. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... Taxidermy (Greek for the arrangement of the skin) is the art of mounting or reproducing animals for display or study. ...

References

  1. ^ DIRECTIVE 98/8/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 16 February 1998 concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market [1]

Literature

  • Wilfried Paulus: Directory of Microbicides for the Protection of Materials and Processes. Springer Netherland, Berlin 2006, ISBN 1-4020-4861-0.
  • Danish EPA (2001): Inventory of Biocides used in Denmark

See also

  • Non-pesticide management

Non-pesticide management (NPM) is all kinds of methods for agriculture ( the term seem to mainly refer to cotton ) that do not rely on pesticides. ...

External links

 http://www.biocide-information.com/ 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Warwick International – TAED (tetraacetylethylenediamine) - an effective biocide (203 words)
The Biocide Technologies Group at Warwick International will provide a full technical partnership, complete product development programmes and performance evaluation using dedicated microbiological facilities.
For optimal biocidal activity it is important to choose the appropriate WARWICK B Series product and the correct level (and source) of peroxygen.
Other factors are also important and advice on all of these is available from the Biocide Technologies Group at Warwick International through our contact form.
Why use Biocides in your Coatings? - Biocide Center - SpecialChem 4 Coatings and Inks (293 words)
Biocide additives have been designed to keep bacteria from spoiling paint during storage, or to keep fungi and algae from growing on the applied paint.
In the Biocide Center, we will provide you with in-depth technical information on the benefits and features of biocides for Dry-film protection and In-can preservation and help you to select the most suitable biocide additives in accordance with new stringent European regulations.
As biocides are biologically active and have the potential to be irritating, we recommend you to follow our guidelines for any of your paint developments.
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