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Encyclopedia > Bikini Atoll

Bikini Atoll (also known as Pikinni Atoll) is an uninhabited 6.0-square-kilometer atoll in one of the Micronesian Islands in the Pacific Ocean, part of Republic of the Marshall Islands. It consists of 36 islands surrounding a 594.2-square-kilometer lagoon. As part of the Pacific Proving Grounds it was the site of more than 20 nuclear weapons tests between 1946 and 1958, including the first test of a practical dry fuel hydrogen bomb in 1952. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3606x1898, 22 KB) Official flag for Bikini Atoll File links The following pages link to this file: Flag of Bikini ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3606x1898, 22 KB) Official flag for Bikini Atoll File links The following pages link to this file: Flag of Bikini ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Portion of a Pacific atoll showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon. ... The United States began using the Marshall Islands as a nuclear testing site beginning in 1946. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The basics of the Teller–Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The navigator and explorer Otto von Kotzebue named Bikini Atoll Eschscholtz Atoll after the scientist Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz. Otto von Kotzebue ( December 30, 1787 - February 15, 1846), was a Russian navigator. ... Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz (1 November 1793 - 19 May 1831) was an Estonian physician, botanist, zoologist and entomologist. ...

Operation Crossroads Event Baker explosion
Operation Crossroads Event Baker explosion

Preceding the nuclear tests, the indigenous population was relocated to Rongerik Atoll. The United States government enrolled some of the Marshallese into a secret medical experiment called Project 4.1. The intent of the project was to study the effects of radiation on human beings. They later resettled unwilling participants on an island highly contaminated with radiation to learn how humans ingested and absorbed radiation in their environments.[1] Government and mainstream historical sources point to the study being organized on March 6 or March 7, 1954, six days after the Bravo shot. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, some of the original islanders returned from Kili Island but were later removed because of the high radioactivity. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A 23 kiloton dropped nuclear weapon, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Able) A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946). ... Rongerik Atoll - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Map of Rongerik Atoll, taken from the 1893 map Schutzgebiet der Marshall Inseln, published in 1897. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Kili Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kili Island (also known as Kili Atoll) is a 0. ...


For examination of the fallout, several rockets of the types Loki and Asp were launched at 11°35′N, 165°20′E.

Contents

Bikini Island

Bikini Atoll, with Bikini island boxed. The crater formed by the Castle Bravo nuclear test can be seen on the northwest cape of the atoll.
Bikini Atoll, with Bikini island boxed. The crater formed by the Castle Bravo nuclear test can be seen on the northwest cape of the atoll.

Bikini Island is the northeasternmost and largest island of Bikini Atoll. It is the most well-known and important island of the atoll, and measures about four kilometres. About twelve kilometres to the northwest is Aomen, the first island in that direction, and to the south of Bikini is Bukonfuaaku. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (631x634, 353 KB) Summary from the Dutch Wikipedia article of Bikini Island. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (631x634, 353 KB) Summary from the Dutch Wikipedia article of Bikini Island. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... Chinese Pinyin Macau ...


Bikini Island is well-known for being the subject of nuclear bomb tests, and because the bikini swimsuit was named after the island in 1946— The two piece swimsuit was introduced within days of the nuclear test, and the name of the island was in the news.[2] This article is about the womens bathing suit. ...


Between 1946 and 1958, twenty-three nuclear devices were detonated at Bikini Atoll. The March 1st, 1954 detonation codenamed Castle Bravo, was the first test of a practical hydrogen bomb. The largest nuclear explosion ever set off by the United States, it was much more powerful than predicted, and created widespread radioactive contamination.[3] is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ...


The Micronesian inhabitants, who numbered about 200 before the United States relocated them after World War II, ate fish, shellfish, bananas, and coconuts. A large majority of the Bikinians were moved to a single island named Kili as part of their temporary homestead, but remain until today and receive compensation from the United States for their survival.[4] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 1968 the United States declared Bikini habitable and started bringing a small group of Bikinians back to their homes in the early 1970s as a test. In 1978, however, the islanders were removed again when strontium-90 in their bodies reached dangerous levels after a French team of scientists did additional tests on the island.[5]. It was not uncommon for women to experience faulty pregnancies, miscarriages, stillbirths and damage to their offspring as a result of the nuclear testing on Bikini.[6] The United States provided $150 million as a settlement for damages caused by the nuclear testing program.[7] Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number Strontium, Sr, 38 Series Alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 5, s Density, Hardness 2630 kg/m3, 1. ...


The clean-up operation scraped off the top 16 inches of soil from the main island of Bikini, generating a million cubic feet of radioactive soil that could not be disposed of, at a cost that far exceeds this compensation award.

Map of the Marshall Islands
Map of the Marshall Islands

Download high resolution version (1042x1300, 155 KB)CIA map of RMI, from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1042x1300, 155 KB)CIA map of RMI, from http://www. ...

Bikini Lagoon

Prior to the explosion of the first atomic bomb on the island, the lagoon at Bikini was designated as a ship graveyard during World War II by the US. Today the Bikini Lagoon is still home to a large number of vessels from the United States and other countries. The dangers of the radioactivity and limited services in the area led to divers staying away from one of the most remarkable potential diving sites in the Pacific for many years. Today a limited number of divers head for the lagoon at Bikini every year for an extensive tour of World War II naval vessels. The dive spot has become popular among divers in the last 10 years. The lagoon contains a larger amount of sealife than usual due to the lack of fishing, including sharks, increasing the fascination with the spot as a diver's adventure spot. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ...


References in popular culture

  • The author Theodore Taylor wrote a children's novel titled The Bomb, which told the story of a teenager's fight to prevent the first atom bomb from being dropped onto the atoll.
  • Ground Zero, an X-Files themed novel by Kevin J. Anderson, revolves around violent ghosts that were created during the nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll when several members of the Micronesian tribe were not removed from the island by the U.S. authorities and were subsequently incinerated.
  • Nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll is a plot device of the first Godzilla movie, leading to Godzilla's awakening. In later films, however, this is retconned to Godzilla to being a dinosaur (known as Godzillasaurus) that is mutated by the nuclear tests conducted by the American government.
  • An American political punk band named Anti-Flag wrote and composed a song on their fourth album Underground Network named "Vieques, Puerto Rico: Bikini Revisited".
  • British post-punk band Gang of Four reference the bomb tests in their song "I Found that Essence Rare," writing "See the girl on the TV dressed in a bikini / She doesn't think so, but she's dressed for the H-bomb."

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Theodore Taylor (b. ... The Bomb is a 1995 novel by Theodore Taylor written to protest against nuclear testing on Bikini Atoll, after the natives are forced to move. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... For the band, see Cartoons (band). ... This article is about the TV channel. ... Production Order Dying for Pie is a SpongeBob SquarePants episode from season two. ... This article is about the series. ... A 23 kiloton dropped nuclear weapon, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Able) A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946). ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... Three Tales is a contemporary video-opera in three acts, composed by American composer Steve Reich in 2002. ... Ground zero is the exact location on the ground where any explosion occurs. ... X-Files intro from first 8 seasons The X-Files was a popular 1990s American science fiction television series created by Chris Carter. ... This article is about the character itself. ... Anti-Flag is an American political punk band from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, consisting of four members: Justin Sane (lead guitar, lead vocals), Chris #2 (bass, vocals), Chris Head (rhythm guitar, backing vocals), and Pat Thetic (drums). ... Underground Network is the name of Anti-Flags fourth album, released on Fat Wreck Chords in 2001. ... The Machines are an industrial/post-punk band from Tucson, Arizona. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Machines of Loving Grace. ... Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater (commonly abbreviated MGS3) is a stealth-based game directed by Hideo Kojima, developed and published by Konami for the PlayStation 2. ... This is a list of characters appearing in Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater. ... This is a list of characters appearing in Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater. ... Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock... Gang of Four is an English post-punk group from Leeds. ...

See also

This article is about the womens bathing suit. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A 23 kiloton dropped nuclear weapon, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Able) A 21 kiloton underwater nuclear weapons effects test, known as Operation Crossroads (Event Baker), conducted at Bikini Atoll (1946). ... This article is about the nuclear test. ... Operation Castle was the highest-yield nuclear test series ever conducted by the United States. ... A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... Daigo Fukuryu Maru (第五福龍丸, Daigo Fukuryū Maru) was a Japanese tuna fishing boat, which was exposed to and contaminated by radiation caused by the United States hydrogen bomb experiment in Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. ...

References

  1. ^ [1], Marshallese Neighbors in Washington Attest to Nuclear Devastation, 22 July, 2007
  2. ^ [2], Swimsuit Trivia, Retrieved 22 July, 2007
  3. ^ [3], Energy of a Nuclear Explosion, Retrieved 22 July, 2007
  4. ^ [4], Bikini History, Retrieved 22 July, 2007
  5. ^ [5],"Bikini History", Retrieved 27 June,2007
  6. ^ [6], Victims of the Nuclear Age, Retrieved, 22 July, 2007
  7. ^ [7], Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal, Retrieved, 22 July, 2007

External links


Marshall Islands
Ailinginae | Ailinglaplap | Ailuk | Arno | Aur | Bikar | Bikini | Ebon | Enewetak | Erikub | Jabat | Jaluit | Jemo | Kili | Kwajalein | Lae | Lib | Likiep | Majuro | Maloelap | Mejit | Mili | Nadikdik | Namorik | Namu | Pokaakku | Rongelap | Rongerik | Toke | Ujae | Ujelang | Utirik | Wotho | Wotje

Coordinates: 11°35′N, 165°23′E Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Marshall_Islands. ... Ailinginae Atoll is an atoll of 25 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Ailinglaplap is an atoll and municipality of 56 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Ailuk Atoll is an atoll of 55 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Arno Atoll is an atoll of 103 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Aur (left) and Maloelap (centre) Atolls Aur Atoll is an atoll of 42 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Bikar Atoll is made up of 7 islands with a land area of 0. ... Ebon Atoll is an atoll of 22 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Aerial view of Enewetok and Parry. ... The Erikub Atoll is an atoll located in the central area of the Ratak Chain in the Marshall Islands. ... Jabat Island (or Jabot Island) is an in the Pacific Ocean. ... Jaluit Atoll is an atoll of 91 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Jemo is an uninhabited island of the Marshall Islands north-east of Likiep Atoll. ... Kili Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kili Island (also known as Kili Atoll) is a 0. ... Kwajalein Atoll - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kwajalein Atoll (Marshallese: Kuwajleen) is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). ... Lae Atoll is an atoll of 20 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Lib Island (also known as Ellep Island) is an island in the Pacific Ocean. ... Likiep Atoll is an atoll of 65 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Majuro, population 25,400 (as of 2004), is sometimes mentioned as the capital of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. ... Maloelap Atoll The Maloelap Atoll is an atoll of 75 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Mejit is one of the few islands (rather than atolls) in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. ... Mili redirects here. ... Nadikdik Atoll also known as Knox Atoll is the southernmost atoll in the Ratak Chain in the Marshall Islands. ... Namorik Atoll MH: Landsat Image N-59-00_2000 (1:50,000) Namorik Atoll MH: Marplot Map (1:50,000) Namorik Atoll MH: Locator Map. ... Namu Atoll is an atoll of 54 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Bokak Atoll - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Bokak Atoll (also known as Taongi Atoll) is an uninhabited 3. ... Rongelap Atoll is an island-atoll located in Micronesia. ... Rongerik Atoll - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Map of Rongerik Atoll, taken from the 1893 map Schutzgebiet der Marshall Inseln, published in 1897. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ujae Atoll is an atoll of 15 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Ujelang Atoll is an atoll of 30 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Utirik Atoll is an atoll of 10 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Wotho Atoll is one of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Wotje Atoll is an atoll of 75 islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bikini Island History (3761 words)
Bikini Atoll is one of the 29 atolls and five islands that compose the Marshall Islands.
Throughout the conflict the Bikini station served as an outpost for the Japanese headquarters in the Marshall Islands, Kwajalein Atoll.
The islands of Rongerik Atoll were uninhabited because, traditionally, the Marshallese people considered them to be unlivable due to their size (Rongerik is 1/6 the size of Bikini Atoll) and because they had an inadequate water and food supply.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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