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Encyclopedia > Billy Mitchell
William (Billy) Mitchell
December 28, 1879 - February 19, 1936 (aged 56)

Brigadier General Billy Mitchell, United States Army Air Service
Nickname "Billy"
Place of death New York City, New York
Allegiance United States Army
Years of service 1897 - 1926
Rank Major General {posthumous}
Commands US Army Air Service
Battles/wars Spanish-American War
World War I
*Battle of Saint-Mihiel
Awards Distinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Medal
Congressional Gold Medal {posthumous}
For other people with the same name, see Billy Mitchell (disambiguation).

William Lendrum "Billy" Mitchell (December 28, 1879February 19, 1936) was an American general who is regarded as the father of the U.S. Air Force. He was regarded as one of the most famous and most controversial figures in American airpower history. is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Billy Mitchell from http://raven. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 7,000 2000 dead and 5500 wounded The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a World War I battle fought between September 12 - 15, 1918, involving the American Expeditionary Force... The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration of the United States Army, awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. ... The Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Army which is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ... The name Billy Mitchell may refer to: Billy Mitchell (1879-1936), American military official Billy Mitchell, British musician and singer, member of Jack The Lad and Lindisfarne Billy Mitchell (born 1965), video-game expert Billy Mitchell, character in EastEnders This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Seal of the Air Force. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in Nice, France to John L. Mitchell, a wealthy Wisconsin senator and his wife, Mitchell grew up on an estate in what is now the Milwaukee suburb of West Allis, Wisconsin. Alexander Mitchell, his grandfather, was the wealthiest person in Wisconsin for his generation and established what became the Milwaukee Road along with the Marine Bank of Wisconsin. Mitchell Park and the street Mitchell Boulevard were named in honor of Alexander. Night view along the Promenade des Anglais This article is about the city. ... John Lendrum Mitchell (October 19, 1842 - June 29, 1904) was an American politician and a Congressman and Senator from Wisconsin. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Wisconsin State Fair West Allis is a city in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, United States. ... Alexander Mitchell (1817-1887) was born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland and immigrated to the United States in 1839. ... The Milwaukee Road, officially the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. ... Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory Mitchell Park Horticultural Conservatory (Mitchell Park Domes or The Domes) is a conservatory located at Mitchell Park in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ...


Billy Mitchell attended Columbian College (now George Washington University), where he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity. He then enlisted as a Private at age 18 during the Spanish American War. Quickly gaining a commission due to his father's intervention, he joined the U.S. Army Signal Corps. He predicted as early as 1906, while an instructor at the Army's Signal School in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, that future conflicts would take place in the air, not on the ground. The George Washington University (GWU) is a private university in Washington, D.C., founded in 1821 as The Columbian College. ... The George Washington University (GW), is a private, coeducational university located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The school was founded in 1821 as The Columbian College in the District of Columbia by Baptist ministers using funds bequeathed by George Washington. ... Phi Kappa Psi (ΦΚΨ, Phi Psi) is a U.S. national college fraternity. ... A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ... The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... The U.S. Army Signal Corps was founded in 1861 by United States Army Major Albert J. Myer, a physician by training. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ...


After tours in the Philippines and Alaska Territory, Mitchell was assigned to the General Staff—at the time, its youngest member at age 32. He became interested in aviation and was assigned to the Signal Corps (the Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps was responsible for US military aviation until the establishment of the Army Air Service in 1918). In 1916 at age 38 he took private flying lessons because the Army considered him too old and too high-ranking for flight training. Alaska Territory was an organized territory of the United States from August 24, 1912 to January 3, 1959, when Alaska became the 49th state. ... The Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps (1907-1914) was the first progenitor of the United States Air Force. ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ...


World War I

On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany, and Mitchell, by then a lieutenant colonel, was immediately deployed to France. He collaborated extensively with British and French air leaders, studying their strategies as well as their aircraft. Before long, Mitchell had gained enough experience to begin preparations for American air operations. Mitchell rapidly earned a reputation as a daring, flamboyant, and tireless leader. He eventually was elevated to the rank of Brigadier General and commanded all American air combat units in France. In September 1918 he planned and led nearly 1,500 British, French, and Italian aircraft in the air phase of the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, one of the first coordinated air-ground offensives in history. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Lieutenant Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces which is currently used by the United States Army, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps, and United States National Guard. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 7,000 2000 dead and 5500 wounded The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a World War I battle fought between September 12 - 15, 1918, involving the American Expeditionary Force...


Recognized as one of the top American combat airmen of the war alongside aces such as Eddie Rickenbacker he was probably the best-known American in Europe—he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the Distinguished Service Medal, and several foreign decorations, while nonetheless alienating most of his superiors—both flying and non-flying—during his 18 months in France. Eddie Rickenbacker (October 8, 1890 – July 27, 1973) was best known as a World War I fighter ace and Medal of Honor recipient. ... The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration of the United States Army which is awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. ... The Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Army which is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. ...


Post-war advocate of air

Billy Mitchell and Vought VE-7 Bluebird

Returning to the United States in early 1919, Mitchell was appointed the deputy director of the Air Service, retaining his one star rank. It had been widely expected throughout the Air Service that Mitchell would receive the post-war assignment of Director of Air Service, but the Army chose an infantryman and commander of the Rainbow Division in France, Maj. Gen. Charles T. Menoher, to maintain operational control of aviation by the ground forces. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 775 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3103 × 2400 pixel, file size: 628 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Billy Mitchell and Vought VE-7 Bluebird General Mitchell standing by V.E. 7 at Bolling Field Air Tournament, May 14 -16, 1920. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 775 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3103 × 2400 pixel, file size: 628 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Billy Mitchell and Vought VE-7 Bluebird General Mitchell standing by V.E. 7 at Bolling Field Air Tournament, May 14 -16, 1920. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... The 42d Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II, and is the division of the New York National Guard. ... Charles T. Menoher (1862-1930) was born in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. ...


Mitchell did not share in the common belief that World War I would be the war to end all wars. "If a nation ambitious for universal conquest gets off to a flying start in a war of the future," he said, "it may be able to control the whole world more easily than a nation has controlled a continent in the past."


His relations with superiors continued to sour as he began to attack both the War and Navy Departments for being insufficiently farsighted regarding airpower. He advocated the development of bombsights, ski-equipped aircraft, engine superchargers and aerial torpedoes. He ordered the use of aircraft in fighting forest fires and border patrols and encouraged a transcontinental air race, a flight around the perimeter of the United States, and encouraged Army pilots to challenge speed, endurance and altitude records—in short, anything it took to keep aviation in the news. Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... Seal The United States Department of the Navy was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798, to provide administrative and technical support, and civilian leadership to the United States Navy. ... A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to force more air (and hence more oxygen) into the combustion chamber(s) of an internal combustion engine than can be achieved at ambient atmospheric pressure (natural aspiration). ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Transcontinental Inc. ... Air racing is a sport that involves small airplanes and is practiced around the world each year. ...


Anti-ship bombing demonstration

1921 cartoon in the Chicago Tribune
1921 cartoon in the Chicago Tribune

Mitchell was concerned that the building of dreadnoughts was taking precious defense dollars away from military aviation. He was convinced that a force of anti-shipping airplanes could defend a coastline with more economy than a combination of coastal guns and naval vessels. A thousand bombers could be built at the same cost as one battleship, and could sink that battleship.[1] Mitchell infuriated the Navy by claiming he could sink ships "under war conditions," and boasted he could prove it if he were permitted to bomb captured German battleships. The Navy reluctantly agreed to the demonstration, specifying strict guidelines so that they could carefully study the bomb damage. There would be a news blackout until all data had been analyzed at which point only the official news report would be released. Mitchell felt that the Navy was going to bury the results. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 468 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,986 × 2,542 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 468 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,986 × 2,542 pixels, file size: 1. ...


Mitchell assembled an air and ground crew of 125 aircraft and 1000 men and began training in anti-ship bombing techniques at Langley, Virginia. Alexander Seversky, a veteran Russian pilot who had bombed German ships in WWI, joined the effort, suggesting the bombers aim near the ships so that expanding water pressure from the underwater blasts would stave in and separate hull plates. Langley is an unincorporated community in the census-designated place of McLean in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... For other uses, see Seversky. ...


Mitchell held to the Navy guidelines for the first sequence of tests and successfully sank numerous ships, including the U.S. pre-dreadnought battleship Alabama. Finally, in late July, 1921 the Navy brought out the German WW1 battleship, Ostfriesland, considered unsinkable. Anticipating such a target, Mitchell had previously seen to the design and manufacture of 2000 lb. and 4300 lb. bombs, ordnances too large to be allowed in the guidelines. The bombs were loaded and heavy bombers scored two direct hits plus four more dropped in the water close enough to rip hull plates. The ship sank in 21 minutes, with one last bomb dropped on the foam rising up from the sinking ship. USS Massachusetts, a pre-dreadnought battleship launched in 1893 The term pre-dreadnought refers to the kind of battleship built in the closing years of the 19th Century and the first years of the 20th century, and which was made obsolete by the launching of HMS Dreadnought in 1906. ... The second USS Alabama (BB-8) was an Illinois-class battleship in the United States Navy. ... Ostfriesland was a Dreadnought-type battleship named for the German province bordering on the Netherlands and the North Sea. ...

Bombing tests which sank SMS Ostfriesland, September, 1921.
Bombing tests which sank SMS Ostfriesland, September, 1921.
USS Alabama hit by a white phosphorus bomb in bombing tests by General Billy Mitchell, September 1921.
USS Alabama hit by a white phosphorus bomb in bombing tests by General Billy Mitchell, September 1921.

Although Mitchell had stressed "war-time conditions", the tests were under static conditions and the sinking of the Ostfriesland was accomplished by violating agreed-upon rules that would have allowed Navy engineers to examine the effects of smaller munitions; Mitchell's airmen disregarded the rule and quickly sank the ship in a coordinated attack. This proved—at least to Mitchell—that surface fleets were obsolete. Later studies of the wreck of the Ostfriesland show she had suffered little topside damage from bombs and was actually sunk by progressive flooding which could have been stemmed by a fast-acting damage control party on board the vessel. Mitchell used the sinking for his own publicity purposes, though his results were downplayed in public by General of the Armies John J. Pershing who hoped to smooth Army/Navy relations. Still, the test was highly influential at the time, causing budgets to be redrawn for further air development and forcing the Navy to look more closely at the possibilities of naval airpower.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2174x1197, 254 KB) Source: USAF photo Scanned from Page 19 of the following book. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2174x1197, 254 KB) Source: USAF photo Scanned from Page 19 of the following book. ... Image File history File links USS_Alabama_(BB-8)_1921. ... Image File history File links USS_Alabama_(BB-8)_1921. ... General of the Armies of the United States is the highest possible rank in the United States military hierarchy, equal to a Generalissimo. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ...


Promoting air power

In 1922 Mitchell met the like-minded Italian air power theorist Giulio Douhet on a trip to Europe and soon afterwards, an excerpted translation of Douhet's The Command of the Air began to circulate in the Air Service. In 1924, Mitchell's superiors sent him to Hawaii, then Asia, to get him off the front pages. Mitchell came back with a 324-page report that predicted future war with Japan, including the attack on Pearl Harbor. His report, published in 1925 as the book Winged Defense, foretold wider benefits of an investment in air power: Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Giulio Douhet (30 May 1869 - 15 February 1930) was an Italian air power theorist. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the actual attack. ...

Those interested in the future of the country, not only from a national defense standpoint but from a civil, commercial and economic one as well, should study this matter carefully, because air power has not only come to stay but is, and will be, a dominating factor in the world’s development.[3]

The book was little read outside the air power community.

Friction and demotion

Mitchell experienced difficulties within the Army, notably with his superiors Charles T. Menoher and later Mason Patrick, when he appeared before the Lampert Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives and sharply castigated Army and Navy leadership. The War Department had endorsed a proposal to establish a "General Headquarters Air Force" as a vehicle for modernization and expansion of the Air Service, but then backed down before objections by the Navy, incensing Mitchell. Charles T. Menoher (1862-1930) was born in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. ... Mason M. Patrick (December 13, 1863–January 29, 1942) Born at Lewisburg, West Virginia, he graduated from West Point in 1886. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ...


In March 1925 he reverted to his permanent rank of Colonel and was transferred to San Antonio, Texas, as air officer to a ground forces corps. Although such demotions were not unusual at the time—Patrick himself had gone from Major General to Colonel upon returning to the Army Corps of Engineers in 1919—the move was nonetheless widely seen as punishment and exile, since Mitchell had petitioned to remain as Assistant Director of the Air Service when his term expired, and his transfer to an assignment with no political influence at a relatively unimportant Army base had been directed by Secretary of War John Weeks. Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... San Antonio redirects here. ... A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 military men and women. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... John Wingate Weeks (April 11, 1860–July 12, 1926) was an American politician in the Republican Party. ...


Court-martial and later life

A scene taken from Gen. William "Billy" Mitchell's court-martial, 1925.

When the Navy dirigible Shenandoah crashed in a storm, killing 14 of the crew, Mitchell issued a statement accusing senior leaders in the Army and Navy of incompetence and "almost treasonable administration of the national defense." In 1925 he was court-martialed at the direct order of President Calvin Coolidge, found guilty of insubordination, and suspended from active duty for five years without pay. Mitchell resigned instead, as of February 1, 1926, and spent the next decade writing and preaching air power to all who would listen. However his departure from the service sharply reduced his ability to influence either policy or public opinion. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (2862 × 1865 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A scene taken from Gen. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (2862 × 1865 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A scene taken from Gen. ... ZR-1 at the mooring mast The USS Shenandoah was the first of four United States Navy rigid airships. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mitchell viewed the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Navy man, as advantageous for airpower. He believed the new president might even appoint him as assistant secretary of war for air or perhaps even secretary of defense in a new and unified military organization, but neither ever materialized. Mitchell died of a variety of ailments including a bad heart and a massive and extreme case of influenza in a hospital in New York City on February 19, 1936 and was buried at Forest Home Cemetery in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Landmark Chapel Forest Home Cemetery located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin is the final resting place of many of the citys famed beer barons, politicians and social elite. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ...


Posthumous recognition

Mitchell's concept of a battleship's vulnerability to air attack under "war-time conditions" would be vindicated after his death; a number of warships were sunk by air attack alone during World War II. The battleships Conte di Cavour, Arizona, Utah, Oklahoma, Prince of Wales, Roma, Musashi, Tirpitz, Yamato, Schleswig-Holstein, Impero, Limnos, Kilkis, Ise and Hyūga were all put out of commission or destroyed by aerial attack including bombs, air-dropped torpedoes and missiles fired from aircraft. Some of these ships were destroyed by surprise attacks in harbor, others were sunk at sea after vigorous defense. Most of the sinkings were carried out by aircraft carrier-based planes, not by land-based bombers as envisioned by Mitchell. The world's navies had responded quickly to the Ostfriesland lesson. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Conte di Cavour was an Italian Conte di Cavour class battleship, that served in the Regia Marina during World War I and World War II. It was named after the Italian statesman Count Camillo Benso di Cavour. ... For the memorial to USS Arizona (BB-39) in Pearl Harbor, see USS Arizona Memorial. ... USS Utah (BB-31), a Florida-class dreadnought battleship, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the US State of Utah. ... USS Oklahoma (BB-37), a Nevada-class battleship was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the 46th state. ... For other ships with the same name, see HMS Prince of Wales. ... Roma was an Italian Vittorio Veneto class battleship that served in the Regia Marina during World War II. She was built in 1940. ... Musashi (武蔵), named after the ancient Japanese Musashi Province, was a battleship belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was the second and final ship of the Yamato class to be completed as a battleship. ... Tirpitz was the second Bismarck class battleship of the German Kriegsmarine, sistership of Bismarck. ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Schleswig-Holstein was a German battleship that fought in both World Wars. ... Impero at her launch in 1939 The Impero was an Italian Littorio class battleship of the Regia Marina during World War II. She was the third ship of her class, named after the Italian word for Empire, in this case referred to the newly (1936) conquered Italian Empire in East... Limnos (sometimes Lemnos) (Greek: Θ/Κ Λήμνος) was a 13,000 ton Mississippi-class Greek battleship (θωρηκτό) named for a crucial naval battle of the First Balkan War. ... Kilkis (Greek: Θ/Κ Κιλκίς) was a 13,000 ton Mississippi-class Greek battleship (θωρηκτό) named for a crucial battle of the Second Balkan War. ... Ise (伊勢) was the Imperial Japanese Navys first Ise-class battleship, and laid at the Kawasaki Heavy Industries shipyard in Kobe on May 5, 1915, launched on November 12, 1916, and completed on December 1, 1917. ... HyÅ«ga (日向), named for HyÅ«ga Province in KyÅ«shÅ«, was an Ise class battleship laid down by Mitsubishi on 6 May 1915, launched on 27 January 1917 and completed on 30 April 1918. ...

B-25 Mitchell
B-25 Mitchell
Mitchell family monument
  • The North American B-25 bomber, utilized by Jimmy Doolittle to bomb Tokyo in 1942, was nicknamed the "Mitchell," after Billy Mitchell. The B-25 "Mitchell" is the only American military aircraft type that has been named after a specific person.
  • In 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt, in recognizing Mitchell's contributions to air power, elevated him to the rank of major general (two stars) on the Army Air Corps retired list and petitioned the U.S. Congress to authorize a special gold medal for his services to the United States, which was awarded in 1946.
  • In the 1943 classic World War II movie A Guy Named Joe the unnamed "General" who gives the deceased pilot his "new assigment" strongly resembles General Mitchell.
  • In 1946, Mitchell was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, "in recognition of his outstanding pioneer service and foresight in the field of American military aviation."
  • In 1955, the Air Force Association passed a resolution calling for the voiding of Mitchell's court-martial. His son petitioned in 1957 to have the court-martial verdict set aside, which the Air Force denied while expressing regret about the circumstances under which Mitchell's military career ended.
  • The 1955 motion picture The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell, directed by Otto Preminger, portrays Mitchell's plight in a dramatic yet vindicating light.
  • General Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee, Wisconsin is named after him, as is the much smaller Billy Mitchell airstrip in Cape Hatteras, NC.
  • The cadet dining hall at the United States Air Force Academy is named after him.
  • William (Billy) Mitchell High School (Colorado) in Colorado Springs, Colorado is also named after him, as is Mitchell Hall at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C.
  • The Civil Air Patrol cadet program includes an award called the Billy Mitchell Award.
  • The U.S. Air Force Pipes and Drums, which existed as a free-standing unit within the U.S. Air Force Band between 1960 and 1970, wore the Mitchell family tartan, in honor of Billy Mitchell.
  • In 2004, Congress voted to reauthorize the President to commission Mitchell as a Major General in the Army, posthumously, which the President did in 2005 although President Franklin Roosevelt previously did this in 1942.
  • In 1999, General Mitchell's portrait was put on an US airmail postage stamp.
  • On May 18, 2006, the US Air Force unveiled two prototypes for new service dress uniforms, referencing the service's heritage. One, modeled on the United States Army Air Service uniform, was designated the "Billy Mitchell heritage coat" (the other was named for Hap Arnold). [1]
  • Hap Arnold told reporters shortly after Mitchell's death, "People would often say Billy Mitchell was years ahead of his time but many would forget how it was also true."
  • In 2007, the Air Force first awarded the Air Force Combat Action Medal, which is based on the insignia painted on Billy Mitchell's own aircraft during World War I.[4]
Obverse and reverse of the Air Force Combat Action Medal.
Obverse and reverse of the Air Force Combat Action Medal.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Copyright © 2006 Sulfur Monument for the Mitchell family plot at Forest Home Cemetery in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 900 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Copyright © 2006 Sulfur Monument for the Mitchell family plot at Forest Home Cemetery in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... The North American B-25 Mitchell (NA-62) was an American twin-engined medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation. ... General James Harold Jimmy Doolittle, Sc. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Guy Named Joe is a 1943 film by Victor Fleming. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... The Air Force Association (AFA) is an independent, nonprofit, civilian organization promoting public understanding of aerospace power. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell is a film directed by Otto Preminger in 1955. ... Otto Ludwig Preminger (December 5, 1906 – April 23, 1986) was a film director. ... “Mitchell Field” redirects here. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA or Air Force),[1] located immediately north of Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States, is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers for the United States Air Force. ... William (Billy) Mitchell High School is the third-oldest high school in District 11 in Colorado Springs, Colorado, built in 1965 and named for aviation pioneer Billy Mitchell. ... The City of Colorado Springs is the second most populous city (after Denver) in the state of Colorado and the 48th most populous city in the United States. ... The George Washington University (GW) is a private, coeducational university located in Washington, D.C., United States. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Civil Air Patrol seal The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is the civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force (USAF). ... A cadet is a future officer in the military. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... For the artificial athletic track surface, see tartan track. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... See military uniform and full dress for wider coverage of dress uniforms. ... Henry Harley Arnold (June 25, 1886 - January 15, 1950), often referred to by the nickname Hap, was an American pilot, commander of the US Army Air Corps from 1938, commander of the US Army Air Forces from 1941 until 1945 and the first General of the Air Force in 1949. ... Henry Harley Arnold (June 25, 1886 - January 15, 1950), often referred to by the nickname Hap, was an American pilot, commander of the US Army Air Corps from 1938, commander of the US Army Air Forces from 1941 until 1945 and the first General of the Air Force in 1949. ... The Air Force Combat Action Medal (AFCAM) is a new medal issued by the United States Air Force. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 590 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (600 × 610 pixels, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Air Force Combat Action Medal File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 590 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (600 × 610 pixels, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Air Force Combat Action Medal File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

References

  1. ^ U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission: Billy Mitchell Sinks the Ships
  2. ^ Reid, John Alden. Bomb the Dread Noughts! Air Classics, 2006.
  3. ^ Mitchell, William. Winged Defense: The Development and Possibilities of Modern Air Power—Economic and Military, p. 119. Dover Publications, 2006. ISBN 0486453189
  4. ^ For Today's Air Force, a New Symbol of Valor by John Kelly, June 13, 2007. Washington Post, p. B03. Accessed June 13, 2007.

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Further reading

  • American Airpower Biography: Billy Mitchell
  • Cooke, James J. Billy Mitchell (2002)
  • Cooke, James J. The U. S. Air Service in the Great War: 1917-1919. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 1996. ISBN 0-275-94862-5.
  • Davis, Burke. The Billy Mitchell Affair. New York: Random House, 1967.
  • Henrotin, Joseph. L'Airpower au 21e siècle: Enjeux et perspectives de la stratégie aérienne. Bruxelles: Emile Bruylant (RMES), 2005. ISBN 2-8027-2091-0.
  • Hurley, Alfred H. Billy Mitchell: Crusader for Air Power (revised edition). Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975. ISBN 0-253-31203-5, ISBN 0-253-20180-2.
  • Kennett, Lee. The First Air War, 1914–1918. New York: Free Press, 1991. ISBN 0-684-87120-3.
  • Mitchell, William. Memoirs of World War I: From Start to Finish of Our Greatest War. New York: Random House, 1960.

  Results from FactBites:
 
First World War.com - Who's Who - William Mitchell (704 words)
Convinced of the emerging role of aircraft in strategic bombing Mitchell was however frustrated in demonstrating his ideas by the untimely (for him) end of the war in November 1918.
Nevertheless Mitchell's ongoing feuds with senior military personnel ultimately led to his demotion to his former permanent rank of Colonel in April 1925; while not unprecedented the move was widely viewed as a punishment.
Vindicated after his death Mitchell was posthumously promoted and awarded a special medal in his honour by Congress; the latter was presented by the Chief of Staff of the newly established U.S. Air Force to Mitchell's son in 1948.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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