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Encyclopedia > Binomial nomenclature

In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming specific species. The system is also called binominal nomenclature (particularly in zoological circles), binary nomenclature (particularly in botanical circles), or the binomial classification system. The essence of it is that each species name is in (modern scientific) Latin and has two parts, so that it is popularly known as the "Latin name" of the species, although this terminology is frowned upon by biologists and philologists, who prefer the phrase scientific name. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... By the Republican era and throughout the Imperial era, a name in ancient Rome for a male citizen consisted of three parts (tria nomina): praenomen (given name), nomen (gentile) (name of the gens or clan) and cognomen (name of a family line within the gens). ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ...


The species is the lowest rank in the system for classifying organisms.

Contents

Rules

Although the fine detail will differ, there are certain aspects which are universally adopted:

  • As the words "binomial", "binominal" and "binary" all signify, the scientific name of each species is formed by the combination of two words, which are in a modern form of Latin:
    1. the genus name (also called the generic name).
    2. a second word identifying the species within that genus, for which the technical term varies, as follows:
      • a general term for the word identifying the species is the specific descriptor
      • in zoology, the word identifying the species is called the specific name
      • in botany, the word identifying the species is called the specific epithet
  • Species names are usually typeset in italics; for example, Homo sapiens. Generally the binomial should be printed in a type-face (font) different from that used in the normal text; for example, "Several more Homo sapiens were discovered." When handwritten, they should be underlined; for example, Homo sapiens. Each name should be underlined individually.
  • The genus name is always written with an initial capital letter.
  • In zoology, the specific name is never written with an initial capital.
For example, the entire tiger species is Panthera tigris
  • In botany, on the other hand, the specific epithet is written usually all in lower case but can, extremely rarely, be written with an initial capital.
For example, Narcissus papyraceus
  • There are several terms for this two-part species name; these include binomen (plural binomina), binomial, binomial name, binominal, binominal name, and species name.
  • All taxa at ranks above species have a name composed of one word only, a "uninominal name".
  • The first level subdivisions within a species, termed subspecies, are each given a name with three parts: these are the two forming the species name, plus a third part (the subspecific name) which identifies the subspecies within the species. This is called trinomial nomenclature, and is written differently in zoology and botany.[1] For example:
    • Two of the subspecies of Olive-backed Pipit are Anthus hodgsoni berezowskii and Anthus hodgsoni hodgsoni
    • The Bengal Tiger is Panthera tigris tigris and the Siberian Tiger Panthera tigris altaica
    • The tree European Black Elder is Sambucus nigra subsp. nigra and the American Black Elder is Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis
  • In scholarly texts, the main entry for the binomial is followed by the abbreviated (in botany) or full (in zoology) surname of the scientist who first published the classification. If the species was assigned in the description to a different genus from that to which it is assigned today, the abbreviation or name of the describer and the description date is set in parentheses.
For example: Amaranthus retroflexus L. or Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) — the latter was originally described as member of the genus Fringilla, hence the parentheses.
  • When used with a common name, the scientific name usually follows in parentheses.
For example, "The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is decreasing in Europe."
  • The scientific name should generally be written in full. The exception to this is when several species from the same genus are being listed or discussed in the same paper or report; in that case the genus is written in full when it is first used, but may then be abbreviated to an initial (and period) for successive species names; for example, in a list of members of the genus Canis, when not first in the list Canis lupus becomes C. lupus. In rare cases, this abbreviated form has spread to more general use; for example, the bacterium Escherichia coli is often referred to as just E. coli, and Tyrannosaurus rex is perhaps even better known simply as T. rex, these two both often appearing even where they are not part of any list of species of the same genus.
  • The abbreviation "sp." is used when the actual specific name cannot or need not be specified. The abbreviation "spp." (plural) indicates "several species". These are not italicised (or underlined).
For example: "Canis sp.", meaning "one species of the genus Canis".
  • Easily confused with the foregoing usage is the abbreviation "ssp." (zoology) or "subsp." (botany) indicating an unspecified subspecies (see also trinomen, ternary name); "sspp." or "subspp." indicates "a number of subspecies".
  • The abbreviation "cf." is used when the identification is not confirmed.
For example Corvus cf. splendens indicates "a bird similar to the House Crow but not certainly identified as this species".
  • Mycology uses the same system as in botany.

For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Binomial name Panthera tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family, one of four big cats that belong to the Panthera genus. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Binomial name Narcissus papyraceus Ker-Gawl. ... In zoology, a subspecific name is the third part of a trinomen. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal tiger or Royal Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris or Panthera tigris bengalensis) is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in Bangladesh, India and also in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and in southern Tibet. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris altaica Temminck, 1884 Distribution of the Siberian tiger (in red) The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is a rare subspecies of tiger (). Also known as the Amur, Manchurian, Korean, Altaic, or North China tiger, it is confined completely to the Amur region in the Far East... Species About 25 species, including: Sambucus nigra - Black Elder Sambucus canadensis - American Elder Sambucus glauca - Blueberry Elder Sambucus racemosa - Red-berried Elder Elder or Elderberry (Sambucus) is a genus of fast-growing shrubs or small trees in the family Caprifoliaceae. ... Binomial name Amaranthus retroflexus L. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) occurs naturally in most of Europe and Asia, though it is replaced by allied forms in some areas. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) occurs naturally in most of Europe and Asia, though it is replaced by allied forms in some areas. ... E. coli redirects here. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Synonyms Manospondylus gigas Dynamosaurus imperiosus Dinotyrannus megagracilis Nanotyrannus lancensis? Tyrannosaurus (IPA pronunciation or ; from the Greek τυραννόσαυρος, meaning tyrant lizard) is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur. ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... In zoology, a trinomen, or trinominal name, refers to the name of a subspecies. ... In botanical nomenclature, the ICBN prescribes a three part name (ternary name) for any taxon below the rank of species. ... Look up Cf. ... Binomial name Corvus splendens Vieillot, 1817 The House Crow (Corvus splendens) is a common Asian bird native to India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Maldives and Laccadive Islands, South West Thailand and coastal southern Iran. ... Mycology (from the Greek μύκης, meaning fungus) is the study of fungi, their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicinals (e. ...

Derivation of names

The genus name and specific descriptor may come from any source. Often they are ordinary New Latin words, but they may also come from Ancient Greek, from a place, from a person (preferably a naturalist), a name from the local language, etc. In fact, taxonomists come up with specific descriptors from a variety of sources, including inside-jokes and puns. New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...


However, names are always treated grammatically as if they were a Latin phrase. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


There is a list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names. This list of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names is intended to help those unfamiliar with classical languages understand and remember the scientific names of organisms. ...


Family names are often derived from a common genus within the family. The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ...


The genus name must be unique inside each kingdom. It is normally a noun in its Latin grammar.


The specific descriptor is also a Latin word but it can be grammatically any of various forms including these:

  • another noun nominative form in apposition with the genus; the words do not necessarily agree in gender. For example, the lion Panthera leo.
  • a noun genitive form made up from a person's surname, as in the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii, the shrub Magnolia hodgsonii, or the Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni. Here, the person named is not necessarily (if ever) the person who names the species; for example Anthus hodgsoni was named by Charles Wallace Richmond, not by Hodgson.
  • a noun genitive form made up from a place name, as with Latimeria chalumnae ("of Chalumna").
  • the common noun genitive form (singular or plural) as in the bacterium Escherichia coli. This is common in parasites, as in Xenos vesparum where vesparum simply means "of the wasps".
  • an ordinary Latin or New Latin adjective, as in the house sparrow Passer domesticus where domesticus (= "domestic") simply means "associated with the house" (or "... with houses").

Specific descriptors are commonly reused (as is shown by examples of hodgsonii above). The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... Binomial name Pantholops hodgsonii (Abel, 1826) The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is a medium-sized bovid which is about 1. ... Binomial name Magnolia hodgsonii (Hook. ... Binomial name Anthus hodgsoni Richmond, 1907 The Olive-backed Pipit, Anthus hodgsoni, is a small passerine bird which breeds across temperate Asia. ... Charles Wallace Richmond (1868 - 1932) was an American Nicaragua he joined the staff of the United States National Museum in Washington DC. In 1894 he was appointed Assistant Curator of Birds, later becoming Curator. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... this animal is gay ... E. coli redirects here. ... Binomial name Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) occurs naturally in most of Europe and Asia, though it is replaced by allied forms in some areas. ...


History

The adoption of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778) who attempted to describe the entire known natural world and gave every species (mineral, vegetable or animal) a two-part name. However, binomial nomenclature in various forms existed before Linnaeus, and was used by the Bauhins, who lived nearly two hundred years before Linnaeus. Before Linnaeus, hardly anybody used binomial nomenclature. After Linnaeus, almost everybody did. Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Bauhin -- A family of physicians and scientists. ...


Value of binomial nomenclature

The value of the binomial nomenclature system derives primarily from its economy, its widespread use, and the stability of names it generally favors: For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ...

  • Every species can be unambiguously identified with just two words.
  • The same name can be used all over the world, in all languages, avoiding difficulties of translation.
  • Although such stability as exists is far from absolute, the procedures associated with establishing binomial nomenclature tend to favor stability. For example, when species are transferred between genera (as not uncommonly happens as a result of new knowledge), if possible the species descriptor is kept the same. Similarly if what were previously thought to be distinct species are demoted from species to a lower rank, former species names may be retained as infraspecific descriptors.

Despite the rules favoring stability and uniqueness, in practice a single species may have several scientific names in circulation, depending largely on taxonomic point of view (see synonymy). In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ...


Codes of nomenclature

From the mid nineteenth century onwards it became ever more apparent that a body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names. In the course of time these became Nomenclature Codes governing the naming of animals (ICZN), plants (incl. Fungi, cyanobacteria) (ICBN), bacteria (ICNB) and viruses (ICTV). These Codes differ. The Nomenclature Codes (or the Codes of nomenclature) are the rulebooks that govern biological nomenclature. ... The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature is the set of rules according to which plants are given their formal botanical names (scientific names). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria governs the scientific names for bacteria. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is a committee which authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. ...

  • For example, the ICBN, the plant Code does not allow tautonyms, whereas the ICZN, the animal Code does.
  • The starting points, the time from which these Codes are in effect (retroactively), vary from group to group. In botany the starting point will often be in 1753 (the year Carolus Linnaeus first published Species Plantarum), in zoology in 1758. Bacteriology started anew, with a starting point on 1980-01-01.[2]

A BioCode has been suggested to replace several codes, although implementation is not in sight. There also is debate concerning development of a PhyloCode to name clades of phylogenetic trees, rather than taxa. Proponents of the PhyloCode use the name "Linnaean Codes" for the joint existing Codes and "Linnaean taxonomy" for the scientific classification that uses these existing Codes. Tautonym is a term in biological nomenclature, differing slightly in zoological and in botanical nomenclature. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nomenclature Codes (or the Codes of nomenclature) are the rulebooks that govern biological nomenclature. ... Types of Clade (Note: Stem-based is now branch-based, to avoid confusion with the term stem group which means total clade minus crown clade.) The PhyloCode is a developing draft for a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Fig. ...


See also

This is a list of botanists by their author abbreviation, including that established by Brummitt & Powell (1992), designed for citation in the botanical names they have published. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... In botanical nomenclature, a hybrid may (or may not) be given a hybrid name. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Frank A. Bisby, Plant Names in Botanical Databases, Plant Taxonomic Database Standards No. 3, Version 1.00, December 1994, Published for the International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases for Plant Sciences (TDWG) by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
  2. ^ Sneath, P. H. A.. A short history of the Bacteriological Code. Retrieved on 2007-10-29.
Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Binomial nomenclature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (849 words)
As the word "binomial" suggests, the scientific name of a species is formed by the combination of two terms: the genus name and the species descriptor.
The adoption of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) who attempted to describe the entire known natural world and gave every species (mineral, vegetable or animal) a two-part name.
However, binomial nomenclature in various forms existed before Linnaeus, and was used by the Bauhins, who lived nearly two hundred years before Linnaeus.
Binomial nomenclature - Wikipedia (316 words)
As the word 'binomial' suggests, the scientific name of each organism is actually the combination of two names: the genus and the species (as epithet).
Nomenclature intends to keep names stable, but quite often this is not true: an organism may have several names, reflecting different rank and position in taxonomy, depending on opinion (see synonymy[?]), conservation[?] according to nomenclature codes[?], and new findings based on molecular phylogeny.
Nomenclature must acknowledge the achievement of scientists who were first to name a taxon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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