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Encyclopedia > Bile

Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. In many species, it is stored in the gallbladder between meals and upon eating is discharged into the duodenum where it excretes waste and aids the process of digestion of lipids. In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... Hepatocytes make up 60-80% of the cytoplasmic mass of the liver. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ...

Contents

Components

The components of bile:

Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid in lecithin. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Bilins or bilanes are biological pigments formed in many organisms as a metabolic product of certain porphyrins. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... Biliverdin is a green pigment formed as a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown. ... Bile is also another name for Belenus, a god in Brythonic mythology. ... Glycocholic acid, or cholylglycine, is a crystalline bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats. ... Taurocholic acid, known also as cholaic acid, cholyltaurine, or acidum cholatauricum, is a deliquescent yellowish crystalline bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ...

Production

Digestive system diagram showing the bile duct
Digestive system diagram showing the bile duct

Bile is produced by hepatocytes in the liver, draining through the many bile ducts that penetrate the liver. During this process, the epithelial cells add a watery solution that is rich in bicarbonates that dilutes and increases alkalinity of the solution. Bile then flows into the common hepatic duct, which joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct in turn joins with the pancreatic duct to empty into the duodenum. If the sphincter of Oddi is closed, bile is prevented from draining into the intestine and instead flows into the gall bladder, where it is stored and concentrated to up to five times its original potency between meals. This concentration occurs through the absorption of water and small electrolytes, while retaining all the original organic molecules. Cholesterol is also released with the bile, dissolved in the acids and fats found in the concentrated solution. When food is released by the stomach into the duodenum in the form of chyme, the gallbladder releases the concentrated bile to complete digestion. Image File history File links Digestive_system_showing_bile_duct. ... Image File history File links Digestive_system_showing_bile_duct. ... Hepatocytes make up 60-80% of the cytoplasmic mass of the liver. ... X-Ray of the bile duct during a laprascopic cholecystectomy A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... Types of epithelium This article discusses the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... Sea surface alkalinity (from the GLODAP climatology) Alkalinity or AT is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate. ... The common hepatic duct is the duct formed by the junction of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver) and the left hepatic duct (which drains bile from the left functional lobe of the liver). ... A duct joining the pancreas to the bile duct to supply pancreatic juice which aid in digestion provided by the exocrine pancreas. ... The Sphincter of tOddi, also called the hepatopancreatic sphincter or Glissons sphincter, controls secretions from the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder into the duodenum of the small intestine. ... Chyme is the liquid substance found in the stomach before passing through the pyloric valve and entering the duodenum. ...


The human liver can produce close to one litre of bile per day (depending on body size). 95% of the salts secreted in bile are reabsorbed in the terminal ileum and re-used. Blood from the ileum flows directly to the hepatic portal vein and returns to the liver where the hepatocytes resorb the salts and return them to the bile ducts to be re-used, sometimes two to three times with each meal. The portal vein is a major vein in the human body draining blood from the digestive system and its associated glands. ...


Physiological functions

Bile acts to some extent as a detergent, helping to emulsify fats (increasing surface area to help enzyme action), and thus aids in their absorption in the small intestine. The most important compounds are the salts of taurocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Bile salts combine with phospholipids to break down fat globules in the process of emulsification by associating its hydrophobic side with lipids and the hydrophilic side with water. Emulsified droplets then are organized into many micelles which increases absorption. Since bile increases the absorption of fats, it is an important part of the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins D, E, K and A. Besides its digestive function, bile serves as the route of excretion for the hemoglobin breakdown product (bilirubin) created by the spleen which gives bile its colour; it also neutralises any excess stomach acid before it enters the ileum, the final section of the small intestine. Bile salts are also bacteriocidal to the invading microbes that enter with food. Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... Fats is the plural for fat, a generic term for a class of lipids in biochemistry. ... Hydrolysis of Taurocholic Acid yields Taurine, an amino acid. ... Deoxycholic acid, also known as deoxycholate, cholanoic acid, and 3α,12α-dihydroxy-5β-cholanate, is a bile acid. ... Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... Schematic of a micelle. ... Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... Grays Fig. ... Bacteriocidal prevents and combats bacterial infection. ...


Bile from slaughtered animals can be mixed with soap. This mixture, applied to textiles a few hours before washing, is a traditional and rather effective method for removing various kinds of tough stains.[1] SOAP (see below for name and origins) is a protocol for exchanging XML-based messages over computer networks, normally using HTTP/HTTPS. SOAP forms the foundation layer of the Web services stack, providing a basic messaging framework that more abstract layers can build on. ...


Abnormal conditions associated with bile

  • The cholesterol contained in bile will occasionally accrete into lumps in the gall bladder, forming gallstones.
  • After excessive consumption of alcohol, a person's vomit may be green. The green component is bile.
  • In the absence of bile, fats become indigestible and are instead excreted in feces. In this case, the feces lacks its characteristic brown colour and instead are white or grey, and greasy. This causes significant problems in the distal parts of the intestine as normally all fats are absorbed earlier in the gastrointestinal tract. Past the small intestine the organs and gut flora are not adapted to processing fats.

Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... In medicine, gallstones are crystalline bodies formed within the body by accretion or concretion of normal or abnormal bile components. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum. ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ...

Four humours

Yellow bile (sometimes called ichor) and black bile were two of the four vital fluids or humours of ancient and medieval medicine (the other two were phlegm and blood). The Latin names for the terms gave rise to the words "choler" (bile) and "melancholia" (black bile). Excessive bile was supposed to produce an aggressive temperament, known as "choleric". This is the origin of the word "bilious." Depressive and other mental illnesses (melancholia) were ascribed to a bodily surplus of black bile. This is the origin of the word "melancholy." This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In Greek mythology, ichor (Greek ) is the mineral that is the Greek gods blood, sometimes said to have been present in ambrosia or nectar. ... Melancholia (Greek μελανχολια) is a mood of non-specific depression. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Phlegm (pronounced ) is sticky fluid secreted by the typhoid membranes of animals. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


See also

Intestinal juice (succus entericus) refers to the clear to pale yellow watery secretions from the glands lining the small intestine walls. ... In pharmacology, bile acid sequestrants a group of medication used for binding bile in the gastrointestinal tract. ...

References

  1. ^ NEWTON, W. (1837). "The invention of certain improvements in the manufacture of soap, which will be particularly applicable to the felting of woollen cloths.". THE LONDON JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES; AND REPERTORY OF PATENT INVENTIONS IX: 289. Retrieved on 2007-02-08. 
  • Krejčí, Z; Hanuš L., Podstatová H. & Reifová E (1983). "A contribution to the problems of the pathogenesis and microbial etiology of cholelithiasis". Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis Facultatis Medicae 104: 279-286. PMID 6222611. 
  • Bowen, R. (November 23, 2001). Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (548 words)
Bile salts combine with phospholipids to break down fat globules in the process of emulsification by associating its hydrophobic side with lipids and the hydrophilic side with water.
Since bile increases the absorption of fats, it is an important part of the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins D, E, K and A.
Yellow bile and fl bile were two of the four vital fluids or humours of ancient and medieval medicine (the other two were phlegm and blood).
Cholesterol and Bile Metabolism (2843 words)
Synthesis of bile acids is one of the predominant mechanisms for the excretion of excess cholesterol.
Within the intestines the primary bile acids are acted upon by bacteria and converted to the secondary bile acids, identified as deoxycholate (from cholate) and lithocholate (from chenodeoxycholate).
bile acids and phospholipids solubilize cholesterol in the bile, thereby preventing the precipitation of cholesterol in the gallbladder.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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