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Encyclopedia > Binary fission
Binary fission
Binary fission

Binary fission is the form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size, used by most prokaryotes. This process results in the reproduction of a living cell by division into two equal or near-equal parts. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Diagram of binary fission. ... Diagram of binary fission. ... Asexual reproduction in liverworts: a caducuous phylloid germinating Asexual reproduction is a form of reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization. ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


Mitosis is not the same as binary fission. Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ...

Contents

Genetic effects

Sea anemone in process of cloning (longitudinal fission)
Sea anemone in process of cloning (longitudinal fission)

Binary fission is asexual; the organism splits directly into two equal-sized offsprings, each with a copy of the parent's genetic material. Binary fission is a common type of reproduction in single-celled organisms. Families Many, see text. ...


Bacterial DNA has a relatively high mutation rate. This rapid rate of genetic change is what makes bacteria capable of developing resistance to antibiotics and helps them exploit invasion into a wide range of environments. For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


Organisms that reproduce through binary fission generally have exponential growth phases. Escherichia coli cells are able to divide every 20 minutes under optimum conditions. In mathematics, exponential growth (or geometric growth) occurs when the growth rate of a function is always proportional to the functions current size. ... E. coli redirects here. ...


Process

Animation showing the complete process of binary fission.

Binary fission begins with DNA replication. DNA replication starts from an origin of replication, which opens up into a replication bubble (note: prokaryotic DNA replication usually has only 1 origin of replication, whereas eukaryotes have multiple origins of replication). The replication bubble separates the DNA double strand, each strand acts as template for synthesis of a daughter strand by semiconservative replication, until the entire prokaryotic DNA is duplicated. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... DNA replication. ... A summary of the three postulated methods of DNA synthesis Semiconservative replication describes the method by which DNA is replicated in all known cells. ...


After this replicational process, cell growth occurs.


Each circular DNA strand then attaches to the cell membrane. The cell elongates, causing the two chromosomes to separate. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ... For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see chromosome (genetic algorithm). ...


Cell division in bacteria is controlled by the septal ring, a collection of about a dozen proteins that collect around the site of division. There, they direct assembly of the division septum.the cell wall and plasma membrane starts growing transversely from near the middle of the dividing cell. The dividing septum originates centripetally and separates the parent cell into two nearly equal daughter cells ,each having a nuclear body [1] A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


The cell membrane then invaginates (grows inwards) and splits the cell into two daughter cells, separated by a newly grown cell plate. This process is called cytokinesis. Invagination is one of the morphogenetic processes by which an embryo takes form, and is the initial step of gastrulation, the massive reorganization of the embryo from a simple spherical ball of cells, the blastula, into a multi-layered organism, with a differentiated endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. ... A cell that has almost completed cytokinesis. ...


Organisms using binary fission

Many organisms reproduce by binary fission, such as:

Some eukaryotes reproduce using binary fission-like methods. Mitosis is thought to derive from binary fission. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista is one of the commonly recognized biological kingdoms, including all the eukaryotes except for... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ...


Binary fission in protozoans

In binary fission in protozoans, the replicated chromosomes are separated by intranuclear (closed) mitosis and the nucleus divides by furrowing. The cytoplasm then gradually constricts between the two separating nuclei, ultimately forming two equally sized daughter individuals, each with a nucleus. The offspring grows to the size of the parent before dividing again.


Types of binary fission

Binary fission is mainly of three types with regard to the plane of division:

  1. Irregular binary fission: Occurs in amoebae. The plane of division of cytoplasm varies but is always at right angles to the elongated dividing nucleus.
  2. Longitudinal binary fission: Occurs in flagellates such as Euglena. The cytoplasm splits lengthwise, from forward to backward, forming two similar daughter individuals.
  3. Transverse binary fission: Occurs in ciliates such as paramecium. The cytoplasm divides transversely between two sets of nuclei, forming two dissimilar individuals. This is called bacterial fission.

Amoeba (Chaos diffluens) Foraminiferan shells Heliozoan (Actinophrys sol) Amoeboids are cells that move or feed by means of temporary projections, called pseudopods (false feet). ... Hey Euglena is a common Euglenophyte protist, typical of the euglenids, and commonly found in nutrient-rich freshwater, with a few marine species. ... Classes & Subclasses Class Karyorelictea Class Heterotrichea (e. ... Species Paramecium tetraurelia Paramecium aurelia Paramecium caudatum The Paramecium is a group of unicellular ciliate protozoa formerly known as slipper animalcules from their slipper shape. ...

References

  1. ^ Blackwell Synergy - Cookie Absent

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