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Encyclopedia > Billboard (advertising)
An image of an electronic billboard with flashing advertisements
Billboard, New York City, (2005)

A billboard is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large advertisements to passing pedestrians and drivers. Typically showing large, witty slogans and distinctive visuals, billboards are highly visible in the top designated market areas. It has been suggested that Billboard be merged into this article or section. ... Billboard can refer to: Billboard (advertising), a large outdoor sign usually used for advertising Billboard (magazine), a magazine devoted to the music industry The Billboard charts, inspired by the magazine The Billboard Music Award, sponsored by the magazine Billboard antenna, an array of parallel antennas with flat reflectors A method... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 1847 KB) Summary Description: A large Smithwicks ale billboard, just off Times Square, New York Source: Own work Date: 2005-05-22 Author: Trounce Permission: See below Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Smithwicks... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1800, 1847 KB) Summary Description: A large Smithwicks ale billboard, just off Times Square, New York Source: Own work Date: 2005-05-22 Author: Trounce Permission: See below Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Smithwicks... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Out-of-home advertising (also referred to as OOH) is essentially all type of advertising that reaches the consumer while he or she is outside the home. ... Billing may mean: The process of sending accounts to customers for goods or services is called billing. ... Wooden boards as used in construction. ... “Advert” redirects here. ... A slogan is a memorable phrase used in political or commercial context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose. ... A designated market area is a group of counties in the United States that are covered by a specific television station. ...


Bulletins are the largest, most impactful standard-size billboards. Located primarily on major highways, expressways or principal arterials, they command high-density consumer exposure (mostly to vehicular traffic). Bulletins afford greatest visibility due not only to their size, but because they allow creative "customizing" through extensions and embellishments.


Posters are the other common form of billboard advertising, located chiefly in commercial and industrial areas on primary and secondary arterial roads. Posters are a smaller format than bulletins and are viewed principally by residents and commuter traffic, with some pedestrian exposure.

Contents

Technology

Traditional billboards

Billboards are large displays advertising goods or services not necessarily sold where the sign is located. In North America, "bulletins" are typically 14'x 48' (height x width), but they are smaller in other places.


The display is printed on a flexible PVC vinyl sheet which is stretched over the face of the advertising structure. Smaller 12'x 24' billboards, are called "posters." Poster displays can consist of a series of printed paper sheets that are pasted together or are single sheet vinyl displays. For other uses, see Print. ... PVC may refer to the following: Polyvinyl chloride, a plastic Premature ventricular contraction, irregular heartbeat Permanent virtual circuit, a term used in telecommunications and computer networks Param Vir Chakra, Indias highest military honor. ...


Because PVC vinyl is toxic and not recyclable, the billboard industry is now beginning to use lightweight recyclable plastic, such as polyethylene, as a replacement. The new materials are as little as 1/4 the weight of traditional PVC flex vinyl, making installation easier and safer. In addition to being recyclable and non-toxic, the production of the low-mass substrate has a substantially smaller carbon footprint.[1] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Lightweight plastic is also now being used on poster structures retro-fit with specialized installation systems, eliminating the mess and display drawbacks of traditional paper posting which is done with large amounts of paste. Some such installation systems can be installed directly on existing poster faces without modification to the structure and at a low cost


Bulletins are bought individually as part of a rotary program where the advertisement is moved or "rotated" between locations at regular restaurants.


Posters are usually sold as part of a group called a "showing" that is designed to reach a specific percentage of the market population on a daily or weekly basis. A showing is a specific outdoor GRP (Gross Rating Point) level.


Mechanical billboards

Some billboards utilize a technology called tri-action movement (also known as tri-visions, or multi-message billboards). These billboards show three separate advertisements in rotation using a mechanical system. They are made up of a series of trilons (triangular prisms) arranged so that they can be rotated to present three separate flat display surfaces. The displays for these billboards are printed on strips of vinyl which are fixed to the faces of the triangular panels, with one strip from each of three different displays attached to each panel. As the panels rotate and pause, three unique advertising messages can be displayed on the same structure. This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... A trilon is a box in the shape of an equilateral-triangular right prism that is occasionally used on certain older game shows to hide information until needed. ...


Another popular form of mechanical sign is the scrolling billboard. These billboards are able to show up to 30 images per side using a roll-up, scrolling mechanism that is controlled by a computer. The images are printed on backlit vinyl that allows the advertisement to be illuminated for night viewing. Many of these scrolling billboards are used for permanent mall advertisements and on trucks for mobile applications.


Digital billboards

Times Square electronic billboards, some changing their messages with motion video.

New billboards are being produced that are entirely digital (using LED and similar techniques), allowing static advertisements to rotate in succession. Even holographic billboards are in use in some places. Times Square at night, New York City Personal snapshot by Montréalais. ... Times Square at night, New York City Personal snapshot by Montréalais. ... This article is about the photographic technique. ...


Interaction is an emerging process identified with digital billboards. In Piccadilly Circus the Coca-Cola billboard responds to the weather and responds with an animated wave when passersby wave at it.[1] London movie theatres are experimenting with billboards which contain an embedded computer chip which can interact with the web browser found in many cell phones to provide more information on the subject of the advertisement.[2] In the spring of 2004 in Times Square in New York City, a Yahoo! Autos promotion displayed on an LED billboard allowed one to call a phone number with a cell phone and play a two-person racing game where the cars appeared on the billboard.[3] There are also upcoming billboard technologies that will synchronize with advertisements on radio stations. Shibuya in Tokyo, Japan, is famous for its large digital billboards. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... For other uses, see Times Square (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ... Categories: Wards of Tokyo | Japan geography stubs ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Mobile billboards

Mobile billboard truck
Mobile billboard bike
Mobile billboard bike

The mobile billboard industry, as it is known today, began in the early 1990s, following the introduction of large format digital inkjet printers. Those large printing devices made it feasible to print billboard graphics in a single large banner. The large banners were subsequently mounted on both sides of 10' x 20' panels installed on flat bed trucks. The trucks, which are dedicated solely for the purpose of advertising, were driven or parked in high visibility locations, often near convention centers and sporting venues. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 640 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 480 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 640 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 480 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ...


The mobile billboard truck concept evolved in 1995, when Delroy Cowan invented mobile advertising trucks with rotating, "trivision" signs. Cowan, a Jamaican native, built and deployed two mobile advertising trucks in Miami, Florida using rotating components from WorldSign in Sweden and Cowan's own proprietary box-shaped truck. Cowan's mobile billboard trucks featured three ads on each side, the mechanism rotating once every 7 or 8 seconds to reveal one of the three different ad faces. Cowan patented the idea in 1996, and the patent (US #5918924) was issued on July 6, 1999.


In 1997 The mobile billboard trailer was introduced in the United States. The mobile billboard trailer was designed to offer smaller, local advertisers the ability to rent the mobile billboard trailer and drive it by themselves. This format reduced the cost of advertising significantly and provided a flexible format for small business to begin using mobile billboards that were traditionally more expensive and required longer contract terms. The concept was developed to allow users to rent a mobile billboard for a single day or for a short term to target crowds for specific promotions.


Mobile advertising is a dynamic and rapidly expanding industry that promises greater company exosure and more effective use of advertising dollars.


Billboards can also be made mobile, either by mounting a traditional billboard onto a trailer or flatbed truck, or by covering an entire vehicle in a "wrap" image. This is sometimes used in bus advertising, though it is more common to mount smaller "boards" on those vehicles. There are also mobile billboards on Segways and Pedicabs as well as Digital Mobile Billboards which integrate L.E.D. technology instead of printed media. Cargo containers are also used as billboards either on their own or stacked on top of each other. Often these are placed in fields next to busy roads and are often cheaper to use than more permanent structures. Utility trailer A Trailer is generally an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle. ... A Flatbed truck is a type of truck which can be either articulated or rigid. ... A light rail vehicle wrapped in an iPod advertisement Wrap advertising is the practice of completely covering (wrapping) a vehicle in an advertisement or livery. ... Bus advertising, ACTION bus, Canberra, Australia Bus advertising is a popular way for advertisers to reach the public in metropolitan areas. ... Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey. ...


A very new concept of mobile billboards is an advertising trailer (Skyboard) which erects itself automatically in a few minutes, comprising a total advertising-space for giant banners up to 3.500 sq.ft. Skysurfing simulator. ...


Mobile billboards are also appearing on water. The Billboard Boats are linkable to create multiple sizes including a 48' x 14' billboard and are towed behind vessels on oceans and lakes.




Advertising style

Billboard advertisements are designed to catch a person's attention and create a memorable impression very quickly, leaving the reader thinking about the advertisement after they have driven past it. They have to be readable in a very short time because they are usually read while being passed at high speeds. Thus there are usually only a few words, in large print, and a humorous or arresting image in brilliant color.


Some billboard designs spill outside the actual space given to them by the billboard, with parts of figures hanging off the billboard edges or jutting out of the billboard in three dimensions. A humorous example in the United States around the turn of the 21st century were the Chick-fil-A billboards (a chicken sandwich fast food chain), which had three-dimensional cow figures in the act of painting the billboards with misspelled anti-beef slogans such as "frendz don't let frendz eat beef." Chick-fil-A(IPA pronunciation: ) is a chain headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, that specializes in chicken entrees. ... This article needs cleanup. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ...


Placement of billboards

Some of the most noticeable and prominent places billboards are situated alongside highways; since passing drivers typically have little to occupy their attention, the impact of the billboard is greater. Billboards are often drivers' primary way of finding out where food and fuel are available when driving on unfamiliar highways. There were approximately 450,000 billboards on United States highways as of 1991. Somewhere between 5,000 and 15,000 are erected each year. In Europe billboards are a major component and source of income in urban street furniture concepts. A highway is a major road within a city, or linking several cities together. ... Street furniture is a collective term for objects and pieces of equipment installed on streets and roads for various purposes, including benches, bollards, post boxes, phone boxes, streetlamps, street lighting, traffic lights, traffic signs, bus stops, grit bins, tram stops, taxi stands, public lavatories, fountains and memorials, and waste receptacles. ...

1940's 3AW billboard advertising For the Term of his Natural Life in Melbourne
1940's 3AW billboard advertising For the Term of his Natural Life in Melbourne

An interesting use of billboards unique to highways was the Burma-Shave advertisements between 1925 and 1963, which had 4- or 5-part messages stretched across multiple signs, keeping the reader hooked by the promise of a punchline at the end. This example is in the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution: Image File history File links 3aw_billboard. ... Image File history File links 3aw_billboard. ... 3AW is a radio station in Melbourne, Australia on 693KHz AM. It began transmission in February 1932 as Melbournes fifth commercial radio station. ... For the Term of his Natural Life, a novel by Marcus Clarke, is the best known novelisation of life as a convict in early Australian history. ... Burma-Shave was a United States brand of brushless shaving cream that was sold from 1925 to 1966. ... For the phase, see Punch line Punchline is a North American punk rock band from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... The National Museum of American History is a museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution and located in Washington, D.C., on the National Mall. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...

Shaving brushes
You'll soon see 'em
On a shelf
In some museum
Burma-Shave

These sort of multi-sign advertisements are no longer common, though they are not extinct. One recent example, advertising for the NCAA, depicts a basketball player aiming a shot on one billboard; on the next one, 90 yards (82 meters) away, is the basket. Another example is the numerous billboards that advertise the roadside attraction South of the Border near Dillon, SC. They stretch along I-95 for many states. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A ) is a voluntary association of about 1,200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... This article is about the sport. ... South of the Borders large neon welcome sign. ... Dillon is a city in Dillon County, South Carolina, United States. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 95 Interstate 95 (I-95) is the main highway on the East Coast of the United States,[1] paralleling the Atlantic Ocean from Maine to Florida and serving some of the best-known cities in the country including Boston, New York City, and...


Many cities have high densities of billboards, especially in places where there is a lot of pedestrian traffic—Times Square in New York City is a good example. Because of the lack of space in cities, these billboards are painted or hung on the sides of buildings and sometimes are even free-standing billboards hanging above buildings. Billboards on the sides of buildings create different stylistic opportunities, with artwork that incorporates features of the building into the design e.g. using windows as eyes, or for gigantic frescoes that adorn the entire building. A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Times Square (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Visual and environmental concerns

The Animal Liberation Front modified this Chick-fil-A billboard to support its vegan aims.
The Animal Liberation Front modified this Chick-fil-A billboard to support its vegan aims.

Many groups such as Scenic America have complained that billboards on highways cause too much clearing of trees and intrude on the surrounding landscape, with billboards' bright colors, lights and large fonts making it hard to focus on anything else, making them a form of visual pollution. Other groups believe that billboards and advertising in general contribute negatively to the mental climate of a culture by promoting products as providing feelings of completeness, wellness and popularity to motivate purchase. One focal point for this sentiment would be the magazine AdBusters, which will often showcase politically motivated billboard and other advertising vandalism, called culture jamming. Download high resolution version (1048x735, 281 KB)Chicken billboard vandalized, apparently by Animal Liberation Front (ALF). From http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1048x735, 281 KB)Chicken billboard vandalized, apparently by Animal Liberation Front (ALF). From http://www. ... Beagles stolen by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by the Boots Group. ... Chick-fil-A(IPA pronunciation: ) is a chain headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, that specializes in chicken entrees. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... About Scenic America A nonprofit, membership organization, Scenic America is the only national group solely dedicated to preserving and enhancing the scenic character of Americas communities and countryside. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ... Adbusters is a political magazine, founded by Kalle Lasn and Bill Schmalz that is published in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada by the Media Foundation. ... Culture jamming is the act of transforming existing mass media to produce commentary about itself, using the original mediums communication method. ...


In 2000, rooftops in Athens had grown so thick with billboards that it was very difficult to see its famous architecture. In preparation for the 2004 Summer Olympics, the city embarked on a successful four-year project demolishing the majority of rooftop billboards to beautify the city for the tourists the games will bring, overcoming resistance from advertisers and building owners. These billboards were for the most part illegal, but had been ignored up to then. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ...


In 2007, São Paulo, Brazil, instituted a billboard ban, with mayor Gilberto Kassab calling it "visual pollution."[2] This article is about the city. ... Gilberto Kassab is the current mayor of São Paulo. ...


Road safety concerns

In the United States, many cities tried to put laws into effect to ban billboards as early as 1909 (California Supreme Court, Varney & Green vs. Williams) but the First Amendment has made these attempts difficult. A San Diego law championed by Pete Wilson in 1971 cited traffic safety and driver distraction as the reason for the billboard ban, but that law too was narrowly overturned by the Supreme Court in 1981, in part because it banned non-commercial as well as commercial billboards. The Supreme Court of California is the state supreme court in California. ... “First Amendment” redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... For others named Pete Wilson, see Peter Wilson. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...


Billboards have long been accused of being distracting to drivers and causing accidents. Signs with bright colors and eye-grabbing pictures may cause drivers to look away from the road during a crucial moment. Electronic, animated signs in particular have been singled out [4] as a cause. Studies have also shown that billboards at junctions and on long stretches of highway may have a particularly detrimental effect on road safety[5].

Lingerie Ad on a billboard in Chişinău, Moldova.
Lingerie Ad on a billboard in Chişinău, Moldova.

Researchers at the University of North Carolina prepared a thorough report on driver distraction for the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. This study, released in June of 2001, said: "The search appears to suggest that some items--such as CB radios, billboards, and temperature controls--are not significant distractions." Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 850 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken on August 5, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 850 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken on August 5, 2005. ... Status Municipality Founded 1436 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] - density 1,114 inh/km² - rank 1st Localities (total): 35 - cities 7 - communes 12 - unincorporated 16 Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Council 51 members, since 2007 - Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova 16 - Liberal Party (Moldova...


Traffic safety experts have studied the relationship between outdoor advertising and traffic accidents since the 1950s, finding no authoritative or scientific evidence that billboards are linked to traffic accidents. However, many of these studies were funded by the Outdoor Advertising Association of America, which has led to accusations of bias. The methodology used in certain studies is also questionable.


The U.S. Department of Transportation, State Department of Transportation and property/casualty insurance companies statistics on fatal accidents indicate no correlation between billboards and traffic accidents. A broad sampling of law enforcement agencies across the country found no evidence to suggest that motorvehicle accidents were caused by billboards. Property and casualty insurance companies have conducted detailed studies of traffic accident records and conclude no correlation between billboards and traffic accidents.


However, studies based on correlations between traffic accidents and billboards face the problem of under-reporting: drivers are unwilling to admit responsibility for a crash, so will not admit to being distracted at a crucial moment. Even given this limitation, some studies have found higher crash rates in the vicinity of advertising using variable message signs[3] or electronic billboards[4].


It is possible that the presence of advertising signs in rural areas are of value in reducing a driver boredom, which many believe is a positive contribution to highway safety. On the other hand, drivers may fixate on a billboard which unexpectedly appears in an otherwise monotonous landscape, and drive straight into it (a phenomenon known as 'highway hypnosis')[5]. As yet there is little scientific research on the effects of advertising billboards on rural highways.


Surveys of drivers and road users show that the lighting provided by billboards provide security and visibility to many motorists. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) went on record (Federal Register, March 5, 1999) stating that the agency agrees that appropriately regulated billboards do not compromise highway safety. It should be noted that this statement was made before the release of the FHWA report 'Research review of potential safety effects of electronic billboards on driver attention and distraction'[4] in 2001. What level of regulation is appropriate for billboards in different areas is still under discussion by road safety experts around the world.


Laws limiting billboards

In 1964 the negative impact of the over-proliferation of signage was abundantly evident in Houston, Texas, and motivated Lady Bird Johnson to ask her husband to create a law. At the same time the outdoor advertising industry itself was becoming keenly aware that the existence of too many signs, some literally one in front of the other, was bad for business. Claudia Alta Lady Bird Taylor Johnson (December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007)[1] was a First Lady of the United States, having been the wife of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ...


In 1965, the Highway Beautification Act was signed into law. The act applied only to "Federal Aid Primary" and "Defense" highways and limited billboards to commercial and industrial zones created by states and municipalities. It required each state to set standards based on "customary use" for the size, lighting and spacing of billboards, and prohibited city and state governments from taking down billboards without paying cash compensation to the sign's owner. The act requires all states to maintain "effective control" of billboards or lose 5% of their federal highway dollars.


The act also required the screening of junk yards adjacent to regulated highways,


(An interesting note about that legislation: around major holidays, volunteer groups put up large highway signs offering free coffee at the next rest stop to keep drivers awake on their long treks from state to state. These billboards were specifically exempted from the limits in the Act.)


Currently, four states -- Vermont, Alaska, Hawaii, and Maine -- have prohibited billboards. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Usages

Highway

Most highway signs exist to advertise local restaurants and shops in the miles to come and are crucial to drawing business in small towns that no one would stop at otherwise. One illuminating example is Wall Drug, which in 1931 put up billboards advertising "free ice water" and the town of Wall, South Dakota as it is known today was essentially built around the 20,000 customers per day those billboards were bringing in as of 1981. Some signs were even placed in locations great distances away, with slogans such as "only 827 miles to Wall Drug, with FREE ice water." In some areas the signs were so dense that one sign almost immediately followed the last. This situation changed after the Highway Beautification Act was passed; the proliferation of Wall Drug billboards is sometimes cited as one of the reasons the bill was passed. Wall Drug - Free Ice Water Wall Drug is a drug store and gift shop that is perhaps one of the greatest self-designated tourist attractions in the United States. ... Something there is that doesnt love a Wall, that wants it down -Robert Frost Wall is a town in Pennington County, South Dakota, United States. ...

ATB ad, Edmonton
ATB ad, Edmonton

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3544 KB) Summary Myke Waddy,August 12th 2006, edmonton alberta canada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3544 KB) Summary Myke Waddy,August 12th 2006, edmonton alberta canada. ... ATB is: André Tanneberger is a German DJ Active Time Battle system is a feature of role-playing games All Terrain Bike is a human powered vehicle Alberta Treasury Branches or ATB Financial is an Albertan crown corporation specializing in financial services Articulated Tug Barge (ATB) consists of a tank...

Golf courses

Billboards are becoming smaller and focusing their messages to specifically targeted groups of people.[citation needed] Traditionally billboards have been huge roadside structures that concentrated on delivering mass messages to huge numbers of viewers. Although this approach is excellent for certain types of advertisers there has been a shift to using smaller format billboards with specific messages aimed at a well defined group of consumers. Placing small billboards on golf courses and on GPS screens on golf carts has allowed both large and smaller advertisers to reach a demographically desirable group of people with specific messages. Examples of miniature billboards and golf course billboards can be found at http://www.GolfAdsUSA.com


Big name advertisers

Billboards are also used to advertise national or global brands, particularly in more densely populated urban areas. According to the Outdoor Advertising Association of America, the top three companies advertising on billboards as of 2003 were McDonald's, Anheuser-Busch and Miller. A large number of wireless phone companies, movie companies, car manufacturers and banks are high on the list as well. McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc. ... Miller Brewing is a large American piss maker based in Milwaukee. ... Cellular redirects here. ...


Tobacco advertising

Mail Pouch Barn advertisement: A bit of Americana in southern Ohio. Mail Pouch painted the barns for free.
Mail Pouch Barn advertisement: A bit of Americana in southern Ohio. Mail Pouch painted the barns for free.

Prior to 1999, billboards were a major venue of cigarette advertising; 10% of Michigan billboards advertise alcohol and tobacco, according to the Detroit Free Press.[6] This is particularly true in countries where tobacco advertisements are not allowed in other media. For example in the U.S. tobacco advertising was banned on radio and television in 1971, leaving billboards and magazines as some of the last places tobacco could be advertised. Billboards made the news in America when, in the tobacco settlement of 1999, all cigarette billboards were replaced with anti-smoking messages.[citation needed] In a parody of the Marlboro Man, some billboards depicted cowboys riding on ranches with slogans like "Bob, I miss my lung." Mail Pouch barn ad Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 04:01, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Mail Pouch Barn A Mail Pouch Tobacco Barn, or simply Mail Pouch Barn, is a barn with one or more sides painted from 1890 to 1992, in advertisement for the West Virginia Mail Pouch chewing tobacco company, based in Wheeling, West Virginia. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Tobacco advertising is the promotion of tobacco use (typically cigarette smoking) by the tobacco industry through a variety of media. ... Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. ... Wayne McLaren as the Marlboro Man in 1976. ...


Likely the best-known of the tobacco advertising boards were those for "Mail Pouch" chewing tobacco in the United States during the first half of the 20th century (pictured above). The company agreed to paint two or three sides of a farmer's barn any color he chose in exchange for painting their advert on the one or two sides of the structure facing the road. The company has long since abandoned this form of advertising, and none of these adverts have been painted in many years, but some are still viewable on various rural highways around the country, though less of them each year, as they are continually weathering, being overpainted or simply torn down.


Non-commercial use

Not all billboards are used for advertising products and services—non-profit groups and government agencies use them to communicate with the public. In 1999 an anonymous person created the God Speaks billboard campaign in Florida "to get people thinking about God", with witty statements signed by God. "Don't make me come down there", "We need to talk" and "Keep using my name in vain, I'll make rush hour longer" were parts of the campaign, which was picked up by the Outdoor Advertising Association of America and continues on billboards across the country to this A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... An agency is a department of a local or national government responsible for the oversight and administration of a specific function, such as a customs agency or a space agency. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


South of Olympia, Washington is the privately owned Uncle Sam billboard. It features conservative, sometimes inflammatory messages, changed on a regular basis. Chehalis farmer Al Hamilton first started the board during the Johnson era, when the government was trying to make him remove his billboards along interstate 5. He had erected the signs after he lost a legal battle to prevent the building of the freeway across his land. Numerous legal and illegal attempts to remove the Uncle Sam billboard have failed, and it is now in its third location. [7] One message, attacking a nearby liberal arts college, was photographed, made into a postcard and is sold in the College Bookstore. Coordinates: , County Incorporated January 28, 1859 Government  - Mayor Mark Foutch Area  - City 48. ... Chehalis (pronounced ) is a city in Lewis County, Washington, United States. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ...


Effectiveness

The Traffic Audit Bureau for Media Measurement Inc. (TAB) was established in 1933 as a non-profit organization whose historical mission has been to audit the circulation of out-of-home media in the United States. Recently TAB’s role has been expanded to lead and/or support other major out of home industry research initiatives. Governed by a tripartite board composed of advertisers, agencies and media companies, the TAB acts an independent auditor for traffic circulation in accordance to guidelines established by its Board of Directors.


Similarly, in Canada, the Canadian Outdoor Measurement Bureau (COMB) was formed in 1965 as a non-profit organization independently operated by representatives composed of advertisers, advertising agencies and members of the Canadian out-of-home advertising industry. COMB is charged with the verification of traffic circulation for the benefit of the industry and its users.


History

Early billboards were basically large posters on the sides of buildings, with limited but still appreciable commercial value. As roads and highways multiplied, the billboard business thrived. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... 1942 US government war poster. ...

  • 1794 – Lithography was invented, making real posters possible
  • 1835 – Jared Bell was making 9x6 posters for the circus in the U.S.
  • 1867 – Earliest known billboard rentals (source: OAAA)
  • 1872 – International Bill Posters Association of North America was established (now known as the Outdoor Advertising Association of America) as a billboard lobbying group.
  • 1889 - The world's first 24 sheet billboard was displayed at the Paris Exposition and later at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The format was quickly adopted for various types of advertising, especially for circuses, traveling shows, and movies
  • 1908 – The Model T automobile is introduced in the U.S., increasing the number of people using highways and therefore the reach of roadside billboards.
  • 1919 - Japanese candy company Glico introduces its building-spanning billboard, the Glico Man
  • 1925 – Burma-Shave makes its billboards lining the highways
  • 1931 – The Wall Drug billboards start to go up nationwide
  • 1960 - The mechanized Kani Doraku billboard is built in Dotonbori, Osaka
  • 1965 – the Highway Beautification Act is passed after much campaigning by Lady Bird Johnson
  • 1971 – The Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act bans cigarette ads in television and radio, moving that business into billboards
  • 1981 – The Supreme Court overturns a San Diego billboard ban, but leaves room open for other cities to ban commercial billboards
  • 1997 – Tobacco advertising is no longer allowed on outdoor billboards in America
  • 2007 – Industry adopts one sheet plastic poster replacement for paper poster builboards and begins phase-out of PVC flexible vinyl, replacing it with eco-plastics such as polyethylene

Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Look up exposition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... 1908 Ford Model T advertisement The Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and the Flivver) was an automobile produced by Henry Fords Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1928. ... Ezaki Glico (江崎グリコ) is a Japanese candy company. ... Dotonbori typifies the flamboyance of Osaka. ... Burma-Shave was a United States brand of brushless shaving cream that was sold from 1925 to 1966. ... Wall Drug - Free Ice Water Wall Drug is a drug store and gift shop that is perhaps one of the greatest self-designated tourist attractions in the United States. ... Dotonbori typifies the flamboyance of Osaka. ... Dotonbori typifies the flamboyance of Osaka. ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ... Claudia Alta Lady Bird Taylor Johnson (December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007)[1] was a First Lady of the United States, having been the wife of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... In the United States, the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1969 (passed in 1970), required a stronger health warning on cigarette packages: It also banned cigarette advertising on radio and televison. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...

See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Marketing

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... An advertising board is usually a term reserved for the advertising hoardings seen at football (soccer) matches. ... The term mediascape describes the way that visual imagery now impacts on our world. ... Neon signs are often used to advertise for hotels, bars and entertainment venues. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Look up publicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Sales promotion is one of the four aspects of promotional mix. ... A human billboard is someone who applies an advertisement on his or her person. ... // The IBI (International Billboard Identity) is a unique machine-readable identification number, which marks any Indoor/Outdoor Advertisements unmistakably. ...

References

  1. ^ Shira Ovide (September 19, 2007). Can Billboard Trade Go Green?, Industry Seeks Environmental Benefits, Profit Gains. =The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  2. ^ David Evan Harris (August 21, 2007). The World's Fourth-Largest City Outlaws Billboards, Calls It 'Visual Pollution'. =Alternet. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  3. ^ Cairney, P., & Gunatillake, T. (2000). Does roadside advertising really cause crashes? Paper presented at the Road Safety: research, enforcement and policy., Brisbane, Australia..
  4. ^ a b Farbry, J., Wochinger, K., Shafer, T., Owens, N., & Nedzesky, A. (2001). Research review of potential safety effects of electronic billboards on driver attention and distraction. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration
  5. ^ Wallace, B. (2003). Driver distraction by advertising: genuine risk or urban myth? Municipal Engineer, 156, 185-190..

Image File history File links Billboard(advertising)-060526. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... AlterNet, a project of the non-profit Independent Media Institute, is a progressive news website that was launched in 1998 and receives over 2 million visitors per month. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Billboard (advertising) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3285 words)
Billboards can also be made mobile, either by mounting a traditional billboard onto a trailer or flatbed truck, or by covering an entire vehicle in a "wrap" image.
Billboard advertisements are designed to catch a person's attention and create a memorable impression very quickly, leaving the reader thinking about the advertisement after they have driven past it.
Prior to 1999, billboards were a major venue of cigarette advertising; 10% of Michigan billboards advertise alcohol and tobacco, according to the Detroit Free Press.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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