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Encyclopedia > Binding energy

Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts. A bound system has a lower potential energy than its constituent parts; this is what keeps the system together; it corresponds to a positive binding energy. Potential energy is stored energy. ...

At the nuclear level, binding energy is derived from the strong nuclear force and is the energy required to disassemble a nucleus into neutrons and protons. At the atomic level, binding energy is derived from electromagnetic interaction and is the energy required to disassemble an atom into electrons and a nucleus. In astrophysics, gravitational binding energy of a celestial body is the energy required to disassemble it into space debris, not to be confused with the gravitational potential energy to separate e.g. a celestial body and a satellite to infinite distance, keeping each intact. The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... Electromagnetic interaction is a fundamental force of nature and is felt by charged leptons and quarks. ... The gravitational binding energy of an object is the amount of energy required to accelerate every component of that object to the escape velocity of every other component. ... Potential energy (U, or Ep), a kind of scalar potential, is energy by virtue of matter being able to move to a lower-energy state, releasing energy in some form. ...

Because a bound system is at a lower energy level, its mass must be less than its unbound constituents. Nuclear binding energy can be computed from the difference in mass of a nucleus, and the sum of the mass of the neutrons and protons that make up the nucleus. Once this mass difference (also called the mass defect) is known, Einstein's formula (E = mc²) can then be used to compute the binding energy of any nucleus.

The energy given off during either nuclear fusion or nuclear fission is the difference between the binding energies of the fuel and the fusion or fission products. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Sketch of induced nuclear fission, a neutron (n) strikes a uranium nucleus which splits into similar products (F. P.), and releases more neutrons to continue the process, and energy in the form of gamma and other radiation. ...

## Binding energy of a deuteron 2H GA_googleFillSlot("encyclopedia_square");

A deuteron is the nucleus of a deuterium atom, and consists of one proton and one neutron. The masses of the constituents are: Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance of one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. ... Properties In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ...

mproton = 1.007276 u (u is Atomic mass unit)
mneutron= 1.008665 u
mproton + mneutron = 1.007276 + 1.008665 = 2.015941 u

The mass of the deuteron is: The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ...

Atomic mass 2H = 2.013553 u

The mass difference = 2.015941 - 2.013553 = .002388 u, and conversion between rest mass and energy is 931.494MeV/u, so a deuteron's binding energy is The fuel value or relative energy density is the quantity of potential energy in fuel, food or other substance. ...

0.002388 × 931.494 MeV/u = 2.224 MeV

Thus, expressed in another way, the binding energy is 0.1 % of the total energy corresponding to the mass, hence 90 TJ/kg.

## Nuclear binding energy curve

The series of light elements from hydrogen up to sodium have increasing binding energy per nucleon as the atomic mass increases, a region of stability (saturation) occurs from magnesium through xenon, and then binding energy per nucleon decreases as the atomic mass increases. Nickel is the most stable and tightly bound element. Fusion produces energy by combining lighter elements into a more stable tighter bound element such as hydrogen into helium, and fission produces energy by splitting heavier elements such as uranium or plutonium into more tightly bound stable elements. General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... The atomic mass of an element (also known as the relative atomic mass or average atomic mass or atomic weight) is the average atomic mass of all the chemical elements isotopes as found in a particular environment, weighted by isotopic abundance. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic Atomic mass 58. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 4. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic Atomic mass 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... In nuclear chemistry, the term stable element has been variously defined by different people at different times. ...

Plot of the binding energy per nucleon for a selection of stable nuclides. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Binding energy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (424 words) At the nuclear level, binding energy is derived from the strong nuclear force and is the energy required to disassemble a nucleus into neutrons and protons. At the atomic level, binding energy is derived from electromagnetic interaction and is the energy required to disassemble an atom into electrons and a nucleus. In astrophysics, gravitational binding energy of a celestial body is the energy required to disassemble it into space debris, not to be confused with the gravitational potential energy to separate e.g.
 Gravitational binding energy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (277 words) The gravitational binding energy of an object consisting of loose material, held together by gravity alone, is the amount of energy required to pull all material apart, to infinity. It is also the amount of energy that is liberated (usually in the form of heat) during the accretion of such an object from material falling from infinity. For a system consisting of a celestial body and a satellite, the gravitational binding energy is more in absolute value than the potential energy of the satellite with respect to the celestial body, because for the latter quantity, only the separation of the two components is taken into account, keeping each intact.
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