FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Binitarianism

Binitarianism is a theology of two in one God, as opposed to one (unitarianism) or three (trinitarianism). Classically, it is understood as strict monotheism — that is, that God is an absolutely single being; and yet there is a "twoness" in God. At times, this monotheism drifted toward a "twoness" of God: that is, two Beings in one "God family" that is in agreement with itself, composed of the Father and the Son. These two strains of a theology of two, and one God developed alongside one another, and eventually came into direct conflict, especially in the Arian controversy of the fourth century, some scholars believe. It has been suggested that Unitarian Christianity be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ...

Contents

Scholarly views of early Christian theology

Larry W. Hurtado of University of Edinburgh uses the word binitarian to describe the position of early Christian devotion to God, which ascribes to the Son (Jesus) an exaltedness that in Judaism would be reserved for God alone, while still affirming as in Judaism that God is one, and is alone to be worshiped. He writes: The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...

...there are a fairly consistent linkage and subordination of Jesus to God 'the Father' in these circles, evident even in the Christian texts from the latter decades of the first century that are commonly regarded as a very 'high' Christology, such as the Gospel of John and Revelation. This is why I referred to this Jesus-devotion as a "binitarian" form of monotheism: there are two distinguishable figures (God and Jesus), but they are posited in a relation to each other that seems intended to avoid the ditheism of two gods" (Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, William B. Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids, 2003, pp. 52-53).

Hurtado does not cite "binitarianism" as antithetical to Nicene Christianity, but rather as an indication that early Christians, before Nicea, were monotheistic (as evidenced by their singular reference to the Father as God), and yet also devoted to Jesus as pre-existent, co- eternal, the creator, embodying the power of God, by whom the Father is revealed, and in whose name alone the Father is worshiped. He writes, "The central place given to Jesus...and...their concern to avoid ditheism by reverencing Jesus rather consistently with reference to "the Father", combine to shape the proto-orthodox "binitarian" pattern of devotion. Jesus truly is reverenced as divine" (Ibid, p. 618).


Hurtado's view might be interpreted as urging that, at this stage of the development of the Church's understanding, it could be said that God is a person (the Father), and a single being; and that Jesus is distinct from the Father, was pre- existent with God, and also originating from God without becoming a being separate from him, so that he is God (the Son). This view of a binitarian pattern of devotion would posit a unity of God's being, and a singleness of the object of worship, which is sympathetic to its predecessor view in Judaism; and it also displays a plurality of simultaneous identities which is sympathetic to its successor in trinitarianism. It is a development of understanding of Christ, in other words, from which arose several understandings in the course of development, that eventually came into conflict with one another.


Before Hurtado's influential work, one classic scholarly theory of binitarianism was that the Holy Spirit was seen as in some sense identical to the Son, or uniquely embodied in him. The Shepherd of Hermas, among other sources, is cited to support the theory. In one of the parables, for example, an angel declares: The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian work of the first or second century which had great authority in ancient times and was considered by some as one of the books of the Bible. ...

The preexistent Holy Spirit, which created the whole creation, God caused to live in the flesh that he wished. This flesh, therefore, in which the Holy Spirit lived served the Spirit well, living in holiness and purity, without defiling the Spirit in any way. ... it had lived honorably and chastely, and had worked with the Spirit and cooperated with it in everything.

The classic theory of Christian binitarian theology, assumed by most dictionary definitions of binitarianism, asserts that some early Christians conceived of the Spirit as going out from God the creator, and is the creator: an aspect of God's being, which also lived in Jesus (or from other sources, appears to be thought of as Jesus's pre-existent, divine nature). This view further asserts that the same Spirit is given to men, making them a new creation, and sharers in the same hope of resurrection and exaltation. This interpretation of early Christian belief is often cited in contrast to trinitarianism. However, trinitarians cite the same sources as examples of pre-Nicene Christian monotheism, not orthodoxy, but "proto-orthodox" - that is, one of several versions that existed among Christians, which explain monotheism as a plurality (Father, Spirit and Son) in a single being, prior to orthodoxy's settlement in Christianity.


By the time of the Arian controversy, some bishops defended a kind of dual conception of deity, which is sometimes called "Semi-Arianism". The Macedonian heresy typifies this view, which some prefer to call binitarian. The Semi-Arian view at that time was the Father and Son were God, but not the Holy Spirit; but none of the Arian views were strictly monotheistic (one being). All asserted that the God who speaks and the Word who creates are two beings similar to one another (homoiousia), and denied that they are one and the same being (homoousia) in which two are distinguished, as Nicea eventually held. Nevertheless, the term binitarian is considered to be a more descriptive term than Semi-Arian, by current scholars, because the latter term has no precise meaning. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Macedonians were a Christian sect of the 4th century AD, named after Patriarch Macedonius I of Constantinople. ...


Church of God binitarianism

Binitarianism is a term also adopted to explain a view associated particularly with some branches of the Church of God, of which the Worldwide Church of God, founded by Herbert W. Armstrong, was a part (the present Worldwide Church of God, following leadership changes, is trinitarian). The Church of God, holding to Apostolic doctrine, strongly asserts that there were originally two beings in the Godhead: the Father and the Word, and that the Word came to earth and became the Son, the only begotten of God, (Jesus the Christ) {Refer to John 1}. Those who hold this view believe that God is a family which currently consists of the Father and the Son, one God family, one God, but two members. It is further believed that those who progress to salvation will then also become God's children, and be God, part of the God family, Christ being a true brother, and God the Father, a true father. This progression to salvation goes beyond the orthodox view of going to heaven or the view that saved persons are less than gods; the Church of God's binitarian view posits that humanity eventually will have access to become members of God's family in their own right each with the power of the Holy Spirit, however, not equal to Father, or Son. As part of the binitarian view it is also believed that, as the Bible states, the Father is greater than Jesus. In Christianity, the Godhead is a unit consisting of God the Father, Jesus Christ (the Son), and the Holy Spirit. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Contrast with trinitarians

Trinitarians sometimes describe the modern binitarian view as "ditheist" or "dualist", instead of binitarian, because it posits that God is multiple beings, analogous to a human family - as all humans are also called "Man", after their first father, so in the Father's family, all born into his family are called "God". This is considered a form of polytheism in the traditional trinitarian view as well as in the unitarian or monotheistic point of view.


Binitarians do not believe that Jesus "was fully human and fully God", which is the position held by trinitarians. They believe that Jesus was God (the Word) prior to His incarnation, that He became fully human (finite) yet he was not fully God during the pre-resurrection incarnation as He did not have the powers etc. of God then, and that all authority was restored to Him (as well as his infinite God-status) at or shortly after the resurrection. They make four major claims to support that position: For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ...

  1. Binitarians believe that Jesus emptied Himself of His Divinity while in the flesh, citing the same Scriptures which trinitarians cite to the opposite conclusion: that he denied himself the honor and glory he deserved, and hid the fact that he is equal to the Father, in order to serve those who were undeserving. 2 Corinthians 8:9 teaches that Jesus became poor, yet God is rich (Haggai 2:8), while Philippians 2:7 specifically teaches, "...Christ Jesus, who subsisting in (the) form of God thought (it) not robbery to be equal to God, but emptied Himself, taking (the) form of a slave, becoming in (the) likeness of men" (Literal translation. Green J.P. ed. Interlinear Greek-English New Testament, 3rd ed. Baker Books, Grand Rapids (MI), 1996, p. 607). The binitarian view of these texts is called kenosis, referring to the idea that what Jesus "emptied" himself of was his divinity (rather, than, say, his exalted position in Heaven).
  2. Binitarians deny the trinitarian teaching that Jesus possessed two wills and two natures. For this reason they view the assertions of Jesus that He "could do nothing" without the Father, prior to His resurrection (John 5:19,30; 8:28), as a denial by him that he had all divine rights until after the resurrection, when he claimed that he had "all authority in heaven and on earth" (Matthew 28:18). They conclude that it is because he was not fully God until after the resurrection, that he could "do nothing".
  3. Similarly, they note that the Bible claims that Jesus was tempted in all points as humans are (Hebrews 4:15) and that in another place the Bible claims "God cannot be tempted by evil" (James 1:13). Denying the trinitarian view of two natures, binitarians see the assertions as contradictory if posited of the same person, and therefore, since "scripture cannot be broken" (John 10:35) Jesus could not have been fully God while in the flesh.
  4. Binitarians and Trinitarians note that Jesus was not called God in the flesh until after His resurrection (John 20:28). Binitarians add to this an assumption that it was only after the resurrection that it was fully true of him, which Paul claimed, that "in Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily" (Colossians 2:9) and that Jesus had all power (Colossians 2:10). The binitarians teach the view that Jesus was God, and became God, and that believers will follow him to achieve the same goal.

In other words, binitarians tend to believe that in the flesh Jesus was who He was prior to His incarnation (God the Word), but not what He was (i.e. not fully God with all authority) prior to His resurrection. He was God, then he was not God, then he was God again. Kenosis is a Greek word for emptiness, which is used as a theological term. ... In Christianity, the Godhead is a term denoting deity or divinity. ...


Trinitarians teach that the Holy Spirit is another like the Son, who comes from the Father without becoming a being separate from him (Matthew 28:19-20; John 16:5-7; Acts 1:8, 2:4). Most binitarians teach that the Holy Spirit is essentially the power of God, with no distinct identity within God, and not a separate Being as they conceive the Son to be. For example, in its Official Statement of Fundamental Beliefs, the binitarian Living Church of God, "The Holy Spirit is the very essence, the mind, life and power of God. It is not a Being. The Spirit is inherent in the Father and the Son, and emanates from Them throughout the entire universe (1 Kings 8:27; Psalm 139:7; Jeremiah 23:24). It was through the Spirit that God created all things (Genesis 1:1-2; Revelation 4:11). It is the power by which Christ maintains the universe (Hebrews 1:2-3). It is given to all who repent of their sins and are baptized (Acts 2:38-39) and is the power (Acts 1:8; 2 Timothy 1:6-7) by which all believers may be "overcomers" (Romans 8:37, KJV; Revelation 2:26-27) and will be led to eternal life."


Scripture mentions prayer mainly to the Father, and perhaps to the Son, but the Holy Spirit is never prayed to or worshiped in the Bible; in the Book of Revelation, there is praise to the "one who sits upon the throne" (God), "and to the lamb" (Jesus), but the Spirit is not mentioned; modern binitarians conclude that this is because the Holy Spirit is not God.


Binitarians believe that statements from early Christian leaders such as Melito of Sardis and Polycarp of Smyrna were binitarian, though most mainstream scholars do not accept this assertion. Binitarians point out, for example, while both call the Father and Son "God", not only do neither refer to the Holy Spirit as God, Melito's Oration on Our Lord's Passion suggests that the Holy Spirit is simply the power of God in action[1]. Binitarians have noted that Paul honors the Father and the Son towards the beginning of every book he wrote, but never does so for the Holy Spirit. Trinitarians see Romans 1:4, Ephesians 1:13, 1 Thessalonians 1:5-6 and 1 Timothy 1:14 as exceptions. Melito of Sardis, or Melito of Sardes, a Christian saint, was the was the bishop of Sardis in Asia Minor. ... Saint Polycarp of Smyrna (martyred in his 87th year, ca. ...


By not considering that the Holy Spirit is a separate Being, some form of binitarians were also called the Pneumatomachi, as a subset of Semi-Arians. The Catholic historian Epiphanius described them as "A sort of monstrous, half-formed people of two natures" (Epiphanius. The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Books II and III (Sects 47-80), De Fide). Section VI, Verse 1,1. Translated by Frank Williams. EJ Brill, New York, 1994, p.471).


Compared to Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics

Binitarians from groups originating in the old Worldwide Church of God (the current Worldwide Church of God is now trinitarian), believe that the teaching from Romans 8:29 about Jesus being "the firstborn among many brethren" demonstrates that Christians will be in the Family called "God". The view that God is a family that Christians can expect to be born into is not widely held within groups that profess Christianity. However, there is a sense in which trinitarians believe that, by being united with Christ a Christian becomes a participant in the Son's communion with the Father, they become sons by adoption and brothers to Christ, and "sharers in the divine nature". This contrasting, majority view, has been thoroughly developed in the catholic, trinitarian tradition inherited by most Protestants. The Worldwide Church of God was founded in 1933 by Herbert W. Armstrong as the Radio Church of God. ... The adjective trinitarian is used in several senses: Ideas or things pertaining to the Holy Trinity A person or group adhering to the doctrine of Trinitarianism, which holds God to subsist in the form of the Holy Trinity The Trinitarian Order is a Catholic monastic order founded in 1198 by... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


For example, the trinitarian Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that Christians will by grace become so entirely conformed to the will, purpose, and character of God, that they will be gods by the gift of God. Timothy Ware, an Eastern Orthodox Bishop wrote, "St. Athanasius summed up the purpose of the Incarnation by saying, 'God became human that we might made God'...we are God's 'offspring' (Acts xvii, 28), His kin...we will become 'like' God, we will acquire divine likeness; In the words of John Damascene...To acquire the likeness is to be deified, it is to become a 'second god', a god by grace'. 'I said, you are gods, and all of you sons of the Most High' (Psalm lxxxi, 6; cf John x, 34-35)...Such, according to the teaching of the Orthodox Church, is the final goal at which every Christian must attain: to become like god, to obtain theosis, 'deification' or 'divinization'. For Orthodoxy our salvation and redemption mean something close to, but not the same as, deification...deification is not something reserved for a select few initiates, but is something intended for all alike, but only in the sense of attainment of heavenly attributes. The Orthodox Church believes this is the normal goal of every Christian without exception. Certainly we shall only be deified on the Last Day; but for each of us the process of divinization must begin here and now in this present life" (Ware T. The Orthodox Church. Penguin Books, London, 1997, p.21, 219,231,236). Western Christians often vigorously avoid the terminology of deification, divinization, or theosis, while not necessarily rejecting the intended doctrine expressed in different terms. The adjective trinitarian is used in several senses: Ideas or things pertaining to the Holy Trinity A person or group adhering to the doctrine of Trinitarianism, which holds God to subsist in the form of the Holy Trinity The Trinitarian Order is a Catholic monastic order founded in 1198 by... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis, meaning divinization (or deification or, to become god), is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ...


Modern binitarians strongly agree with these Eastern Orthodox statements concerning deification, as they understand them. However, in Eastern Orthodoxy, theosis is profoundly linked to a trinitarian understanding of God, laying special emphasis on the Holy Spirit as containing and communicating the fullness of God, not as an intermediary, but as God indeed. In Eastern Orthodoxy especially, to deny that the Holy Spirit eternally proceeds from the Father alone but rather from both the Father and the Son, as the filioque states, is seen as tending toward binitarian monotheism, or worse, bitheism. The Roman Church accepted and urged adoption of the filioque resulting in the schism with the Eastern Orthodox in 1054 A.D. The Orthodox urge that these filioque statements must be rejected, because the theological understanding of the Spirit is directly attached to consequent notions of what the unity of God is, the unity of the gift of God in giving his Son and His Spirit, and thus what "salvation" means and by what principle it is lived out. In addition, the Orthodox view of theosis only allows humans to be united with God in his energies, but never with God's essence, as God remains completely transcendent in His essence. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed part of the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed part of the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ...


Binitarians look forward to their hope of being deified, and deny that the trinitarian or chalcedonian doctrines uniquely assert anything necessary to a godly faith, along with Mormons. Nevertheless, as they do not see the strict monotheism or the trinitarianism of Eastern Orthodoxy as contributing anything essential and necessary, these binitarians see themselves as closer to the Eastern Orthodox, than to theosis as found in Western (Augustinian) Christianity, or the Mormon views of deification, as they understand these doctrines. The Chalcedonian Creed was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 in Asia Minor. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ...


Binitarianism Throughout History

Certain scholars have noted that, "Earliest Christian worship specifies two figures, God and Jesus, as recipients" (Hurtado, Larry, "The Binitarian Shape of Early Christian Worship". International Conference on the Historical Origins of the Worship of Jesus, 13-17 June 1998), and that early Jewish rabbis considered early Christianity to be binitarian (Summary of response by Alan F. Segal, International Conference on the Historical Origins of the Worship of Jesus, 13-17 June 1998).


Near the end of the second century, Melito of Sardis (whom Catholics and others consider to be a saint) wrote, "No eye can see Him, nor thought apprehend Him, nor language describe Him; and those who love Him speak of Him thus: `Father, and God of Truth" (A Discourse Which Was in the Presence of Antoninus Caesar). Melito also wrote, "For the deeds done by Christ after His baptism, and especially His miracles, gave indication and assurance to the world of the Deity hidden in His flesh. For, being at once both God and perfect man likewise...He concealed the signs of His Deity, although He was the true God existing before all ages" (Melito. On the Nature of Christ. From Roberts and Donaldson. In Ante-Nicene Fathers). This clearly shows that Melito considered Christ to be God, as well as the Father. There is no indication in any of the surviving writings of Melito that he considered that the Holy Spirit was also God, furthermore, the following passage suggests that he seemed to hold a binitarian view as he wrote, "The finger of the Lord-the Holy Spirit, by whose operation the tables of the law in Exodus are said to have been written" (From the Oration on Our Lord's Passion. Online version copyright © 2001 Peter Kirby. [2]). Melito of Sardis, or Melito of Sardes, a Christian saint, was the was the bishop of Sardis in Asia Minor. ...


Some non-binitarians claim that Melito contradicted the belief of some modern binitarians by insisting the Jesus remained fully God while He walked on earth as a man when he wrote: "On these accounts He came to us; on these accounts, though He was incorporeal, He formed for Himself a body after our fashion, -appearing as a sheep, yet still remaining the Shepherd; being esteemed a servant, yet not renouncing the Sonship; being carried in the womb of Mary, yet arrayed in the nature of His Father; treading upon the earth, yet filling heaven; appearing as an infant, yet not discarding the eternity of His nature; being invested with a body, yet not circumscribing the unmixed simplicity of His Godhead; being esteemed poor, yet not divested of His riches; needing sustenance inasmuch as He was man, yet not ceasing to feed the entire world inasmuch as He is God; putting on the likeness of a servant, yet not impairing the likeness of His Father. He sustained every character belonging to Him in an immutable nature: He was standing before Pilate, and at the same time was sitting with His Father; He was nailed upon the tree, and yet was the Lord of all things." (From the Discourse on the Cross. [3]) Some claim that like the Chalcedonian Creed adopted by later trinitarians, he here makes no mention of the Holy Spirit because his attention is focused on demonstrating the humanity and divinity of Jesus Christ. Binitarians, point out, however that they believe that Melito's statements do not contradict their position and no speculation about why he left out the Holy Spirit in that passage is not support for a trinitarian viewpoint. The Chalcedonian Creed was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 in Asia Minor. ...


After the 325 Council of Nicaea defeated Arianism, the Council of Constantinople was called in 381 in order to attempt to deal with the binitarians, who were referred to as "Semi-Arians". However, as the Trinity was finalized at this time as official Christian doctrine, the offended Semi-Arians walked out. "They rejected the Arian view that Christ was created and had a different nature from God (anomoios dissimilar), but neither did they accept the Nicene Creed which stated that Christ was 'of one substance (homoousios) with the Father'. Semi-Arians taught that Christ was similar (homoios) to the Father, or of like substance (homoiousios), but still subordinate" (Pfandl, Gerhard. The Doctrine of the Trinity Among Adventists. Biblical Research Institute, Silver Spring, MD June 1999). Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicea in Bithynia (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... See: First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council); or Fifth Ecumenical Council (Second Council of Constantinople). ... Events First Council of Constantinople - second Ecumenical council of the Christian Church: The Nicene creed is affirmed and extended, Apollinarism is declared a heresy. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Biblical Research Institute is a service department of the Seventh-day Adventist Church with the three stated functions of research, apologetics, and service to the church. ...


In the mid-4th century, orthodox apologist Epiphanius of Salamis noted, "Semi-Arians...hold the truly orthodox view of the Son, that he was forever with the Father...but has been begotten without beginning and not in time...But all of these blaspheme the Holy Spirit, and do not count him in the Godhead with the Father and the Son" (The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Books II and III (Sects 47-80), De Fide; Section VI, Verses 1,1 and 1,3. Translated by Frank Williams. EJ Brill, New York, 1994, pp.471-472). Epiphanius (ca 310–20 – 403) was a Church Father, a heresiologist who was a strong defender of orthodoxy, known for tracking down deviant teachings (heresies) wherever they could be traced, during the troubled era in the Christian Church following the Council of Nicaea. ...


Binitarians believe that other later groups throughout history such as some who were called Paulicians, Albigensians, and Bogomils were holders of a binitarian view. However, since these were names that the Roman Church coined in reference to what it considered to be heretical gnostic sects, it is not always entirely clear what these groups may have affirmed. The Nationmaster Encyclopedia notes, "The Albigensians and other Bogomil heretics were apparently believers in Dualism and denied the third person of the Holy Trinity." Bogomils was the name of an ancient Gnostic religious community which is thought to have originated in Bulgaria. ... Albigensians A name that is usually used in reference to a later group of Cathari which was a religious movement of southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Bogomils was the name of a defunct Gnostic social-religious movement and doctrine which originated in Macedonia in X century at the time of Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969) as a reaction of the state and clerical oppression. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... It has been suggested that Combative dualism be merged into this article or section. ...


Dualistic faiths, as many forms of gnosticism were, often conceived of the "Logos" as a demiurge; and these have consistently been considered to be heretics by many in the Catholic or Protestant faiths, "A heresy during the middle ages that developed in the town Albi in Southern France. This error taught that there were two gods...The Albigenses taught that Jesus was God but that He only appeared as a man while on earth" (Albigenes, Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry). But again, not all identified as Albigenses were binitarian, and those that were binitarian would have stated that Jesus was only a man on earth, not stated that He only appeared as a man. Binitarians strongly dispute that they are Gnostic and claim that history supports their claim--and state, for example, that if Melito was binitarian (which is a subject of debate), then binitarians did not derive from any form of Gnosticism. The Demiurge, in some belief systems, is a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


In the 1800s, the binitarian Church of God (Seventh Day) split from what became the Seventh Day Adventists after Ellen White gained influence. Later, in 1897, Ellen White published a pamphlet declaring the Holy Spirit "the third person of the Godhead". Andrews University, an Adventist institution for higher learning, suggests that the Seventh Day Adventists were inclined towards binitarianism before this, which Gerhard Pfandl describes by the term "Semi-Arian" (Pfandl, Gerhard. "The Doctrine of the Trinity Among Adventists", Biblical Research Institute, Silver Spring, MD June 1999). The General Conference of the Church of God (Seventh-Day) is an Adventist body descending from the followers of William Miller. ... The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA), colloquially referred to as the Adventists, is an evangelical Protestant Christian denomination that grew out of the prophetic Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century. ... Ellen Gould Harmon White (November 26, 1827 - July 16, 1915) was co-founder of Seventh-day Adventism. ... The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA), colloquially referred to as the Adventists, is an evangelical Protestant Christian denomination that grew out of the prophetic Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century. ... The Biblical Research Institute is a service department of the Seventh-day Adventist Church with the three stated functions of research, apologetics, and service to the church. ...


Conclusion

Binitarianism may have been widespread during the years of the early Church, but the evidence is inconclusive. Throughout later history, binitarianism was only held by small groups. Now it is a view essentially only held by some 7th Day Church of God groups and few others. The largest three groups that appear to hold a binitarian view in modern times are the Church of God (Seventh Day), United Church of God, and the Living Church of God. Other groups, scattered spinoffs from the breakup of the old sabbatarian Worldwide Church of God, which was founded by Herbert W. Armstrong, persist in their worship of Jesus and the Father, yet insist that in their dual worship, their worship of two separate and individual God-beings, they are practicing monotheism. These are the same groups that insist certain human beings can also become Gods in their own right; Gods with all the attributes of the Father and Jesus. These humans who may become "Gods" are only those found to be attending the congregations that openly support binitarianism. Trinitarianism cannot in any way be compared with Binitarianism, in posits or scope, for the former has greater support of writing and persons, than does the latter. Church of God is a name used by numerous, mostly unrelated bodies. ... The General Conference of the Church of God (Seventh-Day) is an Adventist body descending from the followers of William Miller. ... The United Church of God, an International Association (UCGIA)[1] is a Christian denomination. ... The Living Church of God (LCG) is the second largest Church group formed by followers of the teachings of the late Herbert W. Armstrong. ... Herbert Wright Armstrong (July 31, 1892 – January 16, 1986) was the founder of the Worldwide Church of God, Ambassador College (a private university), a broadcaster, a publisher, widely known as an Ambassador for Peace, and (through the Church and the Ambassador International Cultural Foundation) a promoter of the arts, humanities...


See also

Adoptionism, or adoptianism, is a view held by some Early Christians, that claims Jesus was born human, and later became divine during his baptism, at which point he became the adopted son of God. ... Armstrongism refers to the doctrines of Herbert W. Armstrong, founder of the Worldwide Church of God (WCG). ... Conceptions of God can vary widely, despite the use of the same term for them all. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Binitarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2973 words)
Binitarianism is a term also adopted to explain a view associated particularly with some branches of the Sabbatarian Church of God, which asserts that there were originally two beings in the Godhead: the Father and the Word that became the Son (Jesus the Christ).
Binitarians believe that Jesus emptied Himself of His Divinity while in the flesh, citing the same Scriptures which trinitarians cite to the opposite conclusion: that he denied himself the honor and glory he deserved, and hid the fact that he is equal to the Father, in order to serve those who were undeserving.
Binitarians add to this an assumption that it was only after the resurrection that it was fully true of him, which Paul claimed, that "in Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily" (Colossians 2:9) and that Jesus had all power (Colossians 2:10).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m