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Encyclopedia > Bikram Yoga
Bikram Randhawa!
Religious origins: Hinduism
Regional origins: Yoga College of India, Mumbai, India
Founding Guru: Bikram Choudhury
Mainstream popularity: Growing from the late 20th century
Practice emphases: unchanging sequence of postures designed as a rejuvenating exercise to strengthen the entire body from head to toe
Derivative forms: {{{derivatives}}}
Related schools
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Other topics
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Bikram Yoga, also known as Hot Yoga, is a style of yoga developed by Bikram Choudhury and a Los Angeles, California based company[1]. Bikram Yoga is ideally practiced in a room heated to 105°F (40.5°C) with a humidity of 40%. Classes are guided by specific dialogue including 26 postures and two breathing exercises. Classes last approximately 90-minutes. People of all levels, ages and body types practice and start together as this is a beginning yoga class. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Bikram Choudhury ca: 1970. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ... Bikram Choudhury ca: 1970. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...


Choudhury, the self-proclaimed "Yogi to the Stars", lives in Beverly Hills and teaches at the Yoga College of India in Los Angeles and in Calcutta, India, and other locations around the world, including San Francisco, London, Paris and Tokyo. His best-selling book Bikram's Beginning Yoga Class consists of a sequence of 26 yoga postures (or asana) and two breathing exercises. This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Ardha Padmasana, or Half Lotus is an intermediate seated posture Padmasana or Lotus pose is a more advanced seated posture Asana, Sanskrit for sitting posture (asanam is sitting or ass / aste is he sits), is a body position, typically associated with the practice of Yoga, intended primarily to restore and... Pranayama (Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit word often translated as control of the life force (prana). ...

Contents

The 26 Asana

# Sanskrit English
1 Pranayama Series Standing Deep Breathing
2 Ardha Chandrasana with Pada-Hastasana Half Moon Pose with Hands To Feet Pose
3 Utkatasana Awkward Pose
4 Garudasana Eagle Pose
5 Dandayamana - JanuShirasana Standing Head To Knee Pose
6 Dandayamana - Dhanurasana Standing Bow Pulling Pose
7 Tuladandasana Balancing Stick Pose
8 Dandayamana - Bibhaktapada - Paschimottanasana Standing Separate Leg Stretching Pose
9 Trikonasana Triangle Pose
10 Dandayamana - Bibhaktapada - Janushirasana Standing Separate Leg Head To Knee Pose
11 Tadasana Tree Pose
12 Padangustasana Toe Stand Pose
13 Savasana Dead Body Pose
14 Pavanamuktasana Wind Removing Pose
15 Sit Up Sit Up
16 Bhujangasana Cobra Pose
17 Salabhasana Locust Pose
18 Poorna - Salabhasana Full Locust Pose
19 Dhanurasana Bow Pose
20 Supta - Vajrasana Fixed Firm Pose
21 Ardha - Kurmasana Half Tortoise Pose
22 Ustrasana Camel Pose
23 Sasangasana Rabbit Pose
24 Janushirasana with Paschimottanasana Head To Knee Pose with Stretching Pose
25 Ardha - Matsyendrasana Spine Twisting Pose
26 Khapalbhati Blowing In Firm

Dhanurasana Dhanurasana, or Bow pose (Sanskrit: धनुस् सन, dhanurāsana, is a yoga pose in which the practitioner lays on their belly, grabs their feet, and lifts the legs into the shape of a bow. ... Trikonasana (tri-cone-ah-sa-na), or Triangle Pose, is an important position in hatha yoga. ... Tadasana, a position in Yoga, is also called Mountain Pose. ... Death Pose Savasana or Mrtasana Savasana (Sanskrit: शवआसन, śavāsana, Corpse Pose, alternately spelled Shavasana or Sarvasana, and also known as mrta-asana) is a yoga asana often used to begin and conclude a yoga session. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dhanurasana Dhanurasana, or Bow pose (Sanskrit: धनुस् सन, dhanurāsana, is a yoga pose in which the practitioner lays on their belly, grabs their feet, and lifts the legs into the shape of a bow. ... Ustrasana (camel pose) is a hatha yoga posture, found in similar form in most of the styles of yoga. ...

Intellectual property controversy

Bikram Choudhury has aggressively enforced claims of copyright and trademark protection, including the claim that the sequence of asanas in Bikram's Beginning Yoga Class falls under his copyright. This development is controversial within the United States yoga community. Some practitioners object to the idea that Bikram can have exclusive control over a series of postures derived from traditional practices. Also, some object to Bikram's stated plans to create a formal franchise of studios. Bikram Choudhury ca: 1970. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... A drawing of a girl in lotus pose Students taking a yoga class A woman in the Lotus position A yoga instructor performing an asana Asana is a Sanskrit word that literally means a seat but in the practise of yoga refers to a pose or posture. ... For other uses, see Yoga (disambiguation). ...


The following text is based on Open Source Yoga Unity v. Bikram Choudhury[2]:


Choudhury first registered the copyright for Bikram's Beginning Yoga Class in 1979 and subsequently filed additional copyrights for various books, audiotapes and videotapes. In 2002, Choudhury filed for copyright for the yoga sequence itself under 17 U.S.C. Section 410. Choudhury claims that registration by the United States Copyright Office acknowledges his exclusive right to the distinct series of postures and breathing exercises comprising the sequence. However, unlike the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the Copyright Office does not analyze submissions for requisite originality and applies the benefit of doubt on an item's copyrightability. Choudhury recognizes that the asanas are in the public domain, but claims that his yoga sequence constitutes a copyrightable compilation of information and that all the accompanying rights of copyrightability flow from his registration. Choudhury has also registered various trademarks connected with Bikram Yoga. The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ... The United States Copyright Office, a part of the Library of Congress, is the official U.S. government body that maintains records of copyright registration in the United States. ... PTO headquarters in Alexandria The United States Patent and Trademark Office (PTO or USPTO) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides patent and trademark protection to inventors and businesses for their inventions and corporate and product identification. ... The United States Copyright Office, a part of the Library of Congress, is the official U.S. government body that maintains records of copyright registration in the United States. ... A drawing of a girl in lotus pose Students taking a yoga class A woman in the Lotus position A yoga instructor performing an asana Asana is a Sanskrit word that literally means a seat but in the practise of yoga refers to a pose or posture. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


Over the last several years, Choudhury has notified yoga instructors that they must obtain a license from him in order to teach Bikram yoga, which he asserts includes not only the exact 26 asanas and two breathing exercises, but all "substantially similar" derivative forms of the sequence as well. Choudhury also demanded that yoga teachers teaching his sequence of asanas obtain a license to use the term BIKRAM YOGA. At the hearing, Choudhury stated that he was not at this time pursuing individual yoga practitioners who do not teach but simply perform the Bikram yoga sequence, either at home with the books and tapes or in yoga classes. A drawing of a girl in lotus pose Students taking a yoga class A woman in the Lotus position A yoga instructor performing an asana Asana is a Sanskrit word that literally means a seat but in the practise of yoga refers to a pose or posture. ... A drawing of a girl in lotus pose Students taking a yoga class A woman in the Lotus position A yoga instructor performing an asana Asana is a Sanskrit word that literally means a seat but in the practise of yoga refers to a pose or posture. ...


Open Source Yoga Unity (“OSYU”) filed for a declaratory judgment, seeking a court declaration that Choudhury does not have enforceable copyright or trademark rights. OSYU claims include that individual yoga asanas are in the public domain and constitute functional information rather than expressive creative content, and as a result yoga in general cannot be copyrighted. One legal commentator has argued that while Choudhury’s book is properly copyrighted, “Bikram's particular method of performing yoga postures cannot be protected via the copyright he holds on the book,” as copyright does not protect systems or ideas, only the expression of ideas.[3] A declaratory judgment is a judgment of a court which declares what rights each party in a dispute should have, but does not order any action or result in any legal damages. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


The United States District Court for the Northern District of California denied both sides’ motions for summary judgment on all issues except one. The court dismissed the claim that Choudhury misused his copyright. Questions of trademark invalidity, whether the sequence is in the public domain, the copyrightability of the sequences and the proper publishing date remain. The United States District Court for the Northern District of California is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises following counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Del Norte, Humboldt, Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Monterey, Napa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma. ... Summary judgment is a legal term which means that a court has made a determination (a judgment) without a full trial. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


OSYU announced on its website on May 3, 2005 that OSYU and Bikram Yoga had reached a "mutually satisfactory resolution" to the suit.[4]


Notes

  1. ^ Corporate registration for "Bikram Choudury Yoga, Inc." Number: C2288343
  2. ^ Open Source Yoga Unity v. Bikram Choudhury, 2005 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10440, 74 U.S.P.Q.2D (BNA) 1434, Copy. L. Rep. (CCH) P28,982 (N.D. Cal. 2005)
  3. ^ Katherine Macham, Bending Over Backwards for Copyright Protection: Bikram Yoga and the Quest for Federal Copyright Protection of an Asana Sequence, 12 UCLA Ent. L. Rev. 29 (2004). See also Jordan Susman, Your Karma Ran Over My Dogma: Bikram Yoga and the (Im)Possibilities of Copyrighting Yoga, 25 Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. 245 (2004).
  4. ^ John Pallatto, Yoga Suit Settlement Beggars Open Source Ideals, eWeek.com, May 13, 2005.

See also

Ardha Padmasana, or Half Lotus is an intermediate seated posture Padmasana or Lotus pose is a more advanced seated posture Asana, Sanskrit for sitting posture (asanam is sitting or ass / aste is he sits), is a body position, typically associated with the practice of Yoga, intended primarily to restore and... Hatha yoga (Sanskrit हठयोग), also known as Hatha Vidya (हठविद्या), is a particular system of Yoga introduced by Yogi Swatmarama, a sage of 15th century India, and compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. ... Pranayama (Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit word often translated as control of the life force (prana). ...

External links


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