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Encyclopedia > Billy Hughes
Rt Hon Billy Hughes
Billy Hughes

In office
27 October 1915 – 9 February 1923
Preceded by Andrew Fisher
Succeeded by Stanley Bruce

Born 25 September 1862(1862-09-25)
London, England
Died 28 October 1952 (aged 90)
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Political party Labor, National Labor, Nationalist, Australian, United Australia, Liberal

William Morris 'Billy' Hughes CH KC (25 September 186228 October 1952), Australian politician, was the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, the longest-serving member of the Australian Parliament, and one of the most colourful figures in Australian political history. Over the course of his 51 year federal parliamentary career (and an additional 7 prior to in colonial state parliament), Hughes changed parties five times from Labor to National Labor to Nationalist to Australian to United Australia to Liberal, was expelled from three, and represented four different electorates in two states. There have been a number of people named Billy Hughes: Billy Hughes (1862–1952), 7th Prime Minister of Australia Billy Hughes (footballer born 1918) (1918–1981), Welsh footballer Billy Hughes (footballer born 1920) (1920–1995), Welsh footballer Billy Hughes (footballer born March 1929) (1929–2003), Scottish footballer Billy Hughes (footballer... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on May 5, 1917. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on December 13, 1919. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on November 14, 1925. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrew Fisher at the naming of Canberra ceremony, 1913 Andrew Fisher (29 August 1862 - 22 October 1928), Australianpolitician and fifth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Crosshouse, a mining village near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Rt Hon Stanley Bruce Stanley Melbourne Bruce (15 April 1883 - August 25, 1967), Australian politician and diplomat, later Viscount Bruce of Melbourne and Westminster, was the eighth Prime Minister of Australia. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... “NSW” redirects here. ... The National Labor Party was the name used by the Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes for himself and his followers after they were expelled from the Australian Labor Party in November 1916 over the issue of conscription for World War I. In February 1917 the National Labor group merged with... The Nationalist Party of Australia was an Australian political party formed in 1917 from a merger of pro-conscription members of the Labor Party (who had been operating under the banner National Labor after their earlier split with the Labor party) with the Commonwealth Liberal Party. ... The United Australia Party or UAP was an Australian political party that was the political successor to the Nationalist Party of Australia. ... This article concerns the modern Australian political party. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order (decoration). ... Queens Counsel (postnominal QC), during the reign of a male Sovereign known as Kings Counsel (KC), are barristers or, in Scotland, advocates appointed by Letters patent to be one of Her Majestys Counsel learned in the law. They do not constitute a separate order or degree of... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... The National Labor Party was the name used by the Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes for himself and his followers after they were expelled from the Australian Labor Party in November 1916 over the issue of conscription for World War I. In February 1917 the National Labor group merged with... The Nationalist Party of Australia was an Australian political party formed in 1917 from a merger of pro-conscription members of the Labor Party (who had been operating under the banner National Labor after their earlier split with the Labor party) with the Commonwealth Liberal Party. ... The United Australia Party or UAP was an Australian political party that was the political successor to the Nationalist Party of Australia. ... This article concerns the modern Australian political party. ... The Australian House of Representatives is elected from 150 single-member districts called Divisions. ...

Contents

Early years

William Morris Hughes was born in Pimlico, London on 25 September 1862 of Welsh parents. His father William Hughes was Welsh speaking and, according to the 1881 census, born in Holyhead, Anglesey, North Wales in about 1825. He was a deacon of the Particular Baptist Church and by profession a joiner and a carpenter at the House of Lords. His mother was a farmer's daughter from Llansaintffraid, Montgomeryshire and had been in service in London. Jane Morris was thirty seven when she married and William Morris Hughes was her only child.[1] After his mother's death when he was seven William Hughes lived with his father's sister in Llandudno, Wales, also spending time with his mother's relatives in rural Montgomeryshire, where he picked up some fluency in Welsh. A plaque on a guest house in Abbey Road Llandudno bears testament to his residency. When he was 14 he returned to London and worked as a pupil teacher. In 1881, when he was 19, William lived with his father and his father's elder sister Mary Hughes at 78 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London. Pimlico is a small area of central London in the City of Westminster that is primarily residential and well known for its collection of small hotels. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... Holyhead (Welsh: Caergybi, the fort of St. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Montgomeryshire (Welsh: Sir Drefaldwyn) is an inland traditional county of Wales. ... , This article is about the town in Wales. ... This article is about the country. ...


In October 1884 he migrated to Australia, and worked as a labourer, bush worker and cook. He arrived in Sydney in 1886 and lived in a boarding house in Moore Park and established a common law marriage with his landlady's daughter, Elizabeth Cutts.[2] In 1890 they moved to Balmain where he opened a small mixed shop, where he sold political pamphlets, did odd jobs and mended umbrellas. He joined the Socialist League in 1892 and became a street-corner speaker for the Balmain Single Tax League and an organiser with the Australian Workers' Union and may have already joined the newly formed Labor Party.[1] This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Moore Park is a large area of parkland in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ... Balmain is a suburb in the inner-west of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. ... The Single Tax League was an Australian political party that flourished throughout the 1920s and 30s. ... The Australian Workers Union (AWU) is one of Australias largest and oldest trade unions. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Group photograph of all Federal Labour Party MPs elected at the inaugural 1901 election, including Chris Watson, Andrew Fisher, Hughes, and Frank Tudor.
Group photograph of all Federal Labour Party MPs elected at the inaugural 1901 election, including Chris Watson, Andrew Fisher, Hughes, and Frank Tudor.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 792 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2271 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Group photograph of Federal Labour Party MPs elected to the Australian House of Representatives and Australian Senate at the inaugural 1901 election, including Chris Watson... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 792 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2271 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Group photograph of Federal Labour Party MPs elected to the Australian House of Representatives and Australian Senate at the inaugural 1901 election, including Chris Watson... Federal elections for the inaugural Parliament of Australia were held in Australia on March 29 and March 30, 1901 following the establishment of the Federation of Australia. ... John Christian Watson (on or around 9 April 1867 [exact date uncertain] - 18 November 1941), known as Chris Watson, Australian politician, was the third Prime Minister of Australia and the first federal parliamentary leader of the Australian Labor Party. ... Andrew Fisher at the naming of Canberra ceremony, 1913 Andrew Fisher (29 August 1862 - 22 October 1928), Australianpolitician and fifth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Crosshouse, a mining village near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Hon Frank Tudor Frank Gwynne Tudor (27 January 1866 - 10 January 1922), Australian Labor politician, was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the son of working-class immigrants from Wales. ...

Enters Parliament

In 1894, Hughes spent eight months in the central of New South Wales organising for the Amalgamated Shearers' Union and then won the Legislative Assembly seat of Sydney-Lang by 105 votes.[3][1] While in Parliament he became secretary of the Wharf Labourer's Union. In 1900 he founded and became first national president of the Waterside Workers' Union. During this period Hughes studied law, and was admitted as a barrister in 1903. Unlike most Labor men, he was a strong supporter of Federation. The Legislative Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of New South Wales in Australia. ... Sydney-Lang was a former electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales, created in 1894 in inner Sydney and named after Presbyterian clergyman, writer, politician and activist John Dunmore Lang. ... A map displaying todays federations. ...


In 1901 Hughes was elected to the first federal Parliament as Labor MP for West Sydney. He opposed the Barton government's proposals for a small professional army and instead advocated compulsory universal training.[1] In 1903, he was admitted to the bar after several years part time study. His wife died in 1906, and his 17-year-old daughter raised his other five children in Sydney. In 1911, he married Mary Campbell.[2] The Division of West Sydney was a former Australian Electoral Division in the state of New South Wales. ... Sir Edmund Barton, GCMG, QC (18 January 1849 – 7 January 1920), Australian politician and judge, was the first Prime Minister of Australia and a founding justice of the High Court of Australia. ... The Call to the Bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions. ...


He was Minister for External Affairs in Chris Watson's first Labor government. He was Attorney-General in Andrew Fisher's three Labor governments in 1908-09, 1910-13 and 1914-15.[1] He was the real political brain of these governments, and it was clear that he wanted to be leader of the Labor Party. But his abrasive manner (his chronic dyspepsia was thought to contribute to his volatile temperament) made his colleagues reluctant to have him as Leader. His on-going feud with King O'Malley, a fellow Labor minister, was a prominent example of his combative style. John Christian Watson (on or around 9 April 1867 [exact date uncertain] - 18 November 1941), known as Chris Watson, Australian politician, was the third Prime Minister of Australia and the first federal parliamentary leader of the Australian Labor Party. ... Andrew Fisher at the naming of Canberra ceremony, 1913 Andrew Fisher (29 August 1862 - 22 October 1928), Australianpolitician and fifth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Crosshouse, a mining village near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... King OMalley King OMalley (July 1858 - 20 December 1953), Australian politician, was one of the more colourful characters of the early federal period of Australian political history. ...


Labor Party Prime Minister 1915-16

Following the 1914 federal election, Labor Prime Minister of Australia Andrew Fisher found the strain of leadership during World War I taxing, and faced increasing pressure from the ambitious Hughes, who wanted to introduce conscription, which Fisher opposed. By 1915 his health was suffering, and in October he resigned and was succeeded by Hughes. He was a strong supporter of Australia's participation in World War I, and after a visit to Britain in 1916 he became convinced that conscription was necessary if Australia was to sustain its contribution to the war effort. The vast majority of his party, which included Roman Catholics and Union representatives, were bitterly opposed to this, especially in the wake of what was regarded by many Irish-Australians (most of whom were Roman Catholics) as Britain's excessive response to the Easter Uprising of 1916. Billy Hughes This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Double dissolution Federal elections were held in Australia on September 5, 1914. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Andrew Fisher at the naming of Canberra ceremony, 1913 Andrew Fisher (29 August 1862 - 22 October 1928), Australianpolitician and fifth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Crosshouse, a mining village near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... See also: 1915 in Australia, other events of 1916, 1917 in Australia and the Timeline of Australian history. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Australia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ...


In October Hughes held a plebiscite to try to gain approval for conscription, but the plebiscite was narrowly defeated by the Australian voters.[4] Melbourne's Roman Catholic Archbishop, Daniel Mannix, was his main opponent on the conscription issue. (Although the enabling legislation, the Military Service Referendum Act 1916, referred to it as a referendum that is incorrect as, unlike a referendum, the outcome was advisory only, and was not legally binding). The defeat, however, did not deter Hughes, who continued to vigorously argue in favour of conscription. This produced a deep and bitter split within the Australian community, as well as within the members of his own party. The 1916 Australian plebiscite was held on 28 October 1916. ... Statue of Daniel Mannix outside St Patricks Cathedral, Melbourne For other people called Daniel Mannix, see Daniel Mannix (disambiguation) Daniel Patrick Mannix (March 4, 1864 - November 2, 1963), Irish-born Australian Catholic clergyman, Archbishop of Melbourne for 46 years, was one of the most influential public figures in 20th...


On September 15, 1916 the NSW executive of the Political Labour League (the Labor Party organisation at the time) expelled Hughes from the Labor Party.[5] When the Federal Parliamentary Labor caucus met on 14 November 1916, lengthy discussions ensued until Hughes walked out with 24 other Labor members and the remaining (43) members of Caucus then passed their motion of no confidence in the leadership, effectively expelling Hughes and the other members.[6]


Nationalist Party Prime Minister 1916-23

Hughes and his followers formed the National Labor Party and negotiated with the Liberal leader, Joseph Cook, to form a new party, the Nationalist Party. At the 1917 federal election Hughes and the Nationalists won a huge electoral victory. At this election Hughes abandoned his working-class seat, and was elected for Bendigo in Victoria. Hughes had promised to resign if his Government did not win the power to conscript. A second plebiscite on conscription was held in December 1917, but was again defeated, this time by a wider margin. Hughes, after receiving a vote of confidence in his leadership by his party, resigned as Prime Minister but, as there were no alternative candidates, the Governor-General, Sir Ronald Munro-Ferguson, immediately re-commissioned him, thus allowing him to remain as Prime Minister while keeping his promise to resign.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The National Labor Party was the name used by the Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes for himself and his followers after they were expelled from the Australian Labor Party in November 1916 over the issue of conscription for World War I. In February 1917 the National Labor group merged with... The Commonwealth Liberal Party, usually called The Fusion, was a political movement active in Australia shortly after federation. ... For the actor Joe Cook see Joe Cook (actor). ... The Nationalist Party of Australia was an Australian political party formed in 1917 from a merger of pro-conscription members of the Labor Party (who had been operating under the banner National Labor after their earlier split with the Labor party) with the Commonwealth Liberal Party. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on May 5, 1917. ... The Division of Bendigo is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. ... “VIC” redirects here. ... The 1917 Australian plebiscite was held on 20 December 1917. ... See also: 1916 in Australia, other events of 1917, 1918 in Australia and the Timeline of Australian history. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament to give members of parliament a chance to register their confidence for a government by means of a parliamentary vote. ... Sir Ronald Munro-Ferguson The Right Honourable Sir Ronald Munro-Ferguson, 1st Viscount Novar of Raith, KBE, PC (6 March 1860 - 30 March 1934), sixth Governor-General of Australia, was probably the most politically influential holder of this post. ...


Introduction of Preferential Voting for Federal elections

The Hughes Government replaced the first-past-the-post electoral system applying to both houses of the Federal Parliament under the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1903 with a preferential system for the House of Representatives in 1918. That preferential system hasrthdfgdfgrtgfs essentially applied ever since. A multiple majority-preferential system system was introduced at the 1919 federal election for the Senate, and that remained in force until it was changed to a quota-preferential system of proportional representation in 1948.[7] Those changes were considered to be a response to the emergence of the Country Party, so that the non-Labor vote would not be split, as it would have been under the previous first-past-the-post system. Federal elections were held in Australia on December 13, 1919. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ...


Hughes attends Paris peace conference

In 1919, Hughes and former Prime Minister Joseph Cook travelled to London to attend the Versailles peace conference. He remained away for 16 months, and signed the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of Australia - the first time Australia had signed an international treaty. At Versailles Hughes demanded heavy reparations from Germany and frequently clashed with President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, who described Hughes as a 'pestiferous varmint'. He succeeded in securing Australian control of Germany's colonial possessions in New Guinea, and was able to insist (along with other Dominion Prime Ministers like Borden and Smuts) that Australia have independent representation within the newly formed League of Nations. Despite the rejection of his conscription policy, Hughes retained his popularity, and in December 1919 his government was comfortably re-elected. At the Treaty negotiations, Hughes was the most prominent opponent of the inclusion of the Japanese racial equality proposal, which as a result of lobbying by him and others was not included in the final Treaty. His position on this issue reflected the modal thought of 'racial categories' during this time. Japan was notably offended by Hughes' position on the issue.[1] For the actor Joe Cook see Joe Cook (actor). ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC, DCL, LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, PC, ED, KC, FRS (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader, and philosopher. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Political eclipse

After 1920 Hughes's political position declined. A new party, the Country Party, was formed, representing farmers who were discontented with the Nationalists' rural policies. In particular Hughes acceptance of a much higher level of tariff protection for Australian industries (that had expanded during the war) and his support for price controls on rural produce. Many conservatives opposed Hughes because they saw him as still a socialist at heart, despite his break with Labor, citing his interest in retaining government ownership of the Commonwealth Shipping Line and the Australian Wireless Company. At the 1922 federal election, Hughes switched from the rural seat of Bendigo to North Sydney, but the Country Party won enough seats in Parliament to be able to demand Hughes's resignation as their price for joining a Nationalist government.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on November 14, 1925. ... An Australian Electoral Division in New South Wales. ...


Hughes resigned in February 1923, and was succeeded by his Treasurer, Stanley Bruce. Hughes was furious at this betrayal by his party and nursed his grievance on the back-benches until 1929, when he led a group of back-bench rebels who crossed the floor of the Parliament to bring down the Bruce government. Hughes was expelled from the Nationalist Party, and formed his own party, the Australian Party.[8] In 1931 he buried the hatchet with his former colleagues and joined the new United Australia Party (UAP), under the leadership of Joseph Lyons. Rt Hon Stanley Bruce Stanley Melbourne Bruce (15 April 1883 - August 25, 1967), Australian politician and diplomat, later Viscount Bruce of Melbourne and Westminster, was the eighth Prime Minister of Australia. ... In politics, crossing the floor is to vote against party lines. ... The Australian Party was a shortlived party that existed from 1930 till 1931 (not to be confused with the Australia Party, which was a liberal party created in the 1960s). ... The United Australia Party or UAP was an Australian political party that was the political successor to the Nationalist Party of Australia. ... Joseph Aloysius Lyons (15 September 1879 – 7 April 1939), Australian politician, tenth Prime Minister of Australia. ...


His term as Australian Prime Minister was a record until overtaken by Robert Menzies. He remained Australia's second-longest serving Prime Minister until overtaken by Malcolm Fraser in late February 1983. Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... This article is about the former prime minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ...


Political re-emergence

In 1934 he became Minister for Health and Repatriation in the Lyons government. He was also Minister for the Navy, Minister for Industry and Attorney-General at various times under Lyons and his successor, Robert Menzies, between 1934 and 1941. However, he remained a controversial figure. After 1936 he was a vocal opponent of the British policy of appeasement at a time when this policy enjoyed bi-partisan support. In 1937 he was forced to resign from the government after publishing a book attacking Britain's policies with regard to German rearmament and Japanese actions in China. After the UAP nearly lost the 1940 federal election, Menzies was forced to resign by his colleagues, and in October 1941 Labor came to power under John Curtin. Menzies then resigned as UAP leader, and Hughes, aged 79 and very frail, was elected party leader. Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on September 21, 1940. ... This article is about the Australian Prime Minister. ...

Billy Hughes in 1945 aged 83, seven years before his death
Billy Hughes in 1945 aged 83, seven years before his death

Hughes led the UAP into the 1943 election largely by refusing to hold any party meetings and by agreeing to let Arthur Fadden (Country Party leader) lead the Opposition as a whole, but was defeated, and resigned in favour of Menzies. In February 1944 the UAP withdrew its members from the Advisory War Council in protest against the Labor government of John Curtin. Hughes, however, rejoined the council, and for that he was expelled from the UAP.[1] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on August 21, 1943. ... This article is about the Australian Prime Minister. ...


In 1944 Menzies formed a new party, the Liberal Party, and Hughes became a member. His final change of seat was to the new electorate of Bradfield in 1949. He remained a member of Parliament until his death in October 1952. He had been a member of the House of Representatives for 51 years and seven months and including his service in the New South Wales colonial Parliament before that had spent a total of 58 years as a member of parliament. He was the last member of the original Australian Parliament elected in 1901 still in the Parliament when he died. He was not however, the last member of that first Parliament to die - that honour goes to King O'Malley who outlived him by fourteen months. His period of service remains a record in Australia. He was also the last Australian Prime Minister born in Britain. This article concerns the modern Australian political party. ... The Division of Bradfield is an Australian Electoral Division in New South Wales. ... King OMalley King OMalley (July 1858 - 20 December 1953), Australian politician, was one of the more colourful characters of the early federal period of Australian political history. ...


Hughes died in his home in the Sydney suburb of Lindfield, survived by the six children of his first marriage and by his second wife, but their daughter died in 1937.[1] His state funeral in Sydney was one of the largest Australia has seen: some 450,000 spectators lined the streets. Hughes, a tiny, wiry man with a wizened face and a raspy voice, was an unlikely national leader, but during the First World War he acquired a reputation as a war leader - the troops called him the "Little Digger" - that sustained him for the rest of his life. He is remembered for his outstanding political and diplomatic skills, for his many witty sayings, and for his irrepressible optimism and patriotism. This admiration is not shared by the Labor Party, which still remembers him as a "rat". Lindfield is a suburb which lies in the North Shore area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ...


Honours

The electoral division of Hughes and the Canberra suburb of Hughes are named after him. In addition, he took his second wife on a long drive in 1911 because he did not have time for a honeymoon[1] and crashed where the Sydney-Melbourne road crossed the Sydney-Melbourne railway north of Albury, leading to the crossing being named after Billy Hughes; it was later replaced by the Billy Hughes Bridge. The Division of Hughes is an Australian Electoral Division in New South Wales. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Hughes is a suburb in the Canberra, Australia district of Woden. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Hume Highway / Hume Freeway is one of Australias most important and notable interstate highways which runs for 880 km inland between Sydney and Melbourne. ... As originally New South Wales and Victoria had different railway gauges, this meant that all travellers in either direction had to change trains at Albury. ... Albury is a city in New South Wales, Australia, located on the Hume Highway on the Northern side of the Murray River. ...


See also

The First Hughes Ministry was the twelfth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 27th October 1915 to 14th November 1916. ... The Second Hughes Ministry was the thirteenth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 14th November 1916 to 17th February 1917. ... The Third Hughes Ministry was the fourteenth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 17th February 1917 to 5th May 1917. ... The Fourth Hughes Ministry was the fifteenth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 5th May 1917 to 3rd February 1920. ... The Fifth Hughes Ministry was the sixteenth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 4th February 1920 to 9th February 1923. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fitzhardinge, L. F.. Hughes, William Morris (Billy) (1862 - 1952). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  2. ^ a b William Morris Hughes - Australia's Prime Ministers. National Archives of Australia. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  3. ^ Mr William Morris Hughes (1862 - 1952). Members of Parliament. Parliament of New South Wales. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  4. ^ Plebiscite results, 28 October 1916. Parliamentary Handbook. Parliament of Australia. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  5. ^ The Age 16 Sept 1916
  6. ^ Caucus minutes of 14 November 1916 in A Documentary History of the Australian Labor Movement 1850-1975, Brian McKinley, (1979) ISBN 0909081298
  7. ^ A brief history of the society and its purpose. Proportional Representation Society of Australia. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  8. ^ Election Archive - 1929 election, North Sydney. Adam Carr. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.

The Dictionary of Australian Biography is a reference work containing information on notable people associated with Australian history. ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Archives of Australia building on Queen Victoria Terrace in Canberra, May 2007. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Parliament of New South Wales consists of the Governor of New South Wales, the New South Wales Legislative Council and the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The main entrance to Parliament House in Canberra, with the flag mast visible. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Billy Hughes at the National Film and Sound Archive
Political offices
Preceded by
Andrew Fisher
Prime Minister of Australia
1915 – 1923
Succeeded by
Stanley Bruce
Preceded by
Frank Tudor
Minister for Trade and Customs
1916
Succeeded by
William Archibald
Preceded by
Charles Marr
Minister for Health
1934 – 1935
Succeeded by
Joseph Lyons
New title Longest serving member of the
Australian House of Representatives

1935 – 1952
Succeeded by
Earle Page
Preceded by
Joseph Lyons
Minister for Health
1936 – 1937
Parliament of Australia
New division Member for West Sydney
1901 – 1917
Succeeded by
Cornelius Wallace
Preceded by
Alfred Hampson
Member for Bendigo
1917 – 1922
Succeeded by
Geoffy Hurry
Preceded by
Granville Ryrie
Member for North Sydney
1922 – 1949
Succeeded by
William Jack
New division Member for Bradfield
1949 – 1952
Succeeded by
Henry Turner
Party political offices
Preceded by
Gregor McGregor
Deputy Leader of the Labor Party
1914 – 1915
Succeeded by
George Pearce
Preceded by
Andrew Fisher
Leader of the Australian Labor Party
1915 – 1916
Succeeded by
Frank Tudor
New political party Leader of the National Labor Party
1916 – 1917
Party became part of the new
Nationalist Party of Australia
Leader of the Nationalist Party
1917 – 1923
Succeeded by
Stanley Bruce
Leader of the Australian Party
1930 – 1931
Party disbanded
Preceded by
Robert Menzies
Leader of the United Australia Party
1941 – 1943
Succeeded by
Robert Menzies
Legal offices
Preceded by
Isaac Isaacs
Attorney General of Australia
1908 – 1909
Succeeded by
Patrick Glynn
Preceded by
Patrick Glynn
Attorney General of Australia
1910 – 1913
Succeeded by
William Irvine
Preceded by
William Irvine
Attorney General of Australia
1914 – 1921
Succeeded by
Littleton Groom
Preceded by
Robert Menzies
Attorney General of Australia
1938 – 1941
Succeeded by
H. V. Evatt
Prime Ministers of Australia
Barton | Deakin | Watson | Reid | Fisher | Cook | Hughes | Bruce | Scullin | Lyons | Page | Menzies | Fadden | Curtin | Forde | Chifley | Holt | McEwen | Gorton | McMahon | Whitlam | Fraser | Hawke | Keating | Howard
Persondata
NAME Hughes, William Morris
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Hughes, Billy
SHORT DESCRIPTION Australian politician and Prime Minister of Australia
DATE OF BIRTH 25 September 1862
PLACE OF BIRTH Pimlico, London
DATE OF DEATH 28 October 1952
PLACE OF DEATH Lindfield, New South Wales

  Results from FactBites:
 
Billy Hughes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1396 words)
Hughes was born in London of Welsh parents: his father was a carpenter at the House of Lords.
Hughes was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as a Labour member in 1894.
Hughes was furious at this betrayal by his party and nursed his grievance on the back-benches until 1929, when he led a group of back-bench rebels who crossed the floor of the Parliament to bring down the Bruce government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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