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Encyclopedia > Biochemistry
Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea.

Biochemistry (from Greek: βίος, bios, "life" and Egyptian kēme, "earth"[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules. Chemical biology aims to answer many questions arising from biochemistry by using tools developed within chemical synthesis. Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical elements to explain patterns in nature. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Some common lipids. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ...


Although there are a vast number of different biomolecules, many are complex and large molecules (called polymers) that are composed of similar repeating subunits (called monomers). Each class of polymeric biomolecule has a different set of subunit types. For example, a protein is a polymer made up of 20 or more amino acids. Biochemistry studies the chemical properties of important biological molecules, like proteins, in particular the chemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... A monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer [1]. // Examples of monomers are hydrocarbons such as the alkene and arene homologous series. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Catalyst redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ...


The biochemistry of cell metabolism and the endocrine system has been extensively described. Other areas of biochemistry include the genetic code (DNA, RNA), protein synthesis, cell membrane transport, and signal transduction. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... Protein synthesis is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as...


This article only discusses terrestrial biochemistry (carbon- and water-based), as all the life forms we know are on Earth. Since life forms alive today descended from the same common ancestor, they have similar biochemistries, even for matters that seem to be essentially arbitrary, such as handedness of various biomolecules. It is unknown whether alternative biochemistries are possible or practical. For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ... Alternative biochemistry is the speculative biochemistry of alien life forms that differ radically from those on Earth. ...

Contents

History

Friedrich Wöhler
Friedrich Wöhler

Originally, it was generally believed that life was not subject to the laws of science the way non-life was. It was thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of life (from other, previously existing biomolecules). Then, in 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created artificially.[2][3] The history of biochemistry spans approximately 400 years. ... PD image from http://wwwihm. ... PD image from http://wwwihm. ... Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known by the International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) carbamide, as established by the World Health Organization. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as...


The dawn of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase (today called amylase), in 1833 by Anselme Payen. Eduard Buchner contributed the first demonstration of a complex biochemical process outside of a cell in 1896: alcoholic fermentation in cell extracts of yeast. Although the term “biochemistry” seems to have been first used in 1882, it is generally accepted that the formal coinage of biochemistry occurred in 1903 by Carl Neuberg, a German chemist. Previously, this area would have been referred to as physiological chemistry. Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle). A diastase (from Greek διαστασις, separation) is any one of a group of enzymes which catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose. ... Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. ... Anselme Payen ([[January 6], 1795 - May 12, 1871) was a French chemist. ... Eduard Buchner (May 20, 1860 -- August 12, 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, the winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation. ... Beer - A Product of Ethanol Fermentation Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ... Carl Alexander Neuberg (1877-1956) was an early pioneer in biochemistry, and the first editor of the journal Biochemische Zeitschrift. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Physiological chemistry is the chemistry of the organs and tissues of the body, and of the various physiological processes incident to life. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ... Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys high magnetic field (800 MHz) NMR spectrometer being loaded with a sample. ... Radioisotopic labeling is a technique for tracking the passage of a sample of substance through a system. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... Molecular dynamics (MD) is a form of computer simulation wherein atoms and molecules are allowed to interact for a period of time under known laws of physics, giving a view of the motion of the atoms. ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration. ...


Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene and its role in the transfer of information in the cell. This part of biochemistry is often called molecular biology. In the 1950's, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, and Maurice Wilkins were instrumental in solving DNA structure and suggesting its relationship with genetic transfer of information. In 1958, George Beadle and Edward Tatum received the Nobel Prize for work in fungi showing that one gene produces one enzyme. In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with DNA evidence, which led to growth of forensic science. More recently, Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize for discovering the role of RNA interference (RNAi), in the silencing of gene expression. For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... For other people named James Watson, see James Watson (disambiguation). ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate who contributed research in the fields of phosphorescence, radar, isotope separation, and X-ray diffraction. ... Beadle won a Nobel Prize in 1958 George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 - June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics. ... Tatum won the Nobel Prize for his work in genetics Edward Lawrie Tatum (December 14, 1909 - November 5, 1975) was an American geneticist. ... Colin Pitchfork Colin Pitchfork (born . ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Forensics redirects here. ... Andrew Z. Fire Andrew Zachary Fire (born on April 27th 1959) is an American professor of pathology and of genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine. ... Craig C. Mello Craig Cameron Mello (born October 19, 1960 in Worcester, Massachusetts), is one of the laureates of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Andrew Z. Fire, for the discovery of RNA interference. ... Cells use dicer to trim double stranded RNA to form small interfering RNA or microRNA. An exogenous dsRNA or endogenous pre-miRNA can be processed by dicer and incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets single-stranded messenger RNA molecules and triggers translational repression;[1] incorporation into... In molecular biology, RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism in which the presence of small fragments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) whose sequence matches a given gene interferes with the expression of that gene. ...


Today, there are three main types of biochemistry as established by Michael E. Sugar. Plant biochemistry involves the study of the biochemistry of autotrophic organisms such as photosynthesis and other plant specific biochemical processes. General biochemistry encompasses both plant and animal biochemistry. Human/medical/medicinal biochemistry focuses on the biochemistry of humans and medical illnesses. An autotroph (in Greek eauton = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces its own cell mass and organic compounds from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source, using either light or chemical compounds as a source of energy. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. ...


Carbohydrates

Main article: Carbohydrate

The function of carbohydrates includes energy storage and providing structure. Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type of biomolecule. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ...


Monosaccharides

The simplest type of carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, which among other properties contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, mostly in a ratio of 1:2:1 (generalized formula CnH2nOn, where n is at least 3). Glucose, one of the most important carbohydrates, is an example of a monosaccharide. So is fructose, the sugar that gives fruits their sweet taste. Some carbohydrates (especially after condensation to oligo- and polysaccharides) contain less carbon relative to H and O, which still are present in 2:1 (H:O) ratio. Monosaccharides can be grouped into aldoses (having an aldehyde group at the end of the chain, e. g. glucose) and ketoses (having a keto group in their chain; e. g. fructose). Both aldoses and ketoses occur in an equilibrium between the open-chain forms and (starting with chain lengths of C4) cyclic forms. These are generated by bond formation between one of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar chain with the carbon of the aldehyde or keto group to form a hemiacetal bond. This leads to saturated five-membered (in furanoses) or six-membered (in pyranoses) heterocyclic rings containing one O as heteroatom. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x603, 38 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x603, 38 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Glucose ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties combine to form one single molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule. ... Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde An aldose is a sugar containing one aldehyde group per molecule and having a chemical formula of the form C3nH6nO3n. ... An aldehyde. ... A ketose is a sugar containing one ketone group per molecule. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... A burette, an apparatus for carrying out acid-base titration, is an important part of equilibrium chemistry. ... A hemiacetal is a functional group or compound containing the function group in the form of: where R and R are any carbon backbones. ... Heterocyclic compounds are substances which contain a ring structure as found in benzene and the aromatic compounds, or aromatic hydrocarbons, but in which other atoms than carbon, such as sulfur, oxygen or nitrogen are found as part of the ring. ...


Disaccharides

Sucrose: ordinary table sugar and probably the most familiar carbohydrate.
Sucrose: ordinary table sugar and probably the most familiar carbohydrate.

Two monosaccharides can be joined together using dehydration synthesis, in which a hydrogen atom is removed from the end of one molecule and a hydroxyl group (—OH) is removed from the other; the remaining residues are then attached at the sites from which the atoms were removed. The H—OH or H2O is then released as a molecule of water, hence the term dehydration. The new molecule, consisting of two monosaccharides, is called a disaccharide and is conjoined together by a glycosidic or ether bond. The reverse reaction can also occur, using a molecule of water to split up a disaccharide and break the glycosidic bond; this is termed hydrolysis. The most well-known disaccharide is sucrose, ordinary sugar (in scientific contexts, called table sugar or cane sugar to differentiate it from other sugars). Sucrose consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule joined together. Another important disaccharide is lactose, consisting of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule. As most humans age, the production of lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose back into glucose and galactose, typically decreases. This results in lactase deficiency, also called lactose intolerance. Image File history File links Saccharose. ... Image File history File links Saccharose. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Dehydration synthesis is a type of synthesis reaction in which two smaller molecules are joined together by a covalent bond and water is formed (released) in the reaction. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ... Lactose intolerance is the condition in which lactase, an enzyme needed for proper metabolization of lactose (a constituent of milk and other dairy products), is not produced in adulthood. ...


Sugar polymers are characterised by having reducing or non-reducing ends. A reducing end of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom which can be in equilibrium with the open-chain aldehyde or keto form. If the joining of monomers takes place at such a carbon atom, the free hydroxy group of the pyranose or furanose form is exchanged with an OH-side chain of another sugar, yielding a full acetal. This prevents opening of the chain to the aldehyde or keto form and renders the modified residue non-reducing. Lactose contains a reducing end at its glucose moiety, whereas the galactose moiety form a full acetal with the C4-OH group of glucose. Saccharose does not have a reducing end because of full acetal formation between the aldehyde carbon of glucose (C1) and the keto carbon of fructose (C2). A reducing sugar is any sugar that, in basic solution, forms some aldehyde or ketone. ... An aldehyde. ... Glucose in its alpha-D-glucopyranose form Pyranose is a collective term for carbohydrates which have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbons and one oxygen. ... A furanose is a simple sugar that contains a furan ring and is a sub-terminal ketone which gives it reducing power. ... An acetal is a functional group or molecule containing the functional group of a carbon bonded to two -OR groups. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides

Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose
Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose

When a few (around three to six) monosaccharides are joined together, it is called an oligosaccharide (oligo- meaning "few"). These molecules tend to be used as markers and signals, as well as having some other uses. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x488, 44 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cellulose ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x488, 44 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cellulose ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ...


Many monosaccharides joined together make a polysaccharide. They can be joined together in one long linear chain, or they may be branched. Two of the most common polysaccharides are cellulose and glycogen, both consisting of repeating glucose monomers. Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... A monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer [1]. // Examples of monomers are hydrocarbons such as the alkene and arene homologous series. ...

  • Cellulose is made by plants and is an important structural component of their cell walls. Humans can neither manufacture nor digest it.
  • Glycogen, on the other hand, is an animal carbohydrate; humans and other animals use it as a form of energy storage.

For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ...

Use of carbohydrates as an energy source

See also carbohydrate metabolism

Glucose is the major energy source in most life forms. For instance, polysaccharides are broken down into their monomers (glycogen phosphorylase removes glucose residues from glycogen). Disaccharides like lactose or sucrose are cleaved into their two component monosaccharides. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for some carbohydrate metabolism. ... Glycogen phosphorylase is the enzyme necessary to break up glycogen into glucose subunits. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ...


Glycolysis (anaerobic)

Glucose is mainly metabolized by a very important and ancient ten-step pathway called glycolysis, the net result of which is to break down one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate; this also produces a net two molecules of ATP, the energy currency of cells, along with two reducing equivalents in the form of converting NAD+ to NADH. This does not require oxygen; if no oxygen is available (or the cell cannot use oxygen), the NAD is restored by converting the pyruvate to lactate (lactic acid) (e. g. in humans) or to ethanol plus carbon dioxide (e. g. in yeast). Other monosaccharides like galactose and fructose can be converted into intermediates of the glycolytic pathway. Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ or in older notation DPN+) is an important coenzyme found in cells. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ...


Aerobic

In aerobic cells with sufficient oxygen, like most human cells, the pyruvate is further metabolized. It is irreversibly converted to acetyl-CoA, giving off one carbon atom as the waste product carbon dioxide, generating another reducing equivalent as NADH. The two molecules acetyl-CoA (from one molecule of glucose) then enter the citric acid cycle, producing two more molecules of ATP, six more NADH molecules and two reduced (ubi)quinones (via FADH2 as enzyme-bound cofactor), and releasing the remaining carbon atoms as carbon dioxide. The produced NADH and quinol molecules then feed into the enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain, an electron transport system transferring the electrons ultimately to oxygen and conserving the released energy in the form of a proton gradient over a membrane (inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes). Thereby, oxygen is reduced to water and the original electron acceptors NAD+ and quinone are regenerated. This is why humans breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. The energy released from transferring the electrons from high-energy states in NADH and quinol is conserved first as proton gradient and converted to ATP via ATP synthase. This generates an additional 28 molecules of ATP (24 from the 8 NADH + 4 from the 2 quinols), totaling to 32 molecules of ATP conserved per degraded glucose (two from glycolysis + two from the citrate cycle). It is clear that using oxygen to completely oxidize glucose provides an organism with far more energy than any oxygen-independent metabolic feature, and this is thought to be the reason why complex life appeared only after Earth's atmosphere accumulated large amounts of oxygen. This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs | Thiols ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are two important coenzymes found in cells. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are two important coenzymes found in cells. ... Flavin is also the name of a commune in the Aveyron département, in France Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), upper, reduced FAD (FADH2), lower Flavin is a tricyclic heteronuclear organic ring whose biochemical source is the vitamin riboflavin. ... The electron transfer chain (also called the electron transport chain, or simply electron transport), is a series of protein complexers and lipid messengers spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane that accepts electrons from electron donors such as NADH or succinate, shuttles these electrons from within the mitochondrial matrix across the inner... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Gluconeogenesis

Main article: Gluconeogenesis

In vertebrates, vigorously contracting skeletal muscles (during weightlifting or sprinting, for example) do not receive enough oxygen to meet the energy demand, and so they shift to anaerobic metabolism, converting glucose to lactate. The liver regenerates the glucose, using a process called gluconeogenesis. This process is not quite the opposite of glycolysis, and actually requires three times the amount of energy gained from glycolysis (six molecules of ATP are used, compared to the two gained in glycolysis). Analogous to the above reactions, the glucose produced can then undergo glycolysis in tissues that need energy, be stored as glycogen (or starch in plants), or be converted to other monosaccharides or joined into di- or oligosaccharides. Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ...


Proteins

Main article: Protein
A schematic of hemoglobin. The red and blue ribbons represent the protein globin; the green structures are the heme groups.
A schematic of hemoglobin. The red and blue ribbons represent the protein globin; the green structures are the heme groups.

Like carbohydrates, some proteins perform largely structural roles. For instance, movements of the proteins actin and myosin ultimately are responsible for the contraction of skeletal muscle. One property many proteins have is that they specifically bind to a certain molecule or class of molecules—they may be extremely selective in what they bind. Antibodies are an example of proteins that attach to one specific type of molecule. In fact, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which uses antibodies, is currently one of the most sensitive tests modern medicine uses to detect various biomolecules. Probably the most important proteins, however, are the enzymes. These amazing molecules recognize specific reactant molecules called substrates; they then catalyze the reaction between them. By lowering the activation energy, the enzyme speeds up that reaction by a rate of 1011 or more: a reaction that would normally take over 3,000 years to complete spontaneously might take less than a second with an enzyme. The enzyme itself is not used up in the process, and is free to catalyze the same reaction with a new set of substrates. Using various modifiers, the activity of the enzyme can be regulated, enabling control of the biochemistry of the cell as a whole. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1,006 KB, MIME type: image/png)By Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) 2007. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1,006 KB, MIME type: image/png)By Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) 2007. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... A globular protein is a protein that is globe-like, or rounded in shape, often soluble in aqueous solution. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... G-Actin (PDB code: 1j6z). ... Myosin is a motor protein filament found in muscle tissue. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA or EIA for short) is a biochemical technique used in immunology to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... For other uses, see Substrate. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... The sparks generated by striking steel against a flint provide the activation energy to initiate combustion in this Bunsen burner. ...


In essence, proteins are chains of amino acids. An amino acid consists of a carbon atom bound to four groups. One is an amino group, —NH2, and one is a carboxylic acid group, —COOH (although these exist as —NH3+ and —COO under physiologic conditions). The third is a simple hydrogen atom. The fourth is commonly denoted "—R" and is different for each amino acid. There are twenty standard amino acids. Some of these have functions by themselves or in a modified form; for instance, glutamate functions as an important neurotransmitter. This article is about the class of chemicals. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ...

Generic amino acids (1) in neutral form, (2) as they exist physiologically, and (3) joined together as a dipeptide.
Generic amino acids (1) in neutral form, (2) as they exist physiologically, and (3) joined together as a dipeptide.

Amino acids can be joined together via a peptide bond. In this dehydration synthesis, a water molecule is removed and the peptide bond connects the nitrogen of one amino acid's amino group to the carbon of the other's carboxylic acid group. The resulting molecule is called a dipeptide, and short stretches of amino acids (usually, fewer than around thirty) are called peptides or polypeptides. Longer stretches merit the title proteins. As an example, the important blood serum protein albumin contains 585 amino acid residues. By Magnus Manske File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... By Magnus Manske File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A peptide bond is a chemical bond that is formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). ... A dipeptide is a molecule consisting of two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into serum albumin. ...


The structure of proteins is traditionally described in a hierarchy of four levels. The primary structure of a protein simply consists of its linear sequence of amino acids; for instance, "alanine-glycine-tryptophan-serine-glutamate-asparagine-glycine-lysine-…". Secondary structure is concerned with local morphology. Some combinations of amino acids will tend to curl up in a coil called an α-helix or into a sheet called a β-sheet; some α-helixes can be seen in the hemoglobin schematic above. Tertiary structure is the entire three-dimensional shape of the protein. This shape is determined by the sequence of amino acids. In fact, a single change can change the entire structure. The alpha chain of hemoglobin contains 146 amino acid residues; substitution of the glutamate residue at position 6 with a valine residue changes the behavior of hemoglobin so much that it results in sickle-cell disease. Finally quaternary structure is concerned with the structure of a protein with multiple peptide subunits, like hemoglobin with its four subunits. Not all proteins have more than one subunit. A protein primary structure is a chain of amino acids. ... A representation of the 3D structure of the myoglobin protein. ... Side view of an α-helix of alanine residues in atomic detail. ... Diagram of β-pleated sheet with H-bonding between protein strands The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins — the first is the alpha helix — consisting of beta strands connected laterally by three or more hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. ... In biochemistry and chemistry, the tertiary structure of a protein or any other macromolecule is its three-dimensional structure, as defined by the atomic coordinates. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Valine is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by humans, so it is considered an essential amino acid for human life. ... sickle cell redirects here. ... In biochemistry, many proteins are actually assemblies of more than one protein (polypeptide) molecule, which in the context of the larger assemblage are known as protein subunits. ...


Ingested proteins are usually broken up into single amino acids or dipeptides in the small intestine, and then absorbed. They can then be joined together to make new proteins. Intermediate products of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway can be used to make all twenty amino acids, and most bacteria and plants possess all the necessary enzymes to synthesize them. Humans and other mammals, however, can only synthesize half of them. They cannot synthesize isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. These are the essential amino acids, since it is essential to ingest them. Mammals do possess the enzymes to synthesize alanine, asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine, the nonessential amino acids. While they can synthesize arginine and histidine, they cannot produce it in sufficient amounts for young, growing animals, and so these are often considered essential amino acids. In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and comprises the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... The pentose phosphate pathways Nonoxidative phase The pentose phosphate pathway (also called Phosphogluconate Pathway, or Hexose Monophosphate Shunt [HMP shunt]) is a process that serves to generate NADPH and the synthesis of pentose (5-carbon) sugars. ... Isoleucine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)CH2CH3. ... Leucine is one of the 20 most common amino acids and coded for by DNA. It is isomeric with isoleucine. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... Phenyl alanine is an α-amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2C6H5. ... Threonine is one of the 20 natural amino acids. ... Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W)[1] is one of the 20 standard amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, and an essential amino acid in the human diet. ... Valine is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by humans, so it is considered an essential amino acid for human life. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... Alanine (Ala, A) also 2-aminopropanoic acid is a non-essential α-amino acid. ... For other articles using the abbreviation or acronym asn see ASN. Asparagine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth. ... Aspartic acid, also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. ... Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Glutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q; Glx or Z represents either glutamine or glutamic acid) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... Proline is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH[CH2)3]. L-Proline is one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. ... Serine (IPA ), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ... Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ...


If the amino group is removed from an amino acid, it leaves behind a carbon skeleton called an α-keto acid. Enzymes called transaminases can easily transfer the amino group from one amino acid (making it an α-keto acid) to another α-keto acid (making it an amino acid). This is important in the biosynthesis of amino acids, as for many of the pathways, intermediates from other biochemical pathways are converted to the α-keto acid skeleton, and then an amino group is added, often via transamination. The amino acids may then be linked together to make a protein. Pyruvic acid Acetoacetic acid Levulinic acid Keto acids are organic acids containing a ketone functional group and a carboxylic acid group. ... In biochemistry, a transaminase or an aminotransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a type of reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid. ... Transamination is the reaction between an amino acid and an alpha-keto acid. ...


A similar process is used to break down proteins. It is first hydrolyzed into its component amino acids. Free ammonia (NH3), existing as the ammonium ion (NH4+) in blood, is toxic to life forms. A suitable method for excreting it must therefore exist. Different strategies have evolved in different animals, depending on the animals' needs. Unicellular organisms, of course, simply release the ammonia into the environment. Similarly, bony fish can release the ammonia into the water where it is quickly diluted. In general, mammals convert the ammonia into urea, via the urea cycle. For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Classes Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Osteichthyes (IPA: ), also called bony fish, are a taxonomic superclass of fish that includes the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe finned fish (Sarcopterygii). ... The reactions of the urea cycle. ...


Lipids

Main article: Lipid

The term lipid comprises a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a catchall for relatively water-insoluble or nonpolar compounds of biological origin, including waxes, fatty acids, fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and terpenoids (eg. retinoids and steroids). Some lipids are linear aliphatic molecules, while others have ring structures. Some are aromatic, while others are not. Some are flexible, while others are rigid. Some common lipids. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... In chemistry, a nonpolar compound is one that does not have concentrations of positive or negative electric charge. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... General chemical structure of sphingolipids. ... Glycolipids are carbohydrate-attached lipids. ... Chemical structure of the terpenoid isopentenyl pyrophosphate. ... First- and second-generation retinoid compounds The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are related chemically to vitamin A. Retinoids are used in medicine, primarily due to the way they regulate epithelial cell growth. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ...


Most lipids have some polar character in addition to being largely nonpolar. Generally, the bulk of their structure is nonpolar or hydrophobic ("water-fearing"), meaning that it does not interact well with polar solvents like water. Another part of their structure is polar or hydrophilic ("water-loving") and will tend to associate with polar solvents like water. This makes them amphiphilic molecules (having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions). In the case of cholesterol, the polar group is a mere -OH (hydroxyl or alcohol). In the case of phospholipids, the polar groups are considerably larger and more polar, as described below. A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... An amphipathic (a. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ...


Lipids are an integral part of our daily diet. Most oils and milk products that we use for cooking and eating like butter, cheese, ghee etc, are comprised of fats. Vegetable oils are rich in various polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Lipid-containing foods undergo digestion within the body and are broken into fatty acids and glycerol, which are the final degradation products of fats and lipids. Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... Milk products are products derieved from cows or buffalos milk. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu گھی, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... A polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is a class of unsaturated fat that contains more than one double bond. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ...


Nucleic acids

Main article: Nucleic acid

A nucleic acid is a complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses. Aside from the genetic material of the cell, nucleic acids often play a role as second messengers, as well as forming the base molecule for adenosine triphosphate, the primary energy-carrier molecule found in all living organisms. Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Illustration of a polypeptide macromolecule The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule. In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles. ... A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine), and typically these are... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... In biology, second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay signals within a cell. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ...


Nucleic acid, so called because of its prevalence in cellular nuclei, is the generic name of the family of biopolymers. The monomers are called nucleotides, and each consists of three components: a nitrogenous heterocyclic base (either a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. Different nucleic acid types differ in the specific sugar found in their chain (e.g. DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid contains 2-deoxyriboses). Also, the nitrogenous bases possible in the two nucleic acids are different: adenine, cytosine, and guanine occur in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs only in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA. HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Biopolymers are a class of polymers produced by living organisms. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Purine (1) is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring [1]. It is isomeric with two other forms of diazine. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... Uracil is a pyrimidine which is common and naturally occurring. ...


Relationship to other "molecular-scale" biological sciences

Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology
Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology

Researchers in biochemistry use specific techniques native to biochemistry, but increasingly combine these with techniques and ideas from genetics, molecular biology and biophysics. There has never been a hard-line between these disciplines in terms of content and technique, but members of each discipline have in the past been very territorial; today the terms molecular biology and biochemistry are nearly interchangeable. The following figure is a schematic that depicts one possible view of the relationship between the fields: Image File history File links Schematic_relationship_between_biochemistry,_genetics_and_molecular_biology. ... Image File history File links Schematic_relationship_between_biochemistry,_genetics_and_molecular_biology. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ...

  • Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms. Biochemists focus heavily on the role, function, and structure of biomolecules. The study of the chemistry behind biological processes and the synthesis of biologically active molecules are examples of biochemistry.
  • Genetics is the study of the effect of genetic differences on organisms. Often this can be inferred by the absence of a normal component (e.g. one gene). The study of "mutants" – organisms which lack one or more functional components with respect to the so-called "wild type" or normal phenotype. Genetic interactions (epistasis) can often confound simple interpretations of such "knock-out" studies.
  • Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material. The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being an oversimplified picture of molecular biology, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field. This picture, however, is undergoing revision in light of emerging novel roles for RNA.
  • Chemical Biology seeks to develop new tools based on small molecules that allow minimal perturbation of biological systems while providing detailed information about their function. Further, chemical biology employs biological systems to create non-natural hybrids between biomolecules and synthetic devices (for example emptied viral capsids that can deliver gene therapy or drug molecules).

Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... A biochemist is a scientist trained and dedicated to producing results in the discipline of biochemistry. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... This article is about biological mutants. ... In biology, a wild type is one of the major genotypes of a species that occur in nature, in contrast to induced mutations or artificial cross-breeding. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Genetic interactions, in genetics, are interactions that occur between two or more mutations that results in a new phenotype. ... Epistasis takes place when the action of one gene is modified by one or more others that assort somewhat independently. ... Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form. ... Information flow in biological systems The central dogma of molecular biology was first enunciated by Francis Crick in 1958[1] and re-stated in a Nature paper published in 1970:[2] POSTLEWAITE IS A TOOL The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one. ...

References

  1. ^ See: Chemistry (etymology)
  2. ^ Wöhler, F. (1828). "Ueber künstliche Bildung des Harnstoffs.". Ann. Phys. Chem. 12: 253-256. 
  3. ^ Kauffman, G. B. and Chooljian, S.H. (2001). "Friedrich Wöhler (1800–1882), on the Bicentennial of His Birth". The Chemical Educator 6 (2): 121-133. doi:10.1007/s00897010444a. 

In the history of science, the etymology of the word chemistry is a debatable issue. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

See also

Lists

Major categories of bio-compounds: Carbohydrates : sugar -- disaccharide -- polysaccharide -- cholesterol -- starch -- glycogen Lipids : fatty acid -- fats -- essential oils -- oils -- waxes Nucleic acids : DNA -- RNA -- mRNA -- tRNA -- rRNA -- codon -- adenosine -- cytosine -- guanine -- thymine -- uracil Proteins : amino acid -- glycine -- arginine -- lysine peptide -- primary structure -- secondary structure -- tertiary structure -- conformation -- protein folding Chemical... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to biochemistry. ... This page aims to list articles on about famous biochemists. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that describe particular biomolecules or types of biomolecules. ... This is a list of notable geneticists & biochemists. ... This is a list of important publications in biology, organized by field. ... This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ...

Related topics

Veterinary medicine is the application of medical diagnostic and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... Metabolome is the whole set of metabolic entities and small pathway motifs in a cell, tissue, organ, organisms, and species. ... Metabolomics is the systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind - specifically, the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles. ... A germination rate experiment Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the function, or physiology, of plants. ... Alternative biochemistry is the speculative biochemistry of alien life forms that differ radically from those on Earth. ... Biological psychiatry, or biopsychiatry is an approach to psychiatry that aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system. ... Chemical ecology is the study of the chemicals involved in the interactions of living organisms. ... Computational biomodeling refers to a type of artificial life research concerned with building computer simulations of biochemical systems. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology concerned with the study of the architecture and shape of biological macromolecules--proteins and nucleic acids in particular—and what causes them to have the structures they have. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... Molecular Medicine is a new scientific discipline in British universities. ... Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ...

External links

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Peptides | Amino acids | Nucleic acids | Carbohydrates | Nucleotide sugars | Lipids | Terpenes | Carotenoids | Tetrapyrroles | Enzyme cofactors | Steroids | Flavonoids | Alkaloids | Polyketides | Glycosides Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The DNA structure might not be the only nucleic acid in the universe capable of supporting life[1] Astrobiology (from Greek: ἀστρο, astro, constellation; βίος, bios, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary study of life in space, combining aspects of astronomy, biology and geology. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... 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Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Adult black fly (Simulium yahense) with (Onchocerca volvulus) emerging from the insects antenna. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bioinorganic Chemistry is a specialized field that spans the chemistry of metal-containing molecules. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology that frequently employs compounds produced by synthetic chemistry to study and manipulate biological systems. ... Chemistry education is an active area of research within both the disciplines of chemistry and education, focusing on learning and teaching of chemistry in schools, colleges and universities, with the goals of understanding how students learn chemistry, how best to teach chemistry, and how to improve learning outcomes by changing... Click chemistry is a concept introduced by K. Barry Sharpless in 2001 and describes chemistry tailored to generate substances quickly and reliably by joining small units together as nature does. ... In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid. ... Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses the results of theoretical chemistry incorporated into efficient computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, applying these programs to complement the information obtained by actual chemical experiments, predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena, and solve related problems. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. ... Green chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacy involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... n-butyllithium, an organometallic compound. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Physical chemistry, is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1] within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... Solid-state chemistry is the study of solid materials, which may be molecular. ... Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry which focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules. ... Theoretical chemistry involves the use of physics to explain or predict chemical phenomena. ... The world’s first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Black’s prior discovery of latent heat. ... Wet chemistry is a term used to refer to chemistry generally done in the liquid phase. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that describe particular biomolecules or types of biomolecules. ... This page aims to list well-known inorganic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... This page aims to list well-known organic compounds, including organometallic compounds, to stimulate the creation of Wikipedia articles. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Nucleotide sugars are biochemicals that act as donors of sugar residues in nucleotide sugars metabolism. ... Some common lipids. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Polypyrrole A Polypyrrole (PPy) is a chemical compound formed from a number of connected pyrrole ring structures. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. ... Polyketides are secondary metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Biochemistry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2737 words)
Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of life, a bridge between biology and chemistry that studies how complex chemical reactions give rise to life.
Biochemistry is the study of the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms.
Biochemistry - definition of Biochemistry in Encyclopedia (304 words)
Biochemistry is focused on the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules.
Recently biochemistry has focused more specifically on the chemistry of enzyme-mediated reactions, and on the properties of proteins.
Biochemistry is principally concerned with the chemistry of substances that can be classified into a few major categories:
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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