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Encyclopedia > Biochemical Engineering

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Biochemical engineering is a branch of chemical engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules. Biochemical engineering is often taught as a supplementary option to chemical engineering due to the similarities in both the background subject curriculum and problem-solving techniques used by both professions. Its applications are used in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and water treatment industries. Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science, e. ...

Contents

The bioreactor

Bioreactors
Bioreactors

A bioreactor may refer to any device or system that supports a biologically active environment. In one case, a bioreactor is a vessel in which is carried out a chemical process which involves organisms or biochemically active substances derived from such organisms. This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic. These bioreactors are commonly cylindrical, ranging in size from some liter to cube meters, and are often made of stainless steel. Image File history File links Nrc-bri-bioprocess-lr. ... Image File history File links Nrc-bri-bioprocess-lr. ... Vessel can refer to any of the following: Objects Vessel (French vaissel, from a rare Latin vascellum, diminuitive of vas, vase, or urn), a word of somewhat wide application for many objects, the meaning common to them being capacity to hold or contain something. ... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved... A crab is an example of an organism. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... Look up Aerobic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hypoxia (medical). ... The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is an alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ...


A bioreactor may also refer to a device or system meant to grow cells or tissues in the context of cell culture. These devices are being developed for use in tissue engineering. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the term applied when cells are grown in a synthetic environment. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering materials, and suitable biochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ...


On the basis of mode of operation, a bioreactor may be classified as batch, fed batch or continuous (e.g. Continuous stirred-tank reactor model). An example of a bioreactor is the chemostat. A batch reactor is used in chemical processes for small scale operation, for testing new processes that have not been fully developed, for the manufacture of expensive products, and for processes that are difficult to convert into continuous operations. ... The continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) model is used to estimate the key unit operation variables when using a continuous agitated-tank reactor to reach a specified output. ... A chemostat is a device used in microbiology for growing and harvesting bacteria. ...


Organism growing in bioreactor may be suspended or immobilized . The simplest, where cells are immobilized, is a Petri dish with agar gel. Large scale immobilized cell bioreactors are: Man looking at fungus inside of petri dishes A Petri dish is a shallow glass or plastic cylindrical dish that biologists use to culture microbes. ... Agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae or seaweed. ... A gel (from the lat. ...

A packed bed is a hollow tube or pipe that is filled with a packing material. ...

Bioreactor design

Bioreactor design is quite a complex engineering task. Under optimum conditions the microorganisms or cells are able to perform their desired function with great efficiency. The bioreactor's environmental conditions like gas (i.e., air, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide) flowrates, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels, and agitation speed/circulation rate need to be closely monitored and controlled. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... == // IGOR ROCKS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! == Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... The correct title of this article is . ...


Most industrial bioreactor manufacturers use vessels, sensors, controllers, and a control system, networked together for their bioreactor system, see programmable logic controller (PLC). // Distinguish from censure and censer and censor. ... A controller is a person or device that exercises or attempts to exercise control or influence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Control theory. ... PLC & input/output arrangements A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC, or Programmable Controller is a microprocessor used for automation of industrial processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines. ...


Fouling can harm the overall sterility and efficiency of the bioreactor, especially the heat exchangers. To avoid it the bioreactor must be easily cleanable and must be as smooth as possible (therefore the round shape). A heat exchanger is a device for transferring heat from one fluid to another, where the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix. ...


A heat exchanger is needed to maintain the bioprocess at a constant temperature. Biological fermentation is a major source of heat, therefore in most cases bioreactors need water refrigeration. They can be refrigerated with an external jacket or, for very large vessels, with internal coils. A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted. ... Fig. ... It has been suggested that Refrigerator be merged into this article or section. ...


In an aerobic process, optimal oxygen transfer is perhaps the most difficult task to accomplish. Oxygen is poorly soluble in water -and even less in fermentation broths- and is relatively scarce in air (20.8%). Oxygen transfer is usually helped by agitation, that is also needed to mix nutrients and to keep the fermentation homogeneous. There are however limits to the speed of agitation, due both to high power consumption (which is proportional to the cube of the speed of the electric motor) and the damage to organisms due to excessive tip speed. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... Agitation may have the following special meanings Agitation, an emotional state Agitation, putting into motion (by shaking or stirring) Agitation, a term from the lexicon of Communists: political activities aimed at urging people to do something This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...


Industrial bioreactors usually employ bacteria or other simple organisms that can withstand the forces of agitation. They are also simple to sustain, requiring only simple nutrient solutions and can grow at astounding rates. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


In bioreactors where the goal is grow cells or tissues for experimental or therapeutic purposes, the design is significantly different from industrial bioreactors. Many cells and tissues, especially mammalian, must have a surface or other structural support in order to grow, and agitated environments are often destructive to these cell types and tissues. Higher organisms also need more complex growth medium.


Nasa tissue cloning bioreactor

NASA has developed a new type of bioreactor that artificially grows tissue in cell cultures. NASA's tissue bioreactor can grow heart tissue, skeletal tissue, ligaments, cancer tissue for study, and other types of tissue.[1]


For more information on artificial tissue culture, see tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering materials, and suitable biochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Biochemical engineering: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1276 words)
Biochemical engineers are also actively involved in many aspects of bioremediation, immunotechnology, vaccine development, and the use of cells and enzymes capable of functioning in extreme environments.
Biochemical engineering is a branch of chemical engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules.
Biochemical engineering is often taught as a supplementary option to chemical engineering due to the similarities in both the background subject curriculum and problem-solving techniques used by both professions.
Biochemical Engineer - Chemical Engineering Consulting - Edward T. Woodruff Inc. (476 words)
The biochemical engineer applies the disciplines of reaction kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid flow to the field covered by the biochemical engineer.
The biochemical engineer goes beyond the scope of the “normal” chemical engineer in that clean in place systems, sterilization, and inert gas stainless steel welding are involved.
The biochemical engineer is involved in the fields of fermentation as well as packed columns using whole cells or bound enzymes to achieve the reaction of interest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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