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Encyclopedia > Binoculars

Binocular telescopes, or binoculars, (also known as field glasses) are two identical or mirror-symmetrical telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects. Most are sized to be held using both hands, although there are much larger types. A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... Eight Inch refracting telescope. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ...


Unlike a monocular telescope, a binocular gives users a three-dimensional image: the two views, presented from slightly different viewpoints to each of the viewer's eyes, produce a merged view with depth perception. There is no need to close or obstruct one eye to avoid confusion, as is usual with monocular telescopes. A monocular is a modified refracting telescope used to magnify the images of distant objects by passing light through a series of lenses and prisms; the use of prisms results in a lightweight telescope. ... Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ...

A typical Porro prism binocular design
A typical Porro prism binocular design

Contents

Image File history File links Binocularp. ... Image File history File links Binocularp. ...

Optical design

Galilean binoculars
Galilean binoculars

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Galilean binoculars

Almost from the invention of the telescope in the 17th century the advantages of mounting two of them side by side for binocular vision seems to have been explored[1]. Most early binoculars used Galilean optics; that is they used a convex objective and a concave eyepiece lens. The Galilean design has the advantage of presenting an erect image but has a narrow field of view and is not capable of very high magnification. This type of construction is still used in very cheap models and in "opera glasses" or theater glasses. Image of a refracting telescope from the Cincinnati Observatory in 1848 A refracting or refractor telescope is a dioptric telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image. ... This article is about the optical device. ... Opera glasses, also known as theater binoculars, are low power discrete and compact binoculars, usually used at performance events. ...


Porro prism binoculars

Double Porro prism design
Double Porro prism design

Named after Italian optician Ignazio Porro who patented this image erecting system in 1854 and later refined by makers like Carl Zeiss in the 1890s[1], binoculars of this type use a Porro prism in a double prism Z-shaped configuration to erect the image. This feature results in binoculars that are wide, with objective lenses that are well separated but offset from the eyepieces. Porro prism designs have the added benefit of folding the optical path so that the physical length of the binoculars is less than the focal length of the objective and wider spacing of the objectives gives better sensation of depth. Image File history File links Double-porro-prism. ... Image File history File links Double-porro-prism. ... Ignazio Porro was an Italian inventor of optical instruments. ... Carl Zeiss (September 11, 1816 – December 3, 1888) was an optician commonly known for the company he founded, Zeiss. ... In optics, a Porro prism, named for its inventor Ignazio Porro, is a type of reflection prism used in optical instruments to alter the orientation of an image. ... A collection of different types of eyepieces. ... This article is about focal length related to lenses and systems of lenses. ...


Roof prism binoculars

Abbe-Koenig "roof prism" design
Abbe-Koenig "roof prism" design

Binoculars using Roof prisms may have appeared as early as the 1880s in a design by Achille Victor Emile Daubresse[2] [3]. Most roof prism binoculars use either the Abbe-Koenig prism (named after Ernst Karl Abbe and Albert Koenig and patented by Carl Zeiss in 1905)[4] or Schmidt-Pechan prism (invented in 1899) designs to erect the image and fold the optical path. They have objective lenses that are approximately in line with the eyepieces. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A pentaprism used in Single-lens reflex cameras; the lower right face is the roof. ... An Abbe-Koenig prism is a type of reflecting prism used to invert an image (rotate it by 180°). They are commonly used in binoculars and some telescopes for this purpose. ... Ernst Karl Abbe Ernst Karl Abbe (January 23, 1840 in Eisenach – January 14, 1905 in Jena), was a German physicist. ... A Schmidt-Pechan prism, side view (top) and 3D-view (bottom). ...


Porro vs. Roof prisms

Roof-prisms designs create an instrument that is narrower and more compact than Porro prisms. There is also a difference in image brightness. Porro-prism binoculars will inherently produce a brighter image than roof-prism binoculars of the same magnification, objective size, and optical quality, because the roof-prism design employs silvered surfaces that reduce light transmission by 12% to 15%. Roof-prisms designs also require tighter tolerances as far as alignment of their optical elements (collimation). This adds to their expense since the design requires them to use fixed elements that need to be set at a high degree of collimation at the factory. Porro prisms binoculars occasionally need their prism sets to be re-aligned to bring them into collimation. The fixed alignment in roof-prism designs means the binoculars normally won't need re-collimation[5]. In optics, a Porro prism, named for its inventor Ignazio Porro, is a type of reflection prism used in optical instruments to alter the orientation of an image. ... A pentaprism used in Single-lens reflex cameras; the lower right face is the roof. ... Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel and thus has a plane wavefront. ...


Optical parameters

Parameters listed on the prism cover plate describing a 7 power magnification binocular with a 50 mm Objective diameter and a 372-foot (113 m) Field of view at 1,000 yards (1,000 m).

Binoculars are usually designed for the specific application for which they are intended. Those different designs create certain optical parameters (some of which may be listed on the prism cover plate of the binocular). Those parameters are: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 593 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (633 × 640 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Optical parameters listed on the prism cover plate of a binocular describing a 7 power magnification, a 50mm Objective Diameter and a 372... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 593 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (633 × 640 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Optical parameters listed on the prism cover plate of a binocular describing a 7 power magnification, a 50mm Objective Diameter and a 372... Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not physical size. ... Several objective lenses on a microscope. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... The field of view is the part of the observable world that is seen at any given moment. ...


Magnification — The ratio of the focal length of the eyepiece divided into the focal length of the objective gives the linear magnifying power of binoculars (sometimes expressed as "diameters"). A magnification of factor 7, for example, produces an image as if one were 7 times closer to the object. The amount of magnification depends upon the application the binoculars are designed for. Hand-held binoculars have lower magnifications so they will be less susceptible to shaking. A larger magnification leads to a smaller field of view. Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not physical size. ...


Objective diameter – The diameter of the objective lens determines how much light can be gathered to form an image. It is usually expressed in millimeters. Several objective lenses on a microscope. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ...


It is customary to categorize binoculars by the magnification × the objective diameter; e.g. 7×50.


Field of view — The field of view of a binocular is determined by its optical design. It is usually notated in a linear value, such as how many feet (meters) in width will be seen at 1,000 yards (or 1,000 m), or in an angular value of how many degrees can be viewed. The field of view is the part of the observable world that is seen at any given moment. ... For other uses, see Linear (disambiguation). ... This article is about angles in geometry. ...


Exit pupil — Binoculars concentrate the light gathered by the objective into a beam, the exit pupil, whose diameter is the objective diameter divided by the magnifying power. For maximum effective light-gathering and brightest image, the exit pupil should equal the diameter of the fully dilated iris of the human eye— about 7 mm, reducing with age. Light gathered by a larger exit pupil is wasted. For daytime use an exit pupil of 3 mm—matching the eye's contracted pupil—is sufficient. However, a larger exit pupil makes alignment of the eye easier and avoids dark vignetting intruding from the edges. The exit pupil is a concept in optics, and is defined as the minimum diameter of the light beam leaving an eyepiece though which all of the light from the eyepiece passes. ... In anatomy, the iris (plural irises or irides) is the most visible part of the eye of vertebrates, including humans. ... An example of vignetting in a photograph Vignetting is a common feature of photographs produced by toy cameras such as this shot taken with a Holga In photography and optics, vignetting is a reduction in image brightness in the image periphery compared to the image center. ...


Eye relief — Eye relief is the distance from the rear eyepiece lens to where the image is formed. It determines the distance the observer must position his or her eye behind the eyepiece in order to see an unvignetted image. The longer the focal length of the eyepiece, the greater the eye relief. Binoculars may have eye relief ranging from few millimeters to 2.5 centimeters or more. Eye relief can be particularly important for eyeglass wearers. The eye of an eyeglass wearer is typically further from the eye piece which necessitates a longer eye relief in order to still see the entire field of view. Binoculars with short eye relief can also be hard to use in instances where it is difficult to hold them steady. The eye relief of a telescope is the distance from the eyepiece the eye can be placed at which the exit pupil is approximately the same size as the eyes pupil. ...


Optical coatings

Main article: Anti-reflective coating
U.S. Navy binocular
U.S. Navy binocular

Since a binocular can have 16 air-to-glass surfaces, with light lost at every surface, optical coatings can significantly affect image quality. When light strikes an interface between two materials of different refractive index (e.g., at an air-glass interface), some of the light is transmitted, some reflected. In any sort of image-forming optical instrument (telescope, camera, microscope, etc.), ideally no light should be reflected; instead of forming an image, light which reaches the viewer after being reflected is distributed in the field of view, and reduces the contrast between the true image and the background. Reflection can be reduced, but not eliminated, by applying optical coatings to interfaces. Each time light enters or leaves a piece of glass; about 5% is reflected back. This "lost" light bounces around inside the binocular, making the image hazy and hard to see. Lens coatings effectively lower reflection losses, which finally results in a brighter and sharper image. For example, 8x40 binoculars with good optical coatings will yield a brighter image than uncoated 8x50 binoculars. Light can also be reflected from the interior of the instrument, but it is simple to minimize this to negligible proportions. Contrast is also improved by good coating due to the partial elimination of internal reflections. Anti-reflective coatings are a type of optical coating applied to lenses and other devices to reduce reflection from optical surfaces. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1395, 1388 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Binoculars Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1395, 1388 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Binoculars Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... In the fields of optics and spectroscopy, transmittance is the fraction of incident light at a specified wavelength that passes through a sample. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ...


A classic lens-coating material is magnesium fluoride; it reduces reflections from 5% to 1%. Modern lens coatings consist of complex multi-layers and reflect only 0.25% or less to yield an image with maximum brightness and natural colors. For roof-prisms, anti-phase shifting coatings are sometimes used which significantly improve contrast. The presence of a coating is typically denoted on binoculars by the following terms: Magnesium fluoride (MgF2) is a white crystalline salt composed of one magnesium ion and two fluoride ions, and is used in the electrolysis of aluminium ore. ...

  • coated optics: one or more surfaces coated.
  • fully coated: all air-to-glass surfaces coated. Plastic lenses, however, if used, may not be coated.
  • multi-coated: one or more surfaces are multi-layer coated.
  • fully multi-coated: all air-to-glass surfaces are multi-layer coated.

Phase-corrected prism coating and dielectric prism coating are recent (in 2005) effective techniques for reducing reflections.


Mechanical design

Focusing and adjustment

Binoculars to be used to view objects that are not at a fixed distance must have a focusing arrangement. Traditionally, two different arrangements have been used to provide focus. Binoculars with "independent focus" require the two telescopes to be focused independently by adjusting each eyepiece, thereby changing the distance between ocular and objective lenses. Binoculars designed for heavy field use, such as military applications, traditionally have used independent focusing. Because general users find it more convenient to focus both tubes with one adjustment action, a second type of binocular incorporates "central focusing", which involves rotation of a central focusing wheel. In addition, one of the two eyepieces can be further adjusted to compensate for differences between the viewer's eyes (usually by rotating the eyepiece in its mount). This is known as a diopter. Once this adjustment has been made for a given viewer, the binoculars can be refocused on an object at a different distance by using the focusing wheel to move both tubes together without eyepiece readjustment. Focusing has been referred to as a procedure for attending to, and being aware of, the bodys knowing of the various situations we live in. ...

Binocular with internal elements visible
Binocular with internal elements visible

There are also "focus-free" or "fixed-focus" binoculars. They have a depth of field from a relatively large closest distance to infinity, and perform exactly the same as a focusing model of the same optical quality (or lack of it) focused on the middle distance. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (2488 × 1774 pixel, file size: 695 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (2488 × 1774 pixel, file size: 695 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Zoom binoculars, while in principle a good idea, are generally considered not to perform very well.[6][7]


Most modern binoculars have hinged-telescope construction that enables the distance between eyepieces to be adjusted to accommodate viewers with different eye separation. This adjustment feature is lacking on many older binoculars.


Image stabilization

Shake can be much reduced, and higher magnifications used, with binoculars using image-stabilization technology. Parts of the instrument which change the position of the image may be held steady by powered gyroscopes or by powered mechanisms driven by gyroscopic or inertial detectors, or may be mounted in such a way as to oppose and dampen sudden movement. Stabilization may be enabled or disabled by the user as required. These techniques allow binoculars up to 20× to be hand-held, and much improve the image stability of lower-power instruments. There are some disadvantages: the image may not be quite as good as the best unstabilized binoculars when tripod-mounted, stabilized binoculars also tend to be more expensive and heavier than similarly specified non-stabilised binoculars. Image stabilization is a family of techniques to increase the stability of an image. ... A gyroscope For other uses, see Gyroscope (disambiguation). ...


Alignment

Well-collimated binoculars, when viewed through human eyes and processed by a human brain, should produce a single circular, apparently three-dimensional image, with no visible indication that one is actually viewing two distinct images from slightly different viewpoints. Departure from the ideal will cause, at best, vague discomfort and visual fatigue, but the perceived field of view will be close to circular anyway. The cinematic convention used to represent a view through binoculars as two circles partially overlapping in a figure-of-eight shape is not true to life.


Misalignment is remedied by small movements to the prisms, often by turning screws accessible without opening the binoculars, or by adjusting the position of the objective via eccentric rings built into the objective cell. Alignment is usually done by a professional although instructions for checking binoculars for collimation errors and for collimating them can be found on the Internet. Eccentric is from the Greek for out of the centre, as opposed to concentric, in the centre. ...


Applications

General use

People in Orchid, Florida use binoculars for birdwatching.
People in Orchid, Florida use binoculars for birdwatching.

Hand-held binoculars range from small 3 x 10 Galilean opera glasses, used in theaters, to glasses with 7 to 12 diameters magnification and 30 to 50 mm objectives for typical outdoor use. Porro prism models predominate although bird watchers and hunters tend to prefer, and are prepared to pay for, the lighter but more expensive roof-prism models. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 614 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1211 × 1183 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 614 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1211 × 1183 pixel, file size: 1. ... Orchid Orchid is a town in Indian River County, Florida, United States. ... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ... Opera glasses, also known as theater binoculars, are low power discrete and compact binoculars, usually used at performance events. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed... Birding or birdwatching is a hobby concerned with the observation and study of birds (the study proper is termed American origin; birdwatching is (or more correctly, was) the commonly-used word in Great Britain and Ireland and by non-birders in the United States. ... Hunting is, in its most general sense, the pursuit of a target. ...


Many tourist attractions have installed pedestal-mounted, coin-operated binoculars to allow visitors to obtain a closer view of the attraction. In the United Kingdom, 20 pence often gives a couple of minutes of operation, and in the United States, one or two quarters gives between one-and-a-half to two-and-a-half minutes. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Above: A variety of coins considered to be lower-value, including an Irish 2p piece and many US pennies. ... A quarter is a coin worth one-quarter of a United States dollar, or 25 cents. ...

Coin-operated binocular
Coin-operated binocular

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1071x1476, 1146 KB) Summary Coin operated binoculars, manufactured by the Tower Optical Company, photographed in Utah during April 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1071x1476, 1146 KB) Summary Coin operated binoculars, manufactured by the Tower Optical Company, photographed in Utah during April 2005. ...

Military

Binoculars have a long history of military use. Galilean designs were widely used up to the end of the 19th century when they gave way to porro prism types. Binoculars constructed for general military use tend to be more heavily ruggedized than their civilian counterparts. They generally avoid more fragile center focus arrangements in favor of independent focus. Prism sets in military binoculars may have redundant aluminized coatings on their prism sets to guarantee they don’t lose their reflective qualities if they get wet. Military binoculars of the cold war era were sometimes fitted with passive sensors that detected active IR emissions, while modern ones usually are fitted with filters blocking laser beams. Further, binoculars designed for military usage may include a stadiametric reticle in one ocular in order to facilitate range estimation. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Stadiametric rangefinding, or the stadia method is a technique of measuring distances with a telescopic instrument. ...

Naval ship binocular
Naval ship binocular

There are binoculars designed specifically for civilian and military use at sea. Hand held models will be 5× to 7× but with very large prism sets combined with eyepieces designed to give generous eye relief. This optical combination prevents the image vignetting or going dark when the binocular is pitching and vibrating relative to the viewer's eye. Large, high-magnification, models with large objectives are also used in fixed mountings. An officer aboard the HMAS Melbourne (FFG 05) looks through the ship’s binoculars (big eyes) while on bridge watch in Gulf of Oman, March 21, 2004. ... An officer aboard the HMAS Melbourne (FFG 05) looks through the ship’s binoculars (big eyes) while on bridge watch in Gulf of Oman, March 21, 2004. ...


Very large binocular naval rangefinders (up to 15 meters separation of the two objective lenses, weight 10 tons, for ranging World War II naval gun targets 25 km away) have been used, although late-20th century technology made this application redundant. A rangefinder is an optical device that allows distance to be estimated or measured using triangulation, laser, radar, or other method. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Astronomical

Binoculars are widely used by amateur astronomers; their wide field of view making them useful for comet and supernova seeking (giant binoculars) and general observation (portable binoculars). The Galilean moons of Jupiter, Ceres, Neptune, Pallas and Titan are invisible to the naked eye but can readily be seen with binoculars. Although technically visible unaided in pollution-free skies, Uranus and Vesta require binoculars for practical observation. 10×50 binoculars are limited to a magnitude of around +9.5, which means asteroids like Interamnia, Davida, Europa and, except under exceptional conditions Hygiea, are too faint to be seen with binoculars. Likewise too faint to be seen with binoculars are all moons except the Galileans and Titan, and the dwarf planets Pluto and Eris. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Skygazing. ... The field of view is the part of the observable world that is seen at any given moment. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... Spectral type: G[8] Absolute magnitude: 3. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... 2 Pallas (IPA: ), Greek Παλλάς) is an asteroid located in the asteroid belt region of the solar system and was the second to be discovered. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... The naked eye is a figure of speech referring to human visual perception that is unaided by enhancing equipment, such as a telescope or binoculars. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... 4 Vesta (IPA: ) is the second most massive object in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km (around 330 miles) and an estimated mass 9% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ... The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... 704 Interamnia (IN ter AM nia) is a very large asteroid with a diameter of 350 kilometres. ... 511 Davida is a main belt asteroid. ... 52 Europa, diameter 289 km, was discovered on February 4, 1858 by H. Goldschmidt. ... 10 Hygiea (hye-jee-a or hi-jee-a) is the fourth largest Main belt asteroid with a diameter of 407 km. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ...

15x70 binocular.
15x70 binocular.

Of particular relevance for low-light and astronomical viewing is the ratio between magnifying power and objective lens diameter. A lower magnification facilitates a larger field of view which is useful in viewing large deep sky objects such as the Milky Way, nebula, and galaxies, though the large exit pupil means some of the gathered light is wasted. The large exit pupil will also image the night sky background, effectively decreasing contrast, making the detection of faint objects more difficult except perhaps in remote locations with negligible light pollution. Binoculars specifically for most astronomical uses have higher magnification and a larger aperture objective (in the 70mm or 80mm range) because the diameter of the objective lens determines the faintest star that can be observed. These binoculars usually require some sort of mount This article is about the mathematical concept. ... Deep sky is a term used by amateur astronomers to describe mostly faint objects outside the solar system like star clusters, nebulae and galaxies; compare with deep space. These objects are hundreds to billions of light years distant. ... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ... The Triangulum Emission Nebula NGC 604 The Pillars of Creation from the Eagle Nebula For other uses, see Nebula (disambiguation). ... This article is about a celestial body. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... a big (1) and a small (2) aperture For other uses, see Aperture (disambiguation). ...


Much larger binoculars have been made by amateur telescope makers, essentially using two refracting or reflecting astronomical telescopes, with mixed results. A very large professional instrument, although not one that would normally be called binoculars, is the Large Binocular Telescope in Arizona, USA, which produced its "First Light" image on October 26, 2005. The LBT comprises two 8-meter reflector telescopes. While obviously not intended to be held to the eyes of a viewer, it uses two telescopes to view the same object, giving higher resolving power than a single instrument of the same light-gathering power, and allowing interferometric use. A 22 Newtonian reflector sits in front of the clubhouse at Stellafane, home of the Springfield Telescope Makers The field of amateur telescope making is considered an offshoot of the amateur astronomy community. ... The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT, originally named the Columbus Project) is located on 10,700-foot Mount Graham in the Pinaleno Mountains of southeastern Arizona and is a part of the Mount Graham International Observatory. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Interferometry is the applied science of combining two or more input points of a particular data type, such as optical measurements, to form a greater picture based on the combination of the two sources. ...


Manufacturers

Some notable binocular manufacturers as of 2005:


Germany

  • Leica GmbH – Ultravid, Duovid, Geovid: all are roof prism.
  • Zeiss GmbH – FL,Victory, Conquest: roof prism; 7×50 BGAT/T porro, 15×60 BGA/T porro, discontinued.
  • Eschenbach Optik GmbH – Farlux, Trophy, Adventure, Sektor...: some are roof prism, some porro.
  • Docter (the former Carl Zeiss Jena plant in Eisfeld) Nobilem 7×50, 8×56, 10×50, 15×60: porro; Docter 7×40, 8×40, 10×40: roof prism.
  • Steiner GmbH – Commander, Nighthunter: porro; Predator, Wildlife: roof prism.

Leica is the name of several cameras produced by a German company of the same name. ... Carl Zeiss in middle age. ...

Austria

  • Optolyth – Royal: Roof; Alpin: porro.
  • Delta Optical – binoculars, riflescopes, microscopes
  • Swarovski Optik – SLC, EL: roof prism; Habicht: porro prism, but to be discontinued.
  • Minox
  • Optolyth – Royal: Roof; Alpin: porro
  • KAHLES – riflescopes, binoculars

Swarovski crystal beads Swarovski Wattens Der Firmengründer Daniel Swarovski (1862 † 1956) Swarovskistraße Wattens September 2007 Swarovski is the luxury brand name for the range of precision-cut lead crystal glass products produced by companies owned by Swarovski AG of Feldmeilen, near Zürich, Switzerland. ...

Japan

  • Canon Inc. – I.S. series: porro variants?
  • Nikon Co. – High Grade series, Monarch series, RAII, Spotter series: roof prism; Prostar series, Superior E series, E series, Action EX series: porro.
  • Fujinon Co. – FMTSX, MTSX series: porro.
  • Kowa Co. – BD series: Roof prism.
  • Pentax Co. – DCFSP/XP series: roof prism; UCF series: inverted porro; PCFV/WP/XCF series: porro.
  • Olympus Co. – EXWPI series: roof prism.
  • Vixen Co. – Apex/Apex Pro: roof prism; Ultima: porro*
  • Zenith
  • Miyauchi Co. – specializes in oversized porro binoculars.

* Also sells OEM products manufactured by the Kamakura Koki Co. Ltd. of Japan. Canon Inc. ... For other uses, see Nikon (disambiguation). ... Fujinon is a division of Fujifilm that specialises in the production of optical lenses for medical, film, and photographic use. ... Pentax Corporation ) is a Japanese company founded in 1919 as Asahi Optical Joint Stock Co. ... This article refers to a Japanese camera maker. ... Vixen is a Japanese company that makes telescopes, binoculars, spotting scopes and accessories for their products. ... In broad terms, the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location (perpendicular, orthogonal). ... Original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, is a term that refers to containment-based re-branding, namely where one company uses a component of another company within its product, or sells the product of another company under its own brand. ...


China

In the early 21st century, some mid-priced binoculars have become available in the internal Chinese market. A few are said to be comparable in both performance and price to those of some of the better brands, but the great majority are inferior.

  • Sicong (from Xian Stateoptics) – Navigator series: roof prism; Ares series: porro.
  • WDtian (from Yunnan State optics) – porro.
  • Yunnan State optics – MS series: porro.

United States

  • Alpen*
  • Barska
  • Brunton, Inc.
  • Bushnell Performance Optics*
  • Carson Optical
  • Leupold & Stevens, Inc.*
  • Simmons
  • Vortex Optics
  • Weaver
  • William Optics
  • Zen-Ray Optics – SUMMIT, Vista Series WP.

* Also sells OEM products manufactured by the KAMAKURA KOKI CO. LTD. of Japan. Bushnell Corporation also known as Bushnell and Bushnell Outdoor Products is an American company specializing in optics and imaging. ... Vortex Optics is an American company developing and manufacturing optical equipment for hunting, bird watching, and other outdoor recreational sports. ... Original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, is a term that refers to containment-based re-branding, namely where one company uses a component of another company within its product, or sells the product of another company under its own brand. ... Kamakura can refer to: Kamakura, Kanagawa, a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan The Kamakura Shogunate The Kamakura period in the History of Japan The Kamakura family name in Japan Kamakura Great Buddha, the Great Buddha of Kamakura Kamakura, a fictional character from the G.I. Joe series Category: ...


Russia

  • Yukon Advanced Optics
  • Baigish
  • Kronos
  • Russian Military Binoculars – BPOc 10x42 7x30, BKFC series.

See also

  • Anti-fogging treatment of optical surfaces
  • Binoviewer

Anti-fog agents, also known as anti-fogging agents and treatments, prevent the condensation of water on a surface in the form of small droplets which resemble fog. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Europa.com — The Early History of the Binocular
  2. ^ groups.google.co.ke
  3. ^ photodigital.net — rec.photo.equipment.misc Discussion: Achille Victor Emile Daubresse, forgotten prism inventor
  4. ^ Company7.com — A History Of A Most Respected Name In Optics
  5. ^ Astronomy Hacks By Robert Bruce Thompson, Barbara Fritchman Thompson, chapter 1, page 34
  6. ^ About binoculars. Monk Optics.
  7. ^ Gear Guy. Outside. Away (2002-02-13).

Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Nightskyinfo.com, A Guide to Binoculars, Emil Neata
  • The history of the telescope & the binocular, The First 300 Years of Binocular Telescopes, Peter Abrahams, May 2002

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Binoculars
  • A Guide to Binoculars
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
About Binoculars - a general guide (0 words)
The modern compact binocular is generally small, yet with stereoscopic vision and depth of field far greater than before.
Zoom binoculars have part of the ocular lens arrangement moveable so as to adjust the magnification, typically from about 7x to 20x.
Waterproof binoculars sometimes incorporating a compass are the usual for marine use, and larger more powerful binoculars are used for long distance observation and astronomy.
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Binoculars are the primary instrument for a wide range of activities.
Sizes range from mini binoculars, compact binoculars, mid-size binoculars, full-size binoculars and even big and giant binoculars, pier-mounted and long range observation binoculars.
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